HOME
The Info List - The Times



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

_THE TIMES_ is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title _THE DAILY UNIVERSAL REGISTER_, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. _The Times_ and its sister paper _ The Sunday Times _ (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK , itself wholly owned by News Corp
News Corp
. _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967.

In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
analysed the importance of _The Times_ in shaping the views of events of London's elite:

For much more than a century _The Times_ has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street .

_The Times_ is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, including _ The Times
The Times
of India _ (founded in 1838), _ The Straits Times
The Straits Times
_ (Singapore) (1845), _ The New York Times _ (1851), _ The Irish Times _ (1859), _Le Temps _ (France) (1861-1942), the _ Cape Times _ (South Africa) (1872), the _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_ (1881), the Trenton Times (1882), _The Seattle Times _ (1891), _ The Manila Times _ (1898), _The Daily Times _ (Malawi) (1900), _El Tiempo _ (Colombia) (1911), _ The Canberra Times
The Canberra Times
_ (1926), _ Times of Malta _ (1935), _ Die Zeit _ (Germany) (1946), and _ The Washington Times
The Washington Times
_ (1982). In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as _THE LONDON TIMES_ or _THE TIMES_ OF LONDON, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution.

_The Times_ is the originator of the widely used Times Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison
Stanley Morison
of _The Times_ in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 _The Times_ began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern . _The Times_ was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. _The Sunday Times_ remains a broadsheet.

_The Times_ had an average daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016; in the same period, _The Sunday Times_ had an average daily circulation of 792,210. An American edition of _The Times_ has been published since 6 June 2006. It has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1785 to 1890 * 1.2 1890 to 1981 * 1.3 From 1981

* 2 Content

* 2.1 _Times2_ * 2.2 _The Game_ * 2.3 Saturday supplements * 2.4 Online presence

* 3 Ownership * 4 Readership * 5 Typeface
Typeface
* 6 Political allegiance * 7 Sponsorships

* 8 Notable people

* 8.1 Editors * 8.2 Notable columnists and journalists

* 9 Related publications

* 9.1 _The Times_, Ireland edition * 9.2 _Times Literary Supplement_ * 9.3 _ The Times
The Times
Science Review_ * 9.4 Times Atlases * 9.5 _ The Sunday Times Travel Magazine_ * 9.6 _Times Higher Education_

* 10 In fiction * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

HISTORY

1785 TO 1890

_ Front page of The Times_ from 4 December 1788

_The Times_ was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as _The Daily Universal Register_, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up. It was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise (three years later, it was proved that it was not as efficient as had been said). Walter bought the logography's patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house, where he would daily produce an advertising sheet. The first publication of the newspaper _The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain_ was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because people always omitted the word _Universal_, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to _The Times_. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. Walter Sr had spent sixteen months in Newgate Prison
Newgate Prison
for libel printed in _The Times_, but his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers.

_The Times_ used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of _The Times_ were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig . In 1815, _The Times_ had a circulation of 5,000.

Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson(1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane , the influence of _The Times_ rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London
London
. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for _The Times_ the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence.

_The Times_ was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell , the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War , was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. _ A wounded British officer reading The Times's_ report of the end of the Crimean War , in John Everett Millais ' painting _ Peace Concluded _.

In other events of the nineteenth century, _The Times_ opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, and only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine
Irish Potato Famine
. It enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832 , which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people (still a small minority of the population). During the American Civil War , _The Times_ represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery.

The third John Walter , the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847. The paper continued as more or less independent, but from the 1850s _The Times_ was beginning to suffer from the rise in competition from the penny press , notably _ The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
_ and _The Morning Post _.

During the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach _The Times_ and ask for continental intelligence, which was often superior to that conveyed by official sources.

1890 TO 1981

_The Times_ faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser Walter , but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell . During his tenure (1890–1911), _The Times_ became associated with selling the _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_ using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by Horace Everett Hooper and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the _Britannica's_ two owners, Hooper and Walter Montgomery Jackson , _The Times_ severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper magnate, Alfred Harmsworth
Alfred Harmsworth
, later Lord Northcliffe.

In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed , the _Times's_ Chief Editor, argued that the British Empire
British Empire
should enter World War I
World War I
. On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed , _The Times_ in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic fabrication _The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion _ as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about _The Protocols of the Elders of Zion_:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".

The following year, when Philip Graves , the Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern Istanbul
Istanbul
) correspondent of _The Times_, exposed _The Protocols_ as a forgery, _The Times_ retracted the editorial of the previous year.

In 1922, John Jacob Astor , son of the 1st Viscount Astor , bought _The Times_ from the Northcliffe estate . The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement ; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain .

Kim Philby , a double agent with primary allegiance to the Soviet Union , was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence ( MI6 ) during World War II
World War II
, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
when discovery was inevitable in 1963. Roy Thomson

Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr was Assistant Editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials. In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens
Athens
between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a _Times_ leader sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. As a result of Carr's editorial, _The Times_ became popularly known during that stage of World War II
World War II
as "the threepenny _Daily Worker _" (the price of the Communist Party's _Daily Worker_ being one penny).

On 3 May 1966 it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the Royal Arms , which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. In 1967 members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson . His Thomson Corporation brought it under the same ownership as _The Sunday Times _ to form Times Newspapers Limited .

An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979.

The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.

Several suitors appeared, including Robert Maxwell , Tiny Rowland and Lord Rothermere ; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Robert Holmes à Court , another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy _The Times_ in 1980.

FROM 1981

_ The Times_ cover (5 June 2013)

In 1981, _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International . The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O\'Neill . The Royal Arms was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the House of Hanover , who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded.

After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg resigned upon completion of the change of ownership. Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans as his replacement. One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print _The Times_ since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute of 1986, when _The Times_ moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street
Fleet Street
) to new offices in Wapping .

Robert Fisk , seven times British International Journalist of the Year, resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance.

In June 1990 _The Times_ ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. The more formal style is now confined to the "Court and Social" page, though "Ms" is now acceptable in that section, as well as before surnames in news sections.

In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. On 13 September 2004, the weekday broadsheet was withdrawn from sale in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format.

On 6 June 2005, _The Times_ redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. Author/solicitor David Green of Castle Morris Pembrokeshire has had more letters published on the main letters page than any other known contributor – 158 by 31 January 2008. According to its leading article "From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page.

In a 2007 meeting with the House of Lords
House of Lords
Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control.

In May 2008 printing of _The Times_ switched from Wapping to new plants at Waltham Cross in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, and Merseyside and Glasgow, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time.

On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the London 2012 Olympics and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, _The Times_ added the suffix "of London" to its masthead.

CONTENT

_The Times_ features news for the first half of the paper, the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, Court ">' digital products.

OWNERSHIP

_The Times_ has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785:

* 1785 to 1803 – John Walter * 1803 to 1847 – John Walter, 2nd * 1847 to 1894 – John Walter, 3rd * 1894 to 1908 – Arthur Fraser Walter * 1908 to 1922 – Lord Northcliffe * 1922 to 1966 – Astor family * 1966 to 1981 – Roy Thomson * 1981 to present – News UK (formerly News International, a wholly owned subsidiary of News Corp
News Corp
, run by Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
)

*

John Walter , the founder of _The Times_ *

John Walter, 2nd *

John Walter, 3rd *

Lord Northcliffe *

Roy Thomson *

Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch

READERSHIP

At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, _The Times_ had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival _The Daily Telegraph _. By November 2005 _The Times_ sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality " newspaper (after _The Daily Telegraph_, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. By March 2014, average daily circulation of _The Times_ had fallen to 394,448 copies, compared to _The Daily Telegraph'_s 523,048, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast _The Sun_, the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, and the _Daily Mail_, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period.

_The Sunday Times_ has a significantly higher circulation than _The Times_, and sometimes outsells _The Sunday Telegraph_. In May 2017 _The Times_ had a circulation of 445,737 and _The Sunday Times_ of 775,188 .

In a 2009 national readership survey _The Times_ was found to have the highest number of ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London
London
of any of the "quality" papers.

TYPEFACE

he various typefaces used before the introduction (The) Times New Roman didn't really have a formal name.

They were a suite of types originally made by Miller and Co. (later Miller & Richards) in Edinburgh around 1813, generally referred to as "modern". When The Times
The Times
began using Monotype (and other hot-metal machines) in 1908, this design was remade by Monotype for its equipment. As near as I can tell, it looks like Monotype Series no. 1 — Modern (which was based on a Miller ">_ An example of the Times New Roman _ typeface

In 1908, _The Times_ started using the _Monotype Modern_ typeface.

_The Times_ commissioned the serif typeface _ Times New Roman
Times New Roman
_, created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype , in 1931. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison
Stanley Morison
had written an article criticizing _The Times_ for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of _The Times_. Morison used an older font named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. _Times New Roman_ made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. _The Times_ stayed with _Times New Roman_ for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font:

* _Times Europa_ was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for The Times, as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces. * _Times Roman_ replaced Times Europa on 30 August 1982. * _Times Millennium_ was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International. * _Times Classic_ first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor Times Millennium. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004. * _Times Modern_ was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of _Times Classic_. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as _EF Times Modern_; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.

POLITICAL ALLEGIANCE

Historically, the paper was not overtly pro- Tory or Whig , but has been a long time bastion of the English Establishment and empire. _The Times_ adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election ; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic ) candidates.

For the 2001 general election _The Times_ declared its support for Tony Blair
Tony Blair
's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005 , when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority. In 2004, according to MORI , the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats , and 26% for Labour. For the 2010 general election , the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority.

This makes it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history. Some columnists in _The Times_ are connected to the Conservative Party such as Daniel Finkelstein , Tim Montgomerie , Matthew Parris
Matthew Parris
and Matt Ridley , but there are also columnists connected to the Labour Party such as David Aaronovitch , Philip Collins , Oliver Kamm and Jenni Russell .

_The Times_ occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Barack Obama
Barack Obama
although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy.

SPONSORSHIPS

_The Times_, along with the British Film Institute
British Film Institute
, sponsors "The Times" _bfi_ London
London
Film Festival . It also sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House , London.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

EDITORS

NAME TENURE

John Walter 1785 to 1803

John Walter, Jnr 1803 to 1812

Sir John Stoddart 1812 to 1816

Thomas Barnes 1817 to 1841

John Thadeus Delane 1841 to 1877

Thomas Chenery 1877 to 1884

George Earle Buckle 1884 to 1912

George Geoffrey Dawson 1912 to 1919

George Sydney Freeman 1919 (two-month 'inter-regnum')

Henry Wickham Steed 1919 to 1922

George Geoffrey Dawson 1923 to 1941

Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward 1941 to 1948

William Francis Casey 1948 to 1952

Sir William John Haley 1952 to 1966

William Rees-Mogg 1967 to 1981

Harold Evans 1981 to 1982

Charles Douglas-Home 1982 to 1985

Charles Wilson 1985 to 1990

Simon Jenkins 1990 to 1992

Peter Stothard 1992 to 2002

Robert Thomson 2002 to 2007

James Harding 2007 to 2012

John Witherow 2013–

NOTABLE COLUMNISTS AND JOURNALISTS

* Michael Atherton * Guillem Balague * Simon Barnes * Alice Bowe * Peter Brookes (leader-page cartoonist) * Thom Brooks * Rachel Campbell-Johnston * Ross Clark * Giles Coren * Robert Crampton * Ginny Dougary * Stephen Farrell * Daniel Finkelstein * Brian Glanville * Ruth Gledhill

* Michael Gove * Julian Haviland (Political Editor) * Louis Heren * Anthony Howard * Mick Hume * Nadiya Hussain * Simon Jenkins * Anatole Kaletsky * Raymond Keene * Patrick Kidd * Magnus Linklater * Richard Lloyd Parry * Anthony Loyd (war correspondent on retainer) * Ben Macintyre

* Bronwen Maddox * Stefanie Marsh * Hugh McIlvanney * Alice Miles * Caitlin Moran
Caitlin Moran
* Michael Moran * Morten Morland (political cartoonist) * Matthew Parris
Matthew Parris
* Grayson Perry * Libby Purves * John Raymond * Lord Rees-Mogg * Peter Riddell * Hugo Rifkind

* Aki Riihilahti * Nick Robinson * Alyson Rudd * Jenni Russell * Dan Sabbagh * Marcus du Sautoy
Marcus du Sautoy
* Andrew Sullivan
Andrew Sullivan
* Richard Susskind * Matthew Syed * Rachel Sylvester * Ann Treneman * Janice Turner * Alexander Williams (cartoonist) * Ian Fleming
Ian Fleming

RELATED PUBLICATIONS

_THE TIMES_, IRELAND EDITION

An Irish digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 at TheTimes.ie. A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland.

_TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT_

Main article: The Times Literary Supplement

_ The Times
The Times
Literary Supplement_ (_TLS_) first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to _The Times_, becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914. The _TLS_ is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with _The Times_, with its online version hosted on _The Times_ website, and its editorial offices based in Times House, Pennington Street, London.

_THE TIMES SCIENCE REVIEW_

Main article: The Times Science Review

Between 1951 and 1966 _The Times_ published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, _ The Times
The Times
Science Review_.

_The Times_ started a new, free, monthly science magazine, _Eureka _, in October 2009. The magazine closed in October 2012.

TIMES ATLASES

Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The flagship product is The Times
The Times
Comprehensive Atlas of the World .

_THE SUNDAY TIMES TRAVEL MAGAZINE_

This 164-page monthly magazine is sold separately from the newspaper of record and is Britain's best-selling travel magazine. The first issue of _ The Sunday Times Travel Magazine _ was in 2003, and it includes news, features and insider guides.

_TIMES HIGHER EDUCATION_

Main article: Times Higher Education

Started in 1971, it was a pioneer in evaluating tertiary education, and has grown to be one of the most respected for its national and world rankings.

IN FICTION

In the dystopian future world of George Orwell 's _Nineteen Eighty-Four _, _The Times_ has been transformed into the organ of the totalitarian ruling party, its editorials—of which several are quoted in the book—reflecting Big Brother 's pronouncements.

Rex Stout
Rex Stout
's fictional detective Nero Wolfe is described as fond of solving the London
London
_Times_' crossword puzzle at his New York home, in preference to those of American papers.

In the James Bond
James Bond
series by Ian Fleming
Ian Fleming
, James Bond
James Bond
, reads _The Times_. As described by Fleming in _From Russia, with Love _: "_The Times_ was the only paper that Bond ever read."

In _ The Wombles _, Uncle Bulgaria read _The Times_ and asked for the other Wombles to bring him any copies that they found amongst the litter. The newspaper played a central role in the episode _Very Behind the Times_ (Series 2, Episode 12).

SEE ALSO

* Journalism portal

* List of the oldest newspapers
List of the oldest newspapers
* History of newspapers and magazines#The Times

REFERENCES

* ^ Katherine Rushton " John Witherow named acting editor of The Times as News International eyes merger", telegraph.co.uk, 18 January 2013 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". _Press Gazette_. Retrieved 28 January 2017. * ^ Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical Treatment", _Journalism Quarterly_ (1959) 36#4 pp 411-22 * ^ " London
London
Times: "Caster Semenya and the middle sex" OII Australia – Intersex Australia". Oii.org.au. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ " London
London
Times posts digital subs rise". AdNews. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ "Sea Shepherd Australia :: The London
London
Times Gets It Wrong". Seashepherd.org.au. 9 February 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ Amy Hubbard (19 July 2013). "Royal baby watch: Kate, William head to London; media say hallelujah". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ "Sea Shepherd heading to the Mediterranean to protect tuna". timesofmalta.com. 24 January 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ "Times\' editorial page calls for intervention to save Winehouse Toronto Star". Thestar.com. 26 January 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ Pfanner, Eric (27 May 2006). "Times of London
London
to Print Daily U.S. Edition". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 4 November 2008. * ^ " The Times
The Times
Digital Archive". Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved 28 January 2017. * ^ Bingham, Adrian. " The Times
The Times
Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," _English Historical Review_ (2013) 128#533 pp: 1037-1040. doi :10.1093/ehr/cet144 * ^ _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online_. Retrieved 11 September 2016.

* ^ W. David Sloan, Lisa Mullikin Parcell (2002). _American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices: An Historical Reader for Students and Professionals_. McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-1371-9 . Koenig had plans to develop a double-feeding printing machine that would increase production, and the publisher of The Times
The Times
in London ordered two of the double- feeder machines to be built. * ^ D. J. R. Bruckner (20 November 1995). "How the Earlier Media Achieved Critical Mass". _The New York Times_. the circulation of The Times rose from 5,000 in 1815 to 50,000 in the 1850s. * ^ Lomas, Claire. "The Steam Driven Rotary Press, The Times
The Times
and the Empire" * ^ Knightley, Philip. _The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth-maker from the Crimea to the Gulf War II_ * ^ Ferguson, Niall (1999). _The Pity of War_ London: Basic Books. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-465-05711-5 * ^ Friedländer, Saul (1997). _Nazi Germany and the Jews_. New York: HarperCollins. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-06-019042-2 * ^ Cave Brown, Anthony (1995). _Treason in the blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the spy case of the century_. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-5582-2 . * ^ Beloff, Max. "The Dangers of Prophecy" pages 8–10 from _History Today_, Volume 42, Issue # 9, September 1992 page 9 * ^ Davies, Robert William. "Edward Hallett Carr, 1892–1982" pages 473–511 from _Proceedings of the British Academy_, Volume 69, 1983 page 489 * ^ Haslam, Jonathan. "We Need a Faith: E.H. Carr, 1892–1982" pages 36–39 from _History Today_, Volume 33, August 1983 page 37 * ^ Hasler, Charles (1980). _The Royal Arms — Its Graphic And Decorative Development_. Jupiter Books. p. 302. ISBN 978-0904041200 . * ^ " BBC
BBC
ON THIS DAY - 13 - 1979: Times returns after year-long dispute". * ^ Stewart, Graham (2005). _The History of the Times: The Murdoch years, 1981–2002_. HarperCollins. p. 45. ISBN 0-00-718438-7 . * ^ Stewart, p. 45 * ^ _A_ _B_ Stewart, p. 51 * ^ Hamilton, Alan. " The Times
The Times
bids farewell to old technology". _The Times_, 1 May 1982, p. 2, col. C. * ^ Evans, Harold (1984). _Good Times, Bad Times_. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-297-78295-7 . * ^ Fisk, Robert (2005). _The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East_. London: Fourth Estate. pp. 329–334. ISBN 1-84115-007-X . * ^ "Viewpoint: UK war reporter Robert Fisk". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 3 December 2005. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005. * ^ Robert Fisk, Why I had to leave The Times, The Independent, 11 July 2011. * ^ "Minute of the meeting with Mr Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, News Corporation". _Inquiry into Media Ownership and the News_. House of Commons Select Committee on Communications. 17 September 2007. p. 10. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. * ^ "Every day during London
London
2012, The Times
The Times
will be wrapped in a special panoramic cover. LET THE GAMES BEGIN". _Facebook_. Retrieved 26 July 2012. * ^ Mark Sweney (14 April 2016). " The Times
The Times
increases cover price by 20p, the first rise in two years". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 9 September 2016. * ^ "Timesonline.co.uk Site Info". Alexa. Retrieved 22 July 2010. * ^ "Times and Sunday Times websites to charge from June". BBC
BBC
News . 26 March 2010. * ^ "Times and Sunday Times readership falls after paywall". BBC News . 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2010. * ^ Hindle, Debbie (6 April 2009). "Times Online travel editor insight". BGB. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015. * ^ "Digital subscribers to The Times
The Times
and The Sunday Times continue to grow" (Press release). News International . 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2015. * ^ "National daily newspaper circulation November 2005". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012. * ^ " The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
- readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014. * ^ "The Sun - readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014. * ^ " Daily Mail
Daily Mail
- readership data". News Works. Retrieved 12 April 2014. * ^ "NewsWorks statistics for The Times". Newsworks.org.uk. Retrieved 18 May 2017. * ^ "NewsWorks statistics for The Sunday Times". Newsworks.org.uk. Retrieved 18 May 2017. * ^ An analysis of _The Times_ reader demographic (based on NMA figures, news agenda and advertising in the paper) can be seen in this study. * ^ "Ultrasparky: It was never called Times Old Roman". * ^ Morison (1953). _A Tally of Types_. Cambridge University Press. p. 15. * ^ Loxley, Simon (2006). _Type: the secret history of letters_. I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 1-84511-028-5 . * ^ Carter, H. G. (2004). _'Morison, Stanley Arthur (1889–1967)'_. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . rev. David McKitterick. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * ^ "TYPOlis: Times New Roman". Typolis.de. 3 October 1932. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ After 221 years, the world\'s leading newspaper shows off a fresh face (subscription required) * ^ "Typography of News Bigger, faster, better". Fontshop.com. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ "Neville Brody\'s Research Studios Creates New Font and Design Changes for The Times
The Times
as Compact Format Continues to Attract Loyal Readership". LONDON: Prnewswire.co.uk. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ R. B. McCallum and Alison Readman, "The British General Election of 1945", Oxford University Press, 1947, p. 181–2. * ^ David Butler and Dennis Kavanagh, "The British General Election of 1997", Macmillan, London, 1997, p. 156. * ^ "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet. Retrieved 27 October 2010. * ^ "Voting intention by newspaper readership". Ipsos Mori. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2009. * ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 27 October 2010. * ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ "America Decides". _The Times_. London. 1 November 2012. * ^ Smith, Neil (17 September 2003). "Female stars lead London festival". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 20 July 2012. * ^ Lewis, Leo (16 July 2011). " Internet Archive Wayback Machine". London: Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012. * ^ "Power or Influence: Can educational journalists make a difference" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 1997. Retrieved 23 January 2013. * ^ Roy Greenslade "Witherow and Ivens confirmed as editors of Times and Sunday Times", theguardian, 27 September 2013 * ^ "Irish edition of The Times
The Times
launched". * ^ "WATCH: Gavan Reilly gives us an overall update from Midday - #GE16". _Today FM_. * ^ "The Ireland edition of The Times
The Times
available in print News UK". _www.news.co.uk_. Retrieved 2017-06-01. * ^ "The ultimate review of reviews". _ London
London
Evening Standard_. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 20 July 2012. * ^ Mullan, John (28 December 2002). "Licence to sell". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 20 July 2012.

FURTHER READING

* Bingham, Adrian. " The Times
The Times
Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," _English Historical Review_ (2013) 128#533 pp: 1037-1040. doi :10.1093/ehr/cet144 * Evans, Harold (1983). _Good Times, Bad Times_. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78295-9 . - includes sections of black-and-white photographic plates, plus a few charts and diagrams in text pages. * Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. _The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers_ (1980) pp 320–29 * Morison, Stanley. _The History of the Times: Volume 1: The Thunderer" in the Making 1785-1841. Volume 2: The Tradition Established 1841-1884. Volume 3: The Twentieth Century Test 1884-1912. Volume 4 :The 150th Anniversary and Beyond 1912-1948._ (1952)

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to THE

.