The Info List - Theatre Of The Oppressed

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The THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED (TO) describes theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre practitioner Augusto Boal first elaborated in the 1970s, initially in Brazil
and later in Europe
. Boal was influenced by the work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire . Boal's techniques use theatre as means of promoting social and political change. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as "spect-actors" they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living. _ AUGUSTO BOAL presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed_ in New York City. Riverside Church , May 13, 2008.


* 1 History

* 2 Terminology

* 2.1 Joker/facilitator/difficultator * 2.2 Spect-actor

* 3 Major branches

* 3.1 Image theatre * 3.2 Forum theatre * 3.3 Invisible theatre * 3.4 Newspaper theatre * 3.5 Rainbow of Desire * 3.6 Legislative theatre

* 4 Other techniques

* 4.1 Analytical theatre * 4.2 Breaking repression * 4.3 Photo-romance * 4.4 Rituals and masks

* 5 Organizations

* 5.1 International Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
Organisation * 5.2 Centre for Community Dialogue and Change * 5.3 Medical Humanities Group, UCMS

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links


The Theatre of the Oppressed, a term coined by Augusto Boal, is a series of theatrical analyses and critiques developed in the 1950s. Boal was an avid supporter of utilizing interactive techniques, especially in the context of theatre. Many of his ideas are considered as "a new media perspective", despite the relatively early birth of these ideas. Since then, these ideas have been developed more, giving them meaning in a modern-day context. The creation of the Theatre of the Oppressed is largely based on the idea of dialogue and interaction between audience and performer. Moreover, these ideas have served as a framework for the development and evolution of stronger ideas.



Much of Augusto Boal 's theatrical process requires a neutral party to be at the centre of proceedings. This individual is usually called the "facilitator". In Boal's literature this role is referred to as the "joker", in reference to the neutrality of the Joker card in a deck of playing cards.

This person takes responsibility for the logistics of the process and ensures a fair proceeding, but must never comment upon or intervene in the content of the performance, as that is the province of the "spect-actors". Fairness in this context means making sure that the problem story, which by its nature involves a situation of oppression that must be overcome, is not solved by "magic," that is, that the participants (the "spectactors") focus on solving the problem in as realistic and plausible a way as possible, even though it is being played out in a fictional theatrical piece. The result should be something like group "brainstorming" about social problems within the community.


This is a term created by Augusto Boal to describe those engaged in Forum theatre. It refers to the dual role of those involved in the process as both spectator and actor, as they both observe and create dramatic meaning and action in any performance.

Equally, the term "spect-actor" can be attributed to the participants in invisible theatre (who are unaware that they are part of a theatrical production, but nevertheless contribute to the discussion) and image theatre (who, upon viewing the image created, may alter it to reflect their own ideas).

Boal emphasizes the critical need to prevent the isolation of the audience. The term "spectator" brands the participants as less than human; hence, is necessary to humanize them, to restore to them their capacity for action in all its fullness. They must also be a subject, an actor on equal plane with those accepted as actors, who in turn must also be spectators. This will eliminate any notions of the ruling class and the theatre solely portraying their ideals while the audience members are the passive victims of those images. This way the spectators no longer delegate power to the characters either to think or act in their place. They free themselves; they think and act for themselves. Boal supports the idea that theatre is not revolutionary in itself but is rehearsal of revolution. (Wardrip-Fruin, 352)


During the development of Theatre of the Oppressed, Boal worked with many populations and tried many techniques. These techniques eventually coalesced into different theatrical styles, each using a different process to achieve a different result. Boal often organized these theatrical systems as a tree, with images, sounds and words as the roots, games, Image Theatre and Forum Theatre ascending up the trunk, and then other techniques represented as limbs stemming from these. As more T.O. systems evolved, Boal and others have made slight modifications to which techniques appear on various limbs, but the Tree of Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
has mostly remained consistent:


Main article: Image theatre

Image theatre is a performance technique in which one person, acting as a sculptor, moulds one or more people acting as statues, using only touch and resisting the use of words or mirror-image modelling. Boal claims this form of theatre to be one of the most stimulating because of its ease of enactment and its remarkable capacity of portraying thought in a concrete form due to the absence of language idiom. Each word has a denotation common for all as well as a connotation that is unique for each individual. Each will have his own interpretation of "revolution", and to demonstrate such idea provides a clearer understanding of their intention in definition when shown rather than told. (Wardrip-Fruin, 344). For instance, one can "embrace" another in many ways (in a tight, harassing manner or a loose soft manner), however the word has the same definition of clasping another person in the arms.


Main article: Forum theatre _ Participants in a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed_ in New York City. Riverside Church
Riverside Church
, May 13, 2008.

While practicing in South America earlier in his career, Boal would apply 'simultaneous dramaturgy '. In this process, the actors or audience members could stop a performance, often a short scene in which a character was being oppressed in some way (for example, a typically chauvinist man mistreating a woman or a factory owner mistreating an employee). In early forms of 'simultaneous dramaturgy', the audience could propose any solution, by calling out suggestions to the actors who would improvise the changes on stage. This was an attempt to undo the traditional audience/actor partition and bring audience members into the performance, to have an input into the dramatic action they were watching.

Forum Theatre was essentially born from 'simultaneous dramaturgy.' The concept of the 'spect-actor' became a dominant force within and shaped Boal's theater work, gradually helping it shift into what he called Forum Theatre (due to the acting's taking on the character of a public discussion or series of proposals, only in dramatic format). The audience were now encouraged to not only imagine change but to actually practise that change, by coming on stage as 'spect-actors' to replace the protagonist and act out an intervention to "break the oppression." Through this process, the participant is also able to realize and experience the challenges of achieving the improvements he/she suggested (Wardrip-Fruin, 344). The actors who welcome the spectactor volunteering onto the stage play against the spectactor's attempts to intervene and change the story, offering a strong resistance so that the difficulties in making any change are also acknowledged. _ AUGUSTO BOAL presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed_ in New York City. Riverside Church
Riverside Church
, May 13, 2008.

Thus, Boal's current manifestation of Forum theatre is as follows: the actors (either professional actors or non professionals drawn from oppressed communities) perform a play with a scripted core, in which an oppression relevant to the audience is played out. After reaching the scripted conclusion, in which the oppressed character(s) fail to overturn their oppression, the actors begin the production again, although often in a condensed form. At any point during this _second_ performance, any spect-actor may call out "stop!" and take the place of the actor portraying the _oppressed_ individual (this actor stays on stage but to the side, giving suggestions to the spect-actor who has replaced him/her).

If and when the oppression has been overthrown by the spect-actors, the production changes again: the spect-actors now have the opportunity to replace the _oppressors_, and find new ways of challenging the oppressed character. In this way a more realistic depiction of the oppression can be made by the audience, who are often victims of the oppression. The whole process is designed to be dialectic , coming to a conclusion through the consideration of opposing arguments, rather than didactic , in which the moral argument is one-sided and pushed from the actors with no chance of reply or counter-argument.

Boal clarifies that this practice is not intended to show the correct path, but rather to discover all possible paths which may be further examined. The theatre itself is not revolutionary; but it offers a chance to rehearse for revolution. The spectators learn much from the enactment even though the acting is fiction, because the fiction simulates real-life situations, problems, and solutions. It stimulates the practice of resistance to oppression in reality, and offers a "safe space" for practicing making change. When faced in reality with a similar situation they've rehearsed in theatre, participants who have experienced Forum Theatre ideally will desire to be proactive, and will have the courage to break oppressive situations in real life, since they feel much more prepared and confident in resolving the conflict. Another way of thinking about it is that rehearsing the actions helps spectactors to develop their own courage and makes them desire action for change in real life. The practice of this form creates an uneasy sense of incompleteness that seeks fulfillment through real action. (Wardrip-Fruin, 346)


Main article: Invisible theatre

A form of theatrical performance that is enacted in a place where people would not normally expect to see one, for example in the street or in a shopping centre. The performers attempt to disguise the fact that it is a performance from those who observe and who may choose to participate in it, encouraging the spectators to view it as a real event. The Brazilian theater practitioner Augusto Boal however, the subject of the production is based on a proposed law to be passed. Spect-actors may take the stage and express their opinions, thereby helping with the creation of new laws. Some 13 laws were created through legislative theatre during Boal's time in government. The technique has since been used overseas in countries including Canada and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom



A story is told by one of the participants and immediately the actors improvise it. Afterward each character is broken down into their social roles and the participants are asked to choose a physical object to symbolize each role. For instance for one community the symbol for the head of the family may be a piggy bank, since that individual is the one who controls the finances (power). Having analyzed the characters, a fresh attempt to tell the story is made, however this time removing some of the symbols from each character, and consequently some social roles as well. For example, the story would be perceived differently if the robber had the police uniform and the hostage possessed a revolver. Through this method, the participants will realize that human actions are not the exclusive and primitive result of human psychology; the individual speaks of their class as well. (Wardrip-Fruin, 351)


Boal explains that the technique of breaking repression involves asking the participant to remember a particular moment when he or she felt especially repressed, accepted it, and submitted to act in a manner contrary to his or her own desires. It is necessary, he explains, that the choice is a particular incident rather than a general sense of oppression. The participant describes that incident, which is then reconstructed and re-enacted with other participants of his choosing. This performance is repeated, except that this time the repressed is asked to fight to impose his or her will while the others involved are invited to maintain the repression.

The conflict that results helps to measure the possibility one has to resist in situations where one fails to do so, as well as to measure the true strength of the enemy. Having rehearsed a resistance to oppression prepares the individual to resist effectively in similar situations that may be encountered in the future.(Wardrip-Fruin,349)

Boal states that the process to be realized in doing this type of theater is the one that ascends from the phenomenon toward the law; from the phenomena presented in the plot toward the social laws that govern those phenomena.(Wardrip-Fruin,349)


PHOTO-ROMANCE is a romantic narrative illustrated with sequential photographs in the style of a comic strip, usually published in magazines and such. The technique involves introducing to the participants the general plot without revealing the source of the photo-romance. Then, the participants are asked to act out the story, which is then compared to the actual story as described in the source. The differences are discussed thereafter.

A particular story interpreted and acted out may be a predictable, pathetic one, however at the same time this result serves as a magnificent example of ideological insight. Boal argues that if they first act out the story themselves then afterwords read the original version, the participants will no longer assume a passive, expectant attitude, but instead a critical, comparative one. They will also be prepared to detect the poison infiltrating the pages of those photo-stories, or the comics and other forms of cultural and ideological domination. This technique is also useful to analyze television programs, a dominant source of poison directed against the people. (Wardrip-Fruin, 349)


This technique attempts to reveal the ideological superstructure of a society in the form of its rituals. "Rituals" in this sense describes the patterns of human relationships and the masks of behaviour that those patterns impose on the participants according to the roles that they play in society. For example: a man goes to a priest to confess his sins; despite the individual identities of the man and priest (i.e. the priest and the parishioner are landlords, the priest is a landlord and the parishioner is a peasant, etc.) the pattern of behavior will remain the same as other examples of this interaction. This will cause different scenarios to play out even though the confession is the same. Boal argues that this is an extraordinarily rich technique that has many variants: for example, the same ritual may be explored by its participants exchanging masks or it may be enacted by people from different social classes.



Inspired by Augusto Boal, this Organisation links other Theatre of the Oppressed groups to one another. The idea is that others will help groups organize themselves and create new centers for Theatres of the Oppressed. There are links to other organisations involved with this projects so anyone can contact anyone else involved. This online Organisation allows others to share information about the Theatre of the Oppressed.

The largest single organisation in the Theatre of the Oppressed network is Jana Sanskriti. Set up by Sanjoy Ganguly in the Sunderbans, a rural area outside Calcutta in the Bay of Bengal, J