The Two Gentlemen of
Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare,
believed to have been written between 1589 and 1593. It is considered
by some to be Shakespeare's first play,[a] and is often seen as
showing his first tentative steps in laying out some of the themes and
motifs with which he would later deal in more detail; for example, it
is the first of his plays in which a heroine dresses as a boy. The
play deals with the themes of friendship and infidelity, the conflict
between friendship and love, and the foolish behaviour of people in
love. The highlight of the play is considered by some to be Launce,
the clownish servant of Proteus, and his dog Crab, to whom "the most
scene-stealing non-speaking role in the canon" has been attributed.
Two Gentlemen is often regarded as one of Shakespeare's weakest
plays. It has the smallest named cast of any play by
4 Date and text
5 Criticism and analysis
5.1 Critical history
5.3.1 Love and friendship
5.3.2 Foolishness of lovers
8.3 Editions of The Two Gentlemen of Verona
8.4 Secondary Sources
9 External links
Valentine – young man living in Verona
Proteus – his closest friend
Silvia – falls in love with Valentine in Milan
Julia – in love with
Proteus in Verona
Milan – Silvia's father
Lucetta – Julia's waiting woman
Antonio – Proteus' father
Thurio – foolish rival to Valentine for Silvia
Eglamour – aids in Silvia's escape
Speed – a clownish servant to Valentine
Launce[b] – Proteus's servant
Panthino – Antonio's servant
Host – of the inn where Julia lodges in Milan
Crab – Launce's dog
Charles Edward Perugini
Charles Edward Perugini (1888).
As the play begins, Valentine is preparing to leave
Verona for Milan
so as to broaden his horizons. He begs his best friend, Proteus, to
come with him, but
Proteus is in love with Julia, and refuses to
leave. Disappointed, Valentine bids
Proteus farewell and goes on
alone. Meanwhile, Julia is discussing
Proteus with her maid, Lucetta,
who tells Julia that she thinks
Proteus is fond of her. Julia,
however, acts coyly, embarrassed to admit that she likes him. Lucetta
then produces a letter; she will not say who gave it to her, but
teases Julia that it was Valentine's servant, Speed, who brought it
from Proteus. Julia, still unwilling to reveal her love in front of
Lucetta, angrily tears up the letter. She sends Lucetta away, but
then, realising her own rashness, she picks up the fragments of the
letter and kisses them, trying to piece them back together.
Meanwhile, Proteus' father has decided that
Proteus should travel to
Milan and join Valentine. He orders that
Proteus must leave the next
day, prompting a tearful farewell with Julia, to whom
eternal love. The two exchange rings and vows and
Proteus promises to
return as soon as he can.
Proteus finds Valentine in love with the Duke's daughter,
Silvia. Despite being in love with Julia,
Proteus falls instantly in
love with Silvia and vows to win her. Unaware of Proteus' feelings,
Valentine tells him the Duke wants Silvia to marry the foppish but
wealthy Thurio, against her wishes. Because the Duke suspects that his
daughter and Valentine are in love, he locks her nightly in a tower,
to which he keeps the only key. However, Valentine tells
he plans to free her by means of a corded ladder, and together, they
Proteus immediately informs the Duke, who subsequently
captures and banishes Valentine. While wandering outside Milan,
Valentine runs afoul of a band of outlaws, who claim they are also
exiled gentlemen. Valentine lies, saying he was banished for killing a
man in a fair fight, and the outlaws elect him their leader.
Valentine Rescuing Silvia from
William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt (1851).
Meanwhile, in Verona, Julia decides to join her lover in Milan. She
convinces Lucetta to dress her in boy's clothes and help her fix her
hair so she will not be harmed on the journey. Once in Milan, Julia
quickly discovers Proteus' love for Silvia, watching him attempt to
serenade her. She contrives to become his page boy – Sebastian –
until she can decide upon a course of action.
Proteus sends Sebastian
to Silvia with a gift of the ring that Julia gave to him before he
left Verona, but Julia learns that Silvia scorns Proteus' affections
and is disgusted he would forget his love back home, i.e. Julia
herself. Silvia deeply mourns the loss of Valentine, who
told her is rumoured dead.
Not persuaded of Valentine's death, Silvia determines to flee the city
with the help of Sir Eglamour. They escape into the forest but when
they are confronted by the outlaws, Eglamour flees and Silvia is taken
captive. The outlaws head to their leader (Valentine), but on the way,
Proteus and Julia (still disguised as Sebastian).
Proteus rescues Silvia, and then pursues her deeper into the forest.
Secretly observed by Valentine,
Proteus attempts to persuade Silvia
that he loves her, but she rejects his advances.
Proteus insinuates that he will rape her ("I'll force thee yield to my
desire"), but at this point, Valentine intervenes and denounces
Proteus. Horrified at what has happened,
Proteus vows that the hate
Valentine feels for him is nothing compared to the hate he feels for
himself. Convinced that Proteus' repentance is genuine, Valentine
forgives him and seems to offer Silvia to him. At this point,
overwhelmed, Julia faints, revealing her true identity. Upon seeing
Proteus suddenly remembers his love for her and vows fidelity to
her once again. The Duke and Thurio are brought as prisoners by the
outlaws. Seeing Silvia, Thurio claims her as his, but Valentine warns
Thurio that if he makes one move toward her, he will kill him.
Terrified, Thurio renounces Silvia. The Duke, disgusted with Thurio's
cowardice and impressed by Valentine's actions, approves his and
Silvia's love, and consents to their marriage. The two couples are
happily united, and the Duke pardons the outlaws, telling them they
may return to Milan.
First page of The Boke Named the Governour by
Thomas Elyot (1531).
In writing The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Shakespeare drew on the
Spanish prose romance Los Siete Libros de la Diana (The Seven Books of
the Diana) by the Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor. In the second
book of Diana, Don Felix, who is in love with Felismena, sends her a
letter explaining his feelings. Like Julia, Felismena pretends to
reject the letter, and be annoyed with her maid for delivering it.
Like Proteus, Felix is sent away by his father, and is followed by
Felismena, who, disguised as a boy, becomes his page, only to
subsequently learn that Felix has fallen in love with Celia. Felismena
is then employed by Felix to act as his messenger in all
communications with Celia, who scorns his love. Instead, Celia falls
in love with the page (i.e. Felismena in disguise). Eventually, after
a combat in a wood, Felix and Felismena are reunited. Upon Felismena
revealing herself however, Celia, having no counterpart to Valentine,
dies of grief.
Diana was published in Spanish in 1559 and translated into French by
Nicholas Collin in 1578. An English translation was made by
Bartholomew Young and published in 1598, though Young claims in his
preface to have finished the translation sixteen years earlier (c.
1582). Shakespeare could have read a manuscript of Young's English
translation, or encountered the story in French, or learned of it from
an anonymous English play, The History of Felix and Philiomena, which
may have been based on Diana, and which was performed for the court at
Greenwich Palace by the Queen's Men on 3 January 1585. The History
of Felix and Philiomena is now lost.
A 1587 printing of John Lyly's Euphues, The
Anatomy of Wit.
Another major influence on Shakespeare was the story of the intimate
friendship of Titus and Gisippus as told in Thomas Elyot's The Boke
Named the Governour in 1531 (the same story is told in The Decameron
by Giovanni Boccaccio, but verbal similarities between The Two
Gentlemen and The Governor suggest it was Elyot's work Shakespeare
used as his primary source, not Boccaccio's). In this story, Titus
and Gisippus are inseparable until Gisippus falls in love with
Sophronia. He introduces her to Titus, but Titus is overcome with
jealousy, and vows to seduce her. Upon hearing of Titus' plan,
Gisippus arranges for them to change places on the wedding night, thus
placing their friendship above his love.
Also important to Shakespeare in the composition of the play was John
Lyly's Euphues, The
Anatomy of Wit, published in 1578. Like The
Euphues presents two close friends who are inseparable until
a woman comes between them, and, like both The Governor and Two
Gentlemen, the story concludes with one friend sacrificing the woman
so as to save the friendship. However, as Geoffrey Bullough argues
"Shakespeare's debt to Lyly was probably one of technique more than
matter." Lyly's Midas may also have influenced the scene where
Launce and Speed run through the milkmaid's virtues and defects, as it
contains a very similar scene between Lucio and Petulus.
Other minor sources include Arthur Brooke's narrative poem The
Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet. Obviously Shakespeare's source
for Romeo and Juliet, it features a character called Friar Laurence,
as does Two Gentlemen, and a scene where a young man attempts to
outwit his lover's father by means of a corded ladder (as Valentine
does in Two Gentlemen). Philip Sidney's The Countess of Pembroke's
Arcadia may also have influenced Shakespeare insofar as it contains a
character who follows her betrothed, dressed as his page, and later
on, one of the main characters becomes captain of a group of
Date and text
Scene from by
Angelica Kauffman (1789).
The exact date of composition of The Two Gentlemen of
unknown, but it is generally believed to have been one of
Shakespeare's earliest works. The first evidence of its existence
is in a list of
Shakespeare's plays in Francis Meres's Palladis Tamia,
published in 1598, but it is thought to have been written in the
early 1590s. Clifford Leech, for example, argues for 1592/1593; G.
Blakemore Evans places the date at 1590–1593; Gary Taylor
suggests 1590–1591; Kurt Schlueter posits the late 1580s;
William C. Carroll suggests 1590–1592; Roger Warren tentatively
suggests 1587, but acknowledges 1590/1591 as more likely.
It has been argued that Two Gentlemen may have been Shakespeare's
first work for the stage. This theory was first suggested by Edmond
Malone in 1821, in the Third Variorum edition of Shakespeare's plays,
edited by James Boswell based on Malone's notes. Malone dated the play
1591, a modification of his earlier 1595 date from the third edition
of The Plays of William Shakespeare. At this time, the dominant theory
was that the Henry VI trilogy had been Shakespeare's first work.
More recently, the play was placed first in The Oxford Shakespeare:
The Complete Works of 1986, and again in the 2nd edition of 2005, in
The Norton Shakespeare of 1997, and again in the 2nd edition of 2008,
and in The Complete Pelican Shakespeare of 2002.
A large part of the theory that this may be Shakespeare's first play
is the quality of the work itself. Writing in 1968, Norman Sanders
argued "all are agreed on the play's immaturity." The argument is
that the play betrays a lack of practical theatrical experience on
Shakespeare's part, and as such, it must have come extremely early in
his career. Stanley Wells, for example, has written the "dramatic
structure is comparatively unambitious, and while some of its scenes
are expertly constructed, those involving more than, at the most, four
characters betray an uncertainty of technique suggestive of
inexperience." This uncertainty can be seen in how Shakespeare
handles the distribution of dialogue in such scenes. Whenever there
are more than three characters on stage, at least one of those
characters tends to fall silent. For example, Speed is silent for
almost all of Act 2, Scene 4, as are Thurio, Silvia and Julia for most
of the last half of the final scene. It has also been suggested
that the handling of the final scene in general, in which the faithful
lover seemingly offers his beloved as a token of his forgiveness to
the man who has just attempted to rape her, is a sign of Shakespeare's
lack of maturity as a dramatist.
In his 2008 edition of the play for the Oxford Shakespeare, Roger
Warren argues that the play is the oldest surviving piece of
Shakespearean literature, suggesting a date of composition as
somewhere between 1587 and 1591. He hypothesizes that the play was
perhaps written before Shakespeare came to London, with an idea
towards using the famous comic actor
Richard Tarlton in the role of
Launce (this theory stems from the fact that Tarlton had performed
several extremely popular and well known scenes with dogs). However,
Tarlton died in September 1588, and Warren notes several passages in
Two Gentlemen which seem to borrow from John Lyly's Midas, which
wasn't written until at least late-1589. As such, Warren acknowledges
that 1590/1591 is most likely the correct date of composition.
The play was not printed until 1623, when it appeared in the First
Folio of Shakespeare's plays.
Criticism and analysis
Silvia Rescued by Valentine by Francis Wheatley (1792).
Perhaps the most critically discussed issue in the play is the
sequence, bizarre by modern Western European standards, in Act 5,
Scene 4 in which Valentine seems to 'give' Silvia to
Proteus as a sign
of his friendship. For many years, the general critical consensus on
this issue was that the incident revealed an inherent misogyny in the
text. For example,
Hilary Spurling wrote in 1970, "Valentine is so
overcome [by Proteus' apology] that he promptly offers to hand over
his beloved to the man who, not three minutes before, had meant to
rape her." Modern scholarship, however, is much more divided about
Valentine's actions at the end of the play, with some critics arguing
that he does not offer to give Silvia to
Proteus at all. The ambiguity
lies in the line "All that was mine in Silvia I give thee" (5.4.83).
Some critics (such as Stanley Wells, for example) interpret this to
mean that Valentine is indeed handing Silvia over to her would-be
rapist, but another school of thought suggests that Valentine simply
means "I will love you [Proteus] with as much love as I love Silvia,"
thus reconciling the dichotomy of friendship and love as depicted
elsewhere in the play. This is certainly how Jeffrey Masten, for
example, sees it, arguing that the play as a whole "reveals not the
opposition of male friendship and Petrarchan love but rather their
interdependence." As such, the final scene "stages the play's ultimate
collaboration of male friendship and its incorporation of the plot we
would label "heterosexual"."
This is also how Roger Warren interprets the final scene. Warren cites
a number of productions of the play as evidence for this argument,
including Robin Phillips'
Royal Shakespeare Company
Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) production
in 1970, where Valentine kisses Silvia, makes his offer and then
kisses Proteus. Another staging cited by Warren is Edward Hall's
1998 Swan Theatre production. In Hall's version of the scene, after
Valentine says the controversial line, Silvia approaches him and takes
him by the hand. They remain holding hands for the rest of the play,
clearly suggesting that Valentine has not 'given' her away. Warren
also mentions Leon Rubin's 1984 Stratford Shakespeare Festival
production (where the controversial line was altered to "All my love
to Silvia I also give to thee"), David Thacker's 1991 Swan Theatre
production, and the 1983
BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare adaptation as
supporting the theory that Valentine is not giving Silvia away, but is
simply promising to love
Proteus as much as he loves Silvia. Patty
S. Derrick also interprets the BBC production in this manner, arguing
Proteus clearly perceives the offer as a noble gesture of
friendship, not an actual offer, because he does not even look towards
Silvia but rather falls into an embrace with Valentine" (although
Derrick does raise the question that if Valentine is not offering
Silvia to Proteus, why does Julia swoon?).
There are other theories regarding this final scene, however. For
example, in his 1990 edition of the play for the New Cambridge
Shakespeare, Kurt Schlueter suggests that Valentine is indeed handing
Silvia over to Proteus, but the audience is not supposed to take it
literally; the incident is farcical, and should be interpreted as
such. Schlueter argues that the play provides possible evidence it was
written to be performed and viewed primarily by a young audience, and
as such, to be staged at university theatres, as opposed to public
playhouses. Such an audience would be more predisposed to accepting
the farcical nature of the scene, and more likely to find humorous the
absurdity of Valentine's gift. As such, in Schlueter's theory, the
scene does represent what it appears to represent; Valentine does give
Silvia to her would-be rapist, but it is done purely for comic
Launce's substitute for Proteus' dog by
Augustus Egg (1849).
Another theory is provided by William C. Carroll in his 2004 edition
for the Arden Shakespeare, Third Series. Carroll argues, like
Schlueter, that Valentine is indeed giving Silvia to Proteus, but
unlike Schlueter, Carroll detects no sense of farce. Instead, he sees
the action as a perfectly logical one in terms of the notions of
friendship which were prevalent at the time:
the idealisation of male friendship as superior to male-female love
(which was considered not romantic or compassionate but merely
lustful, hence inferior) performs a project of cultural nostalgia, a
stepping back from potentially more threatening social arrangements to
a world of order, a world based on a 'gift' economy of personal
relations among male social equals rather than one based on a newer,
less stable economy of emotional and economic risk. The offer of the
woman from one male friend to another would therefore be the highest
expression of friendship from one point of view, a low point of
psycho-sexual regression from another.
As in Schlueter, Carroll here interprets Valentine's actions as a gift
to Proteus, but unlike Schlueter, and more in line with traditional
criticism of the play, Carroll also argues that such a gift, as
unacceptable as it is to modern eyes, is perfectly understandable when
one considers the cultural and social milieu of the play itself.
Language is of primary importance in the play insofar as Valentine and
Proteus speak in blank verse, but Launce and Speed speak (for the most
part) in prose. More specifically, the actual content of many of
the speeches serve to illustrate the pompousness of Valentine and
Proteus' exalted outlook, and the more realistic and practical outlook
of the servants. This is most apparent in Act 3, Scene 1. Valentine
has just given a lengthy speech lamenting his banishment and musing on
how he cannot possibly survive without Silvia; "Except I be by Silvia
in the night/There is no music in the nightingale./Unless I look on
Silvia in the day/There is no day for me to look upon" (ll.178–181).
However, when Launce enters only a few lines later, he announces that
he too is in love, and proceeds to outline, along with Speed, all of
his betrothed's positives ("She brews good ale"; "She can knit"; "She
can wash and scour"), and negatives ("She hath a sweet mouth"; "She
doth talk in her sleep"; "She is slow in words"). After weighing his
options, Launce decides that the woman's most important quality is
that "she hath more hair than wit, and more faults than hairs, and
more wealth than faults" (ll.343–344). He announces that her wealth
"makes the faults gracious" (l.356), and chooses for that reason to
wed her. This purely materialistic reasoning, as revealed in the form
of language, is in stark contrast to the more spiritual and idealised
love espoused by Valentine earlier in the scene.
H.C. Selous' illustration of Valentine and Proteus' farewell in Act 1,
Scene 1; from The Plays of William Shakespeare: The Comedies, edited
Charles Cowden Clarke
Charles Cowden Clarke and
Mary Cowden Clarke
Mary Cowden Clarke (1830).
One of the dominant theories as regards the value of Two Gentlemen is
that thematically, it represents a 'trial run' of sorts, in which
Shakespeare deals briefly with themes which he would examine in more
detail in later works. E.K. Chambers, for example, believed that the
play represents something of a gestation of Shakespeare's great
thematic concerns. Writing in 1905, Chambers stated that Two Gentlemen
was Shakespeare's first essay at originality, at fashioning for
himself the outlines of that romantic or tragicomic formula in which
so many of his most characteristic dramas were afterwards to be cast.
Something which is neither quite tragedy nor quite comedy, something
which touches the heights and depths of sentiment and reveals the dark
places of the human heart without lingering long enough there to
crystallise the painful impression, a love story broken for a moment
into passionate chords by absence and inconstancy and intrigue, and
then reunited to the music of wedding bells.
As such, the play's primary interest for critics has tended to lie in
relation to what it reveals about Shakespeare's conception of certain
themes before he became the accomplished playwright of later years.
Writing in 1879, A.C. Swinburne, for example, states "here is the
first dawn of that higher and more tender humour that was never given
in such perfection to any man as ultimately to Shakespeare."
Similarly, in 1906, Warwick R. Bond writes "Shakespeare first opens
the vein he worked so richly afterwards – the vein of crossed love,
of flight and exile under the escort of the generous sentiments; of
disguised heroines, and sufferings endured and virtues exhibited under
their disguise; and of the Providence, kinder than life, that annuls
the errors and forgives the sin." More recently,
Stanley Wells has
referred to the play as a "dramatic laboratory in which Shakespeare
first experimented with the conventions of romantic comedy which he
would later treat with a more subtle complexity, but it has its own
Early 20th-century Henry James Haley illustration of Act 2, Scene 1
(Silvia refusing Valentine's letter).
Other critics have been less kind however, arguing that if the later
plays show a skilled and confident writer exploring serious issues of
the human heart, Two Gentlemen represents the initial, primarily
unsuccessful attempt to do likewise. In 1921, for example, J. Dover
Wilson and Arthur Quiller-Couch, in their edition of the play for the
Cambridge Shakespeare, famously stated that after hearing Valentine
offer Silvia to
Proteus "one's impulse, upon this declaration, is to
remark that there are, by this time, no gentlemen in Verona." H.B.
Charlton, writing in 1938, argues that "clearly, Shakespeare's first
attempt to make romantic comedy had only succeeded so far as it had
unexpectedly and inadvertently made romance comic." Another such
argument is provided by Norman Sanders in 1968; "because the play
reveals a relatively unsure dramatist and many effects managed with a
tiro's lack of expertise, it offers us an opportunity to see more
clearly than anywhere else in the canon what were to become
characteristic techniques. It stands as an 'anatomie' or show-through
version, as it were, of Shakespeare's comic art." Kurt Schlueter,
on the other hand, argues that critics have been too harsh on the play
precisely because the later plays are so much superior. He suggests
that when looking at Shakespeare's earlier works, scholars put too
much emphasis on how they fail to measure up to the later works,
rather than looking at them for their own intrinsic merits; "we should
not continue the practice of holding his later achievements against
him when dealing with his early beginnings."
Love and friendship
Norman Sanders calls the play "almost a complete anthology of the
practices of the doctrine of romantic love which inspired the poetic
and prose Romances of the period." At the very centre of this is
the contest between love and friendship; "an essential part of the
comicality of The Two Gentlemen of
Verona is created by the necessary
conflict between highly stylised concepts of love and friendship."
This is manifested in the question of whether the relationship between
two male friends is more important than that between lovers,
encapsulated by Proteus' rhetorical question at 5.4.54; "In love/Who
respects friend?" This question "exposes the raw nerve at the heart of
the central relationships, the dark reality lurking beneath the wit
and lyricism with which the play has in general presented lovers'
behaviour." In the program notes for John Barton's 1981 RSC
production at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Anne Barton, his wife,
wrote that the central theme of the play was "how to bring love and
friendship into a constructive and mutually enhancing
relationship." As William C. Carroll points out, this is a common
theme in Renaissance literature, which often celebrates friendship as
the more important relationship (because it is pure and unconcerned
with sexual attraction), and contends that love and friendship cannot
co-exist. As actor Alex Avery argues, "The love between two men is
a greater love for some reason. There seems to be a sense that the
function of a male/female relationship is purely for the family and to
procreate, to have a family. But a love between two men is something
that you choose. You have arranged marriages, [but] a friendship
between two men is created by the desires and wills of those two men,
whereas a relationship between a man and a girl is actually
constructed completely peripheral to whatever the feelings of the said
boy and girl are."
Carroll sees this societal belief as vital in interpreting the final
scene of the play, arguing that Valentine does give Silvia to Proteus,
and in so doing, he is merely acting in accordance with the practices
of the day. However, if one accepts that Valentine does not give
Silvia to Proteus, as critics such as Jeffrey Masten argue, but
instead offers to love
Proteus as much as he loves Silvia, then the
conclusion of the play can be read as a final triumphant
reconciliation between friendship and love; Valentine intends to love
his friend as much as he does his betrothed. Love and friendship are
shown to be co-existent, not exclusive.
Scene from The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (Valentine woos Silvia; the
Duke sits nearby, pretending to be asleep) by
Alfred Elmore (1857).
Foolishness of lovers
Another major theme is the foolishness of lovers, what Roger Warren
refers to as "mockery of the absurdity of conventional lovers'
behaviour." Valentine for example, is introduced into the play
mocking the excesses of love; "To be in love, where scorn is bought
with groans/Coy looks with heart-sore sighs, one fading moment's
mirth/With twenty watchful, weary, tedious nights" (1.1.29–31).
Later, however, he becomes as much a prisoner of love as Proteus,
exclaiming, "For in revenge of my contempt for love/Love hath chased
sleep from my enthrall'd eyes/And made them watchers of my own heart's
The majority of the cynicism and mockery as regards conventional
lovers, however, comes from Launce and Speed, who serve as foils for
the two protagonists, and "supply a mundane view of the idealistic
flights of fancy indulged in by
Proteus and Valentine." Several
times in the play, after either Valentine or
Proteus has made an
eloquent speech about love, Shakespeare introduces either Launce or
Speed (or both), whose more mundane concerns serve to undercut what
has just been said, thus exposing
Proteus and Valentine to
mockery. For example, in Act 2, Scene 1, as Valentine and Silvia
engage in a game of flirtation, hinting at their love for one another,
Speed provides constant asides which serve to directly mock the
Peace, here she comes.
O excellent motion! O exceeding puppet! Now he will interpret her.
Madame and mistress, a thousand good-morrows.
O, give ye good e'en. Here's a million of manners.
Sir Valentine and servant, to you two thousand.
He should give her interest, and she gives it him.
A third major theme is inconstancy, particularly as manifested in
Proteus, whose very name hints at his changeable mind (in Ovid's
Proteus is a sea-god forever changing its shape).
At the start of the play,
Proteus has only eyes for Julia. However,
upon meeting Silvia, he immediately falls in love with her (although
he has no idea why). He then finds himself drawn to the page Sebastian
(Julia in disguise) whilst still trying to woo Silvia, and at the end
of the play, he announces that Silvia is no better than Julia and vows
he now loves Julia again. Indeed,
Proteus himself seems to be aware of
this mutability, pointing out towards the end of the play; "O heaven,
were man/But constant, he were perfect. That one error/Fills him with
faults, makes him run through all th'sins;/Inconstancy falls off ere
it begins" (5.4.109–112).
Who is Sylvia - What is she, that all the swains commend her by Edwin
Austin Abbey (1899).
There is no record of a performance during Shakespeare's lifetime,
although due to its inclusion in Francis Meres' Palladis Tamia, we
know the play had definitely been performed by 1598. The earliest
known performance was at Drury Lane in 1762. However, this production
was of a version of the play rewritten by Benjamin Victor. The
earliest known performance of the straight Shakespearean text was at
Covent Garden in 1784, advertised as "Shaxespeare's with alterations."
Although the play was supposed to run for several weeks, it closed
after the first night.
From the middle of the eighteenth century, even if staging
Shakespeare's original (as opposed to Victor's rewrite) it was common
to cut the lines in the final scene where Valentine seems to offer
Silvia to Proteus. This practice prevailed until William Macready
reintroduced the lines in 1841 in a production at Drury Lane,
although they were still being removed as late as 1952, in Denis
Carey's production at the Bristol Old Vic. Notable
nineteenth-century performances include Charles Kean's 1848 production
at the Haymarket Theatre, Samuel Phelps' 1857 production at Sadler's
Wells Theatre and William Poel's 1892 and 1896 productions.
During the twentieth century, the play has been produced sporadically
in the English-speaking world, although it has proved more popular in
Europe. Indeed, there have been only a few significant English
speaking productions. Little is known, for example, about Harley
Granville-Barker's 1904 production at the Court Theatre, F.R.
Benson's 1910 production at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre,
Robert Atkins' 1923 production at the Apollo Theatre, or Ben Iden
Payne's 1938 production at Stratford-upon-Avon. The earliest
production about which we have significant information is Michael
Langham's 1957 production at The Old Vic, starring Richard Gale as
Keith Michell as Proteus,
Barbara Jefford as Julia and
Ingrid Hafner as Silvia. In this production, set in late
nineteenth-century Italy and grounded very much in high Romanticism,
Proteus threatens to kill himself with a pistol at the end of the
play, prompting Valentine's hasty offer of Silvia.
Perhaps the most notable 20th-century production was Peter Hall's 1960
production at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. Set in a late medieval
milieu, the play starred
Denholm Elliott as Valentine, Derek Godfrey
as Proteus, Susan Maryott as Silvia,
Frances Cuka as Julia, and
featured a much lauded performance by
Patrick Wymark as
Launce. Hall had only recently been appointed as Artistic
Director of the RSC, and, somewhat unexpectedly, he chose Two
Gentlemen as his inaugural production, billed as the opening show in a
re-examination of the development of Shakespearean comedy.
Tim Mace as Launce and Abbie as Crab from a 2009 modern dress
performance at the Capitol Center Theater.
Ten years later, in 1970, Robin Phillips' RSC production starred Peter
Egan as Valentine,
Ian Richardson as Proteus,
Helen Mirren as Julia,
Estelle Kohler as Silvia, and
Patrick Stewart as Launce. This
production concentrated on the issues of friendship and treachery, and
set the play in a decadent world of social elitism. Valentine and
Proteus were presented as aristocratic students, the Duke was a Don,
and Eglamour an old scout master. On the other hand, the
poverty-stricken outlaws were dressed in animal skins.
The RSC again staged the play at the
Royal Shakespeare Theatre
Royal Shakespeare Theatre in
1981, as a double bill with Titus Andronicus, with both plays heavily
edited. Directed by John Barton, the production starred Peter Chelsom
Peter Land as Proteus, Julia Swift as Julia and Diana
Hardcastle as Silvia. This production saw the actors not involved in
the current on-stage scene sit at the front of the stage and watch the
Leon Rubin directed a performance at the
Stratford Shakespeare Festival
Stratford Shakespeare Festival in 1984, where the actors were dressed
in modern clothes and contemporary pop music was featured within the
play (for example, the outlaws are portrayed as an anarchic rock
A 1991 RSC production at the Swan Theatre saw director David Thacker
use an on-stage band for the duration of the play, playing music from
the 1930s, such as
Cole Porter and George Gershwin. Thacker's
production featured Richard Bonneville as Valentine,
Finbar Lynch as
Clare Holman as Julia and
Saskia Reeves as Silvia. In 1992,
Thacker's production moved to the Barbican Centre, and in 1993 went on
regional tour. In 1996, Jack Shepherd directed a modern dress
version at the
Royal National Theatre
Royal National Theatre as part of Shakespeare's Globe's
"Prologue Season". The production starred Lenny James as Valentine,
Mark Rylance as Proteus, Stephanie Roth Haberle as Julia and Anastasia
Hille as Silvia. Another RSC production took place at the Swan in
1998, under the direction of Edward Hall, and starring Tom
Goodman-Hill as Valentine,
Dominic Rowan as Proteus, Lesley Vickerage
as Julia and
Poppy Miller as Silvia. This production set the play in a
grimy unnamed contemporary city where material obsession was
Valentine (Alex Avery), Silvia (Rachel Pickup) and
Mitchell) in the 2004 Fiona Buffini production.
In 2004, Fiona Buffini directed a touring production for the RSC.
Premiering at the Swan, the production starred Alex Avery as
Valentine, Laurence Mitchell as Proteus, Vanessa Ackerman as Julia and
Rachel Pickup as Silvia. Buffini set the play in a swinging 1930s
milieu, and featuring numerous dance numbers. Additionally, London and
New York replaced
Verona and Milan; initially, Valentine and Proteus
are shown as living in the English countryside, in a rural paradise
devoid of any real vitality, the sons of wealthy families who have
retired from the city. When Valentine leaves, he heads to New York to
American Dream and falls in love with Silvia, the famous
actress daughter of a powerful media magnate. Another change to the
play was that the roles of the outlaws (represented here as a group of
paparazzi) were increased considerably. Scenes added to the play show
them arriving in New York and going about their daily business,
although none of the new scenes featured any dialogue. Another
performance worth noting occurred at the
Courtyard Theatre in
Stratford in 2006. A non-professional acting company from Brazil,
named Nós do Morro, in collaboration with a
Gallery 37 group from
Birmingham, gave a single performance of the play during the RSC's
presentation of the Complete Works, directed by Guti Fraga. The
production was spoken in Portuguese, with the original English text
projected as surtitles onto the back of the stage. It also featured
two 17-year-olds in the roles of Valentine and
actors in their 20s are cast), and Crab was played not by a dog, but
by a human actor in a dog costume. In 2009, Joe Dowling
directed the play at the Guthrie Theater, starring Sam Bardwell as
Valentine, Jonas Goslow as Proteus, Sun Mee Chomet as Julia and Valeri
Mudek as Silvia. Staged as a 1950s live television production, large
black-and-white monitors were set on either side of the stage, with
cameras feeding the action to them. Additionally, period
advertisements appeared both before the show and during the
intermission. The actors spoke the original dialogue, but wore 1950s
Rock and roll
Rock and roll music and dance sequences were occasionally
mixed with the action.
In 2011, Laura Cole directed a production at the Shakespeare Tavern.
Presented as an "in repertory" production, alongside The Taming of the
Shrew and The Comedy of Errors, it starred Kenneth Wigley as
Valentine, Jonathan Horne as Proteus, Amee Vyas as Julia and Kati
Grace Morton as Silvia. In 2012, P.J. Paparelli directed a
Shakespeare Theatre Company
Shakespeare Theatre Company production at the Lansburgh Theatre,
starring Andrew Veenstra as Valentine, Nick Dillenburg as Proteus,
Natalie Mitchell as Silvia and Miriam Silverman as Julia. Set in the
1990s, and featuring a contemporary soundtrack, mobile phones and
guns, the production downplayed the comedy, and instead presented the
play as a semi-tragic coming-of-age story. Reviews were mixed, with
most critics impressed with the attempts to do something new with the
play, but not universally sure the new ideas worked. Also in
2012, a touring production was staged at various venues throughout the
UK, including a performance at the
Globe Theatre as part of the Globe
to Globe Festival, under the name Vakomana Vaviri Ve Zimbabwe (The Two
Gentlemen from Zimbabwe). Directed by Arne Pohlmeier, and spoken in
Shona, the entire play was performed with a cast of two; Denton
Chikura and Tonderai Munyevu. In 2014, for the first time
since Robin Phillips' 1970 production, the RSC performed the play in a
full production at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. Directed by Simon
Godwin, the production starred Michael Marcus as Valentine, Mark
Arends as Proteus, Pearl Chanda as Julia and Sarah MacRae as Silvia.
On 3 September, the play was broadcast live to cinemas around the
world as part of the "Live from Stratford-upon-Avon" series. The
production received generally positive reviews, with most critics
happy to see it back on the RSC stage.
Henry Roberts' engraving of Richard Yates as Launce in the 1762 Drury
Lane adaptation by Benjamin Victor.
Benjamin Victor rewrote the play for performance in 1762 (the earliest
recorded performance we have of the play), at the Theatre Royal in
Drury Lane. Starring Richard Yates as Launce, his wife, Mary Ann Yates
as Julia and Elizabeth Pope as Silvia, Victor brought all of the
Verona scenes together, removed Valentine's 'gift' of Silvia to
Proteus and increased the roles of Launce and Crab (especially during
the outlaw scenes, where both characters are intimately involved in
the action). He also switched the emphasis of the play away from the
love-friendship dichotomy and instead focused on the issues of
fidelity, with the last line of the play altered to, "Lovers must be
faithful to be bless'd." This necessitated rewriting Valentine as a
near flawless protagonist who represents such faithfulness, and
Proteus as a traditional villain, who doesn't care for such notions.
The two are not presented as old friends, but simply as acquaintances.
Thurio was also rewritten as a harmless, but lovable fool, not unlike
Launce and Speed. Although not a major success (the play initially ran
for only six performances), it was still being staged as late as
John Philip Kemble
John Philip Kemble staged his own production of the play at
Drury Lane, maintaining many of Victor's alterations whilst also
adding many of his own. The production starred
Richard Wroughton as
Elizabeth Satchell as Silvia. The play was again staged at
Covent Garden in 1808, with Kemble, who was fifty years old at the
time, playing Valentine.
Frederic Reynolds staged an operatic version in 1821 at Covent Garden
as part of his series of adaptations of the works of Shakespeare.
Reynolds wrote the lyrics, with Henry Bishop writing the music. The
production ran for twenty-nine performances, and included some of
Shakespeare's sonnets set to music.
Augustin Daly revived the
opera in 1895 at Daly's Theatre, in an elaborate production starring
Ada Rehan as Julia.
Franz Schubert set a German translation by Eduard von
Bauernfeld of Proteus' serenade to Silvia ("Who is Silvia? What is
she,/That all our swains commend her?") to music. This song is usually
known in English as "Who is Sylvia?," but in German it is known as "An
Sylvia" ("Vier Lieder", opus 106, number 4, D. 891). In 1942,
Gerald Finzi included a setting of "Who Is Silvia?" in his song cycle
on Shakespearean texts Let Us Garlands Bring; the title of the work is
the last line of the song.
In 1971, Galt MacDermot,
John Guare and
Mel Shapiro adapted the show
into a rock musical under the same name as the play. Guare and Shapiro
wrote the book, Guare the lyrics, and MacDermot the music. Opening at
St. James Theatre
St. James Theatre on 1 December 1971, with Shapiro directing and
Jean Erdman as choreographer, it ran for 614 performances, closing on
20 May 1973. During its initial run, the play won two Tony Awards;
Best Musical and Best Book. The original cast included Clifton
Davis as Valentine,
Raúl Juliá as Proteus,
Jonelle Allen as Silvia
and Diana Dávila as Julia. The play moved to the West End in 1973,
playing at the Phoenix Theatre from 26 April, and running for 237
performances. It was revived in 1996 at the New Jersey Shakespeare
Festival, directed by Robert Duke, and again in 2005, directed and
Kathleen Marshall as part of the Shakespeare in the
Park festival. Marshall's production was performed at the Delacorte
Theater in Central Park, and starred
Norm Lewis as Valentine, Oscar
Isaac as Proteus,
Renée Elise Goldsberry
Renée Elise Goldsberry as Silvia and Rosario Dawson
The only cinematic adaptation of the play is Yī jiǎn méi (more
commonly known by its English title A Spray of Plum Blossoms), a 1931
silent film from China, directed by
Bu Wancang and written by Huang
Yicuo. A loose adaptation of the play, the film tells the story of Bai
Lede (Wang Chilong) and Hu Luting (Jin Yan), two military cadets who
have been friends since they were children. After graduating, Hu, a
playboy uninterested in love, is appointed as a captain in Guangdong
and leaves his home town in Shanghai. Bai however, deeply in love with
Hu's sister, Hu Zhuli (Ruan Lingyu) stays behind. At Guangdong, Hu
falls in love with the local general's daughter, Shi Luohua (Lam
Cho-Cho), although the general, Shi (Wang Guilin), is unaware of the
relationship, and instead wants his daughter to marry the foolish Liao
Di'ao (Kao Chien Fei). Meanwhile, Bai's father uses his influence to
get Bai posted to Guangdong, and after a sorrowful farewell between
himself and Zhuli, he arrives at his new post and instantly falls in
love with Luohua. In an effort to have her for himself, Bai betrays
his friend, by informing General Shi of his daughter's plans to elope
with Hu, leading to Shi dishonourably discharging Hu. Bai tries to win
Luohua over, but she is uninterested, only concerned with lamenting
the loss of Hu. In the meantime, Hu encounters a group of bandits who
ask him to be their leader, to which he agrees, planning on returning
for Luohua at some point in the future. Some time passes, and one day,
as Luohua, Bai and Liao are passing through the forest, they are
attacked. Luohua manages to flee, and Bai pursues her into the forest.
They engage in an argument, but just as Bai seems about to lose his
temper, Hu intervenes, and he and Luohua are reunited. General Shi
arrives in time to see Liao flee the scene, and he now realises that
he was wrong to get in the way of the relationship between Hu and his
daughter. Hu then forgives Bai his betrayal, and Bai reveals that he
has discovered that his only true love is in fact Zhuli back in
Shanghai. The film is notable for being one of many Chinese films of
the period which, although performed in Mandarin when filming, used
English intertitles upon its original release. In the English
intertitles and credits, the characters are named after their
counterparts in the play; Hu is Valentine, Bai is Proteus, Zhuli is
Julia and Luohua is Silvia. Liao is named Tiburio rather than
Two Gentlemen is also featured in
Shakespeare in Love
Shakespeare in Love (1999). Directed
by John Madden and written by
Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard, the film
tells the fictional story of William Shakespeare's (Joseph Fiennes)
composition of Romeo and Juliet. Early in the film, Queen Elizabeth
(Judi Dench) attends a production of Two Gentlemen, greatly enjoying
William Kempe (Patrick Barlow) being thoroughly outperformed by Crab,
and then falling asleep during Henry Condell's (Nicholas Boulton)
recitation of Proteus' soliloquy from Act 2, Scene 1. Later, after
reading the first draft of Romeo and Ethel, theatre manager Philip
Henslowe (Geoffrey Rush) suggests that Shakespeare add a dog to liven
the play up.
The first television adaptation was in 1952, when BBC Television
Service broadcast Act 1 of the play live from the Bristol Old Vic.
Directed by Denis Carey, the production starred John Neville as
Laurence Payne as Proteus,
Gudrun Ure as Silvia and Pamela
Ann as Julia.
In 1956, the entire play was broadcast on West German TV channel Das
Erste from a performance at the Munich Kammerspiele, under the title
Zwei herren aus Verona. The theatrical production was directed by Hans
Schalla, with the TV adaptation directed by Ernst Markwardt. The cast
Rolf Schult as Valentine, Hannes Riesenberger as Proteus,
Helga Siemers as Julia and Isolde Chlapek as Silvia. In 1964, the
play was made into a TV movie in West Germany, again using the title
Zwei herren aus Verona. Screened on ZDF, it was directed by Hans
Dieter Schwarze and starred Norbert Hansing as Valentine, Rolf Becker
as Proteus, Katinka Hoffman as Julia and
Heidelinde Weis as
Silvia. Another West German TV movie, under the title Die zwei
herren aus Verona, was screened on
Das Erste in 1966. Directed by
Harald Benesch, it starred Jürgen Kloth as Valentine, Lothar Berg as
Proteus, Anne-Marie Lermon as Julia and Carola Regnier as Silvia.
In 1969, the entire play was broadcast on Austrian TV channel ORF eins
from a performance at the Theater in der Josefstadt, under the title
Zwei aus Verona. The theatrical production was directed by Edwin
Zbonek, with the TV adaptation directed by Wolfgang Lesowsky. The cast
Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer as Valentine, Albert Rueprecht as
Proteus, Kitty Speiser as Julia and Brigitte Neumeister as
An outlaw hides in the "Christmas at Selfridges" set (note the
stylised steel 'trees' and tinsel foliage).
In 1983, the play was adapted for the BBC Television Shakespeare
series, as the fourth episode of the sixth season. Directed by Don
Taylor, it starred
Tyler Butterworth as Proteus, John Hudson as
Tessa Peake-Jones as Julia and Joanne Pearce as Silvia. For
the most part, the adaptation is taken verbatim from the First Folio,
with some very minor differences. For example, omitted lines include
the Duke's "Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested" (3.1.34), and
Julia's "Her eyes are grey as glass, and so are mine" (4.4.189). Other
differences include a slightly different opening scene to that
indicated in the text. Whereas the play seems to open with Valentine
Proteus in mid-conversation, the adaptation begins with Mercatio
and Eglamour attempting to formally woo Julia; Mercatio by showing her
a coffer overflowing with gold coins, Eglamour by displaying a
parchment detailing his ancestry. Neither Eglamour nor Mercatio appear
in the text. However, there is no dialogue in this scene, and the
first words spoken are the same as in the text ("Cease to persuade my
loving Proteus"). Eglamour is also present in the final scene, albeit
once again without any dialogue, and, additionally, the capture of
Silvia and the flight of Eglamour is seen, as opposed to merely being
described. The music for the episode was created by Anthony Rooley,
who wrote new arrangements of works from Shakespeare's own time, such
as John Dowland's "Lachrimae". Performed by The Consort of Musicke,
other musicians whose music was used include William Byrd, Thomas
Campion, Anthony Holborne, John Johnson,
Thomas Morley and Orazio
Taylor initially planned a representational setting for the film;
Milan and the forest were all to be realistic. However, he
changed his mind early in preproduction and had production designer
Barbara Gosnold go in the opposite direction – a stylised setting.
To this end, the forest is composed of metal poles with bits of green
tinsel and brown sticks stuck to them (the cast and crew referred to
the set as "Christmas at Selfridges"). Whilst the set for Verona
remained relatively realistic, that for
Milan featured young actors
dressed like cherubs as extras. This was to convey the idea that the
characters lived in a 'Garden of Courtly Love', which was slightly
divorced from the everyday reality represented by Verona. Working
in tandem with this idea, upon Proteus' arrival in Milan, after
meeting Silvia, he is left alone on screen, and the weather suddenly
changes from calm and sunny to cloudy and windy, accompanied by a
thunderclap. The implication being that
Proteus has brought a darkness
within him into the garden of courtly delights previously experienced
by Silvia. Although the production is edited in a fairly
conventional manner, much of it was shot in extremely long takes, and
then edited into sections, rather than actually shooting in sections.
Director Don Taylor would shoot most of the scenes in single takes, as
he felt this enhanced performances and allowed actors to discover
aspects which they never would were everything broken up into
In 1995, a production of the play aired on Polish TV channel TVP1
under the title Dwaj panowie z Werony, directed by Roland Rowiński
and starring Rafal Krolikowski as Proteus, Marek Bukowski as
Valentine, Agnieszka Krukówna as Julia and
Edyta Jungowska as
In 2000, episode three of season four of Dawson's Creek, "Two
Gentlemen of Capeside" loosely adapted the plot of the play. Written
by Chris Levinson and Jeffrey Stepakoff, and directed by Sandy Smolan,
the episode depicts how
Dawson Leery (James Van Der Beek) and Pacey
Witter (Joshua Jackson), formally best friends, have been driven apart
over their love for the same woman. The play is referenced early in
the episode as the characters are reading it for their English
In 1923, extracts from the play were broadcast on BBC Radio, performed
by the Cardiff Station Repertory Company as the first episode of a
series of programs showcasing Shakespeare's plays, entitled
Shakespeare Night. In 1924, the entire play was broadcast by 2BD,
directed by Joyce Tremayne and R.E. Jeffrey, with Treymane playing
Silvia and Jeffrey playing Valentine, alongside G.R. Harvey as Proteus
and Daisy Moncur as Julia. In 1927, the scenes between Julia and
Lucetta were broadcast on
BBC Radio as part of the Echoes from
Greenwich Theatre series. Betty Rayner played Julia and Joan Rayner
BBC National Programme
BBC National Programme broadcast the full play in
1934, adapted for radio by Barbara Burnham and produced by Lance
Sieveking. Ion Swinley played Valentine, Robert Craven was Proteus,
Helen Horsey was Silvia and
Lydia Sherwood played Julia.
In 1958, the entire play was broadcast on BBC Third Programme.
Produced and directed by Raymond Raikes, it starred John Westbrook as
Valentine, Charles Hodgson as Proteus, Caroline Leigh as Silvia,
Perlita Neilson as Julia, and
Frankie Howerd as Launce. BBC Third
Programme aired another full production of the play in 1968, produced
and directed by R.D. Smith and starring
Denys Hawthorne as Valentine,
Michael N. Harbour as Proteus,
Judi Dench as Julia and Kate Coleridge
In 2007, producer Roger Elsgood and director Willi Richards adapted
the play into a radio drama called The Two Gentlemen of Valasna. Set
in two petty Indian princely states called Malpur and Valasna in the
weeks leading up to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the play was first
BBC Radio 3 on 29 July 2007. It was recorded on
location in Maharashtra, India earlier in 2007 with a cast drawn from
Bollywood, Indian television and the Mumbai English-speaking theatre
traditions; actors included Nadir Khan as Vishvadev (i.e. Valentine),
Arghya Lahiri as Parminder (Proteus),
Anuradha Menon as Syoni
(Silvia), Avantika Akerkar as Jumaana/Servi (Julia/Sebastian), Sohrab
Ardishir as The
Maharaja (Duke of Milan) and
Zafar Karachiwala as
^ It is placed first in both The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete
Works (1986 and 2005), The Norton Shakespeare (1997 and 2008) and The
Complete Pelican Shakespeare (2002); see also Leech (1969: xxx), Wells
and Taylor (1997: 109), Carroll (2004: 130) and Warren (2008: 26–27)
^ Most modern editors of the play tend to rename this character
'Lance', on the basis that 'Lance' represents a modernisation of
'Launce'. See, for example, the editions by Kurt Schlueter (1990),
William C. Carroll (2004) and Roger Warren (2008).
All references to The Two Gentlemen of Verona, unless otherwise
specified, are taken from the Oxford Shakespeare (Warren), based on
First Folio text of 1623. Under its referencing system, 2.3.14
means act 2, scene 3, line 14.
^ a b c d e Wells et al. (2005), p. 1.
^ Carroll (2004), p. 110.
^ Greenblatt et al. (2008), p. 103.
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 142-145.
^ a b Schlueter (1990), p. 1.
^ Carroll (2004), p. 128.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 15–16.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 10-12.
^ Warren (2008), p. 19.
^ Bullough (1957), p. 204.
^ Warren (2008), p. 20.
^ Quiller-Couch & Wilson (1955), pp. ix-x.
^ Sanders (1968), p. 11.
^ See Leech (1969), p. xxx, Wells & Taylor (1997),
p. 109, Carroll (2004), p. 130 and Warren (2008),
^ Jackson (2005), p. xliv.
^ Leech (1969), p. xxxv.
^ Evans (2007), p. 78.
^ Wells & Taylor (1997), p. 109.
^ Schlueter (1990), p. 2.
^ Carroll (2004), p. 127-130.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 23-25.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 21.
^ Sanders (1968), p. 7.
^ Wells (1963), pp. 161-173.
^ Greenblatt et al. (2008), p. 79.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 24–27.
^ Program notes for 1970 RSC production of The Two Gentlemen of
^ a b Masten (1997), pp. 41; 46–47.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 55-56.
^ Warren (2008), p. 57.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 8-9.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 56-57.
^ Warren (2008), p. 56.
^ Derrick, Patty S. (December 1991). "Two Gents: A Crucial Moment".
Shakespeare on Film Newsletter. 16 (1): 4. Also available in
Schlueter (1996), pp. 259-262
^ a b Schlueter (1990), p. 3.
^ a b c Carroll (2004), pp. 15–16.
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 16.
^ a b Warren (2008), p. 10.
^ a b Kiefer, Frederick (1996). "Love Letters in The Two Gentlemen of
Verona". In Schlueter, June. The Two Gentlemen of Verona: Critical
Essays. London: Routledge. pp. 133–152.
^ Chambers, E.K., ed. (1905). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Red Letter
Shakespeare. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. pp. 5–6.
^ Carroll (2004), p. 115.
^ Bond (1906), p. xxxiv.
^ Quiller-Couch & Wilson (1955), p. xiv.
^ Charlton, H.B. (1966) [1st pub. 1938]. Shakesperean Comedy. London:
Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 9780416692600.
^ Sanders (1968), p. 15.
^ Sanders (1968), p. 8.
^ Schlueter (1990), p. 17.
^ Warren (2008), p. 53.
^ Warren (2008), p. 14.
^ Avery, Alex (2004). "Working with the language". Royal Shakespeare
Company. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 20
^ Warren (2008), p. 44.
^ Sanders (1968), p. 10.
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 57-65.
^ Warren (2008), p. 71n22.214.171.124.
^ a b Warren (2008), p. 1.
^ Schlueter (1990), p. 22.
^ a b Carroll (2004), p. 93.
^ a b c Carroll (2004), p. 85.
^ Halliday (1964), p. 506.
^ Trewin (1964), pp. 30-31.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 37-38.
^ Schlueter (1990), p. 37.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 3-5.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 43-44.
^ Warren (2008), p. 5.
^ "Past Productions: Peter Hall". Royal Shakespeare Company. Archived
from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 20 November
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 43-47.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 6-7.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 47-48.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 7-8.
^ Warren (2008), p. 9.
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 90-98.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 9-10.
^ "The Two Gentlemen of Verona: Study Guide for Teachers". Royal
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^ Warren (2008), pp. 13-14.
^ "Dois Cavalheiros de Verona". MIT Global Shakespeares. 2010.
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^ "The Two Gentlemen of Verona". Guthrie Theater. Retrieved 28
^ Jones, Keith (3 March 2009). "Shakespeare in the 1950s: The Guthrie
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^ "In Repertory: The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew,
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^ Klimek, Chris (27 January 2012). "OMG, Shakespeare can text
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^ Minton, Eric (31 January 2012). "Taking a Serious Stab at This
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^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 17–25.
^ Carroll (2004), pp. 86-88.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 1-2.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 25-29.
^ Schlueter (1990), pp. 29-33.
^ Jackson (2005), pp. liv-lv.
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^ "An Silvia 'Gesang an Silvia', D891". Hyperion Records. Retrieved 29
^ Sanders, Julie (2007). Shakespeare and Music: Afterlives and
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^ Green (1984), p. 350.
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^ Pang, Laikwan (2002). Building a New China in Cinema: The Chinese
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^ Lei, Bi-qi Beatrice (2012). "Paradox of Chinese Nationalism: Two
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^ Masten (2003), pp. 266-269.
^ Rothwell, Kenneth S.; Melzer, Annabelle Henkin (1990). Shakespeare
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^ Dörnemann, Kurt (1979). Shakespeare-Theater: Bochum, 1919-1979.
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^ Ledebur, Ruth (1974). Deutsche Shakespeare-Rezeption seit 1945.
Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. p. 332.
^ Blum, Heiko R.; Schmitt, Sigrid (1996). Klaus Maria Brandauer:
Schauspieler und Regisseur. Munich: Heyen. p. 229.
^ Brooke, Michael. "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (1983)". BFI
Screenonline. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ Willis, Susan (1991). The BBC Shakespeare Plays: Making the
Televised Canon. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
p. 212. ISBN 9780807843178.
^ Warren (2008), pp. 11-13.
^ Wilders, John, ed. (1984). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The BBC TV
Shakespeare. London: BBC Books. p. 26.
^ See also Keyishian, Harry (December 1984). "The Shakespeare Plays on
TV: Two Gentlemen of Verona". Shakespeare on Film Newsletter. 9 (1):
6–7. and Derrick, Patty S. (December 1991). "Two Gents: A
Crucial Moment". Shakespeare on Film Newsletter. 16 (1): 1–4.
Both essays are reprinted in Schlueter (1996), pp. 257-262
^ Fabiszak, Jacek (2005). Polish Televised Shakespeares: A Study of
Shakespeare Productions Within the Television Theatre Format. Poznan:
Motivex. pp. 212–225. ISBN 9788387314460.
^ Shaughnessy, Robert (2011). The Routledge Guide to William
Shakespeare. Oxford: Routledge. p. 94.
^ "Shakespeare Night:
Love's Labour's Lost
Love's Labour's Lost and The Two Gentlemen of
Verona". British Universities Film & Video Council. Retrieved 30
^ "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (1924)". British Universities Film
& Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ "Echoes from the Greenleaf Theatre". British Universities Film &
Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (1934)". British Universities Film
& Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (1958)". British Universities Film
& Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (1968)". British Universities Film
& Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
^ "Drama on 3".
BBC Radio 3. Archived from the original on 26 October
2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
^ "The Two Gentlemen of Valasna (2007)". British Universities Film
& Video Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
Editions of The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Bate, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Eric, eds. (2011). The Two Gentlemen of
Verona. The RSC Shakespeare. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Bond, R. Warwick, ed. (1906). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The Arden
Shakespeare, First Series. London: Methuen.
Carroll, William C., ed. (2004). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The
Arden Shakespeare, Third Series. London: Thompson Learning.
Evans, Bertrand, ed. (2007) . The Two Gentlemen of Verona.
Signet Classic Shakespeare (Revised ed.). New York: New American
Library. ISBN 9780451530639.
Evans, G. Blakemore, ed. (1997) . The Riverside Shakespeare
(Second ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780395754900.
Greenblatt, Stephen; Cohen, Walter; Howard, Jean E.; Maus, Katharine
Eisaman, eds. (2008) . The Norton Shakespeare: Based on the
Oxford Shakespeare (Second ed.). London: Norton.
Jackson, Berners A.W., ed. (1980) . The Two Gentlemen of Verona.
The Pelican Shakespeare (Revised ed.). London: Penguin.
Jackson, Russell, ed. (2005). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The Penguin
Shakespeare. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780141016627.
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Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108006101.
Rose, Mary Beth, ed. (2000). The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The New
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Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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(2005) . The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Works (2nd ed.).
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199267187.
Werstine, Paul; Mowat, Barbara A., eds. (1999). The Two Gentlemen of
Verona. Folger Shakespeare Library. Washington: Simon & Schuster.
Bullough, Geoffrey (1957). Narrative and Dramatic Sources of
Shakespeare. Volume One: Early Comedies, Poems, Romeo and Juliet. New
York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231088916.
Brooks, Harold F. (1963). "Two clowns in a comedy (to say nothing of
the dog): Speed, Launce (and Crab) in The Two Gentlemen of Verona".
Essays and Studies. XVI: 91–100.
Carlisle, Carol J.; Derrick, Patty S. (1997). "The Two Gentlemen of
Verona on Stage: Protean Problems and Protean Solutions". In Collins,
Michael J. Shakespeare's Sweet Thunder: Essays on the Early Comedies.
Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. pp. 126–154.
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Constancy and Consistency in The Two Gentlemen of Verona".
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Gentlemen of Verona". Studies in Philology. 66 (2): 168–181.
ISSN 0039-3738. JSTOR 4173636 – via JSTOR.
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of the American musical stage as told through the careers of its
foremost composers and lyricists (Revised Fourth ed.). San Diego, CA:
Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306802072.
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and Sexualities in Renaissance Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University
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