THE TALE OF GENJI (源氏物語, Genji monogatari) is a classic work
Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting
Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century in
"concertina" or "orihon" style made of several sheets of paper pasted
together and folded alternately in one direction then the other
(Lyons, 2011 ), around the peak of the
* 1 Historical context * 2 Authorship * 3 Plot * 4 Completion * 5 Literary context
* 6 Structure
* 6.1 List of chapters
* 7 Manuscripts * 8 Illustrated scroll
* 9 Modern readership
* 9.1 Japanese
* 9.2 English translations
* 9.2.1 Major English translations in chronological order
* 10 Reception and legacy * 11 Films and adaptations * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links
The Tale of Genji
One complication for readers and translators of the Genji is that almost none of the characters in the original text are given explicit names. The characters are instead referred to by their function or role (e.g. Minister of the Left), an honorific (e.g. His Excellency), or their relation to other characters (e.g. Heir Apparent), which changes as the novel progresses. This lack of names stems from Heian-era court manners that would have made it unacceptably familiar and blunt to freely mention a person's given name. Modern readers and translators have used various nicknames to keep track of the many characters .
The Tale of Genji
The debate over how much of Genji was actually written by Murasaki Shikibu has gone on for centuries and is unlikely to ever be settled unless some major archival discovery is made. It is generally accepted that the tale was finished in its present form by 1021, when the author of the Sarashina Nikki wrote a diary entry about her joy at acquiring a complete copy of the tale. She writes that there are over 50 chapters and mentions a character introduced at the end of the work, so if other authors besides Murasaki Shikibu did work on the tale, the work was done very near to the time of her writing. Murasaki Shikibu\'s own diary includes a reference to the tale, and indeed the application to herself of the name 'Murasaki' in an allusion to the main female character. That entry confirms that some if not all of the diary was available in 1008 when internal evidence suggests convincingly that the entry was written.
Lady Murasaki is said to have written the character of Genji based on the Minister on the Left at the time she was at court. Other translators, such as Tyler, believe the character Murasaki no Ue, whom Genji marries, is based on Murasaki Shikibu herself.
Yosano Akiko , the first author to make a modern Japanese translation of Genji, believed that Murasaki Shikibu had only written chapters 1 to 33, and that chapters 35 to 54 were written by her daughter Daini no Sanmi. Other scholars have also doubted the authorship of chapters 42 to 54 (particularly 44, which contains rare examples of continuity mistakes). According to Royall Tyler 's introduction to his English translation of the work, recent computer analysis has turned up "statistically significant" discrepancies of style between chapters 45–54 and the rest, and also among the early chapters.
Ch. 15 – 蓬生 YOMOGIU ("Waste of Weeds"). Scene from the
12th century illustrated handscroll Genji
Monogatari Emaki kept at the
Tokugawa Art Museum. Ch. 16 – 関屋 SEKIYA ("At The Pass").
Tokugawa Art Museum’s Genji
Monogatari Emaki. Ch. 37 –
横笛 YOKOBUE ("Flute"). Tokugawa Art Museum’s Genji Monogatari
Emaki. Ch. 39 – 夕霧 YūGIRI ("Evening Mist"). 12th century
The work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji , or "Shining Genji", the son of an ancient Japanese emperor , known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo, and a low-ranking but beloved concubine called Lady Kiritsubo. For political reasons, the emperor removes Genji from the line of succession, demoting him to a commoner by giving him the surname Minamoto , and he pursues a career as an imperial officer. The tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time.
Genji's mother dies when he is three years old, and the Emperor cannot forget her. The Emperor Kiritsubo then hears of a woman (Lady Fujitsubo ), formerly a princess of the preceding emperor, who resembles his deceased concubine, and later she becomes one of his wives. Genji loves her first as a stepmother, but later as a woman, and they fall in love with each other. Genji is frustrated by his forbidden love for the Lady Fujitsubo and is on bad terms with his wife ( Aoi no Ue ). He engages in a series of unfulfilling love affairs with other women, but in most cases his advances are rebuffed, his lover dies suddenly during the affair, or he becomes bored with his lover.
Genji visits Kitayama, the northern rural hilly area of Kyoto, where he finds a beautiful ten-year-old girl. He is fascinated by this little girl ( Murasaki ), and discovers that she is a niece of the Lady Fujitsubo. Finally he kidnaps her, brings her to his own palace and educates her to be his ideal lady — that is, like the Lady Fujitsubo. During this time Genji also meets the Lady Fujitsubo secretly, and she bears his son, Reizei. Everyone except the two lovers believes the father of the child is the Emperor Kiritsubo. Later, the boy becomes the Crown Prince and Lady Fujitsubo becomes the Empress, but Genji and Lady Fujitsubo swear to keep their secret.
Genji and his wife, Lady Aoi, reconcile. She gives birth to a son but
dies soon after. Genji is sorrowful, but finds consolation in
Murasaki, whom he marries. Genji's father, the Emperor Kiritsubo,
dies. He is succeeded by his son Suzaku, whose mother (Kokiden),
together with Kiritsubo's political enemies, takes power in the court.
Then another of Genji's secret love affairs is exposed: Genji and a
concubine of the Emperor Suzaku are discovered when they meet in
secret. The Emperor Suzaku confides his personal amusement at Genji's
exploits with the woman (Oborozukiyo), but is duty-bound to punish his
half-brother. He exiles Genji to the town of Suma in rural Harima
Province (now part of
In the capital, the Emperor Suzaku is troubled by dreams of his late father, Kiritsubo, and something begins to affect his eyes. Meanwhile, his mother, Kokiden, grows ill, which weakens her powerful sway over the throne. Thus the Emperor orders Genji pardoned, and he returns to Kyoto. His son by Lady Fujitsubo, Reizei, becomes the emperor. The new Emperor Reizei knows Genji is his real father, and raises Genji's rank to the highest possible.
However, when Genji turns 40 years old, his life begins to decline. His political status does not change, but his love and emotional life are slowly damaged. He marries another wife, the Third Princess (known as Onna san no miya in the Seidensticker version, or Nyōsan in Waley's). Genji's nephew, Kashiwagi, later forces himself on the Third Princess, and she bears Kaoru (who, in a similar situation to that of Reizei, is legally known as the son of Genji). Genji's new marriage changes his relationship with Murasaki, who becomes a nun (bikuni ).
Genji's beloved Murasaki dies. In the following chapter, Maboroshi ("Illusion"), Genji contemplates how fleeting life is. Immediately after Maboroshi, there is a chapter entitled Kumogakure ("Vanished into the Clouds"), which is left blank, but implies the death of Genji.
The rest of the work is known as the "Uji Chapters". These chapters follow Kaoru and his best friend, Niou. Niou is an imperial prince, the son of Genji's daughter, the current Empress now that Reizei has abdicated the throne, while Kaoru is known to the world as Genji's son but is in fact fathered by Genji's nephew. The chapters involve Kaoru and Niou's rivalry over several daughters of an imperial prince who lives in Uji , a place some distance away from the capital. The tale ends abruptly, with Kaoru wondering if Niou is hiding the lady the former loves away from him. Kaoru has sometimes been called the first anti-hero in literature.
The tale has an abrupt ending. Opinions vary on whether the ending
was the intended ending of the author.
Because it was written to entertain the Japanese court of the
eleventh century, the work presents many difficulties to modern
readers. First and foremost, Murasaki's language,
Another aspect of the language is the importance of using poetry in conversations. Modifying or rephrasing a classic poem according to the current situation was expected behavior in Heian court life, and often served to communicate thinly veiled allusions. The poems in the Genji are often in the classic Japanese tanka form. Many of the poems were well known to the intended audience, so usually only the first few lines are given and the reader is supposed to complete the thought themselves, much like today we could say "when in Rome ..." and leave the rest of the saying ("... do as the Romans do") unspoken.
As with most Heian literature, the Genji was probably written mostly (or perhaps entirely) in kana (Japanese phonetic script) and not in Chinese characters because it was written by a woman for a female audience. Writing in Chinese characters was at the time a masculine pursuit; women were generally discreet when using Chinese symbols, confining themselves mostly to native Japanese words (yamato kotoba ).
Outside of vocabulary related to politics and Buddhism, the Genji contains remarkably few Chinese loan words (kango ). This has the effect of giving the story a very even, smooth flow. However, it also introduces confusion: there are a number of homophones (words with the same pronunciation but different meanings), and for modern readers, context is not always sufficient to determine which meaning was intended.
The novel is traditionally divided in three parts, the first two dealing with the life of Genji, and the last dealing with the early years of two of Genji's prominent descendants, Niou and Kaoru. There are also several short transitional chapters which are usually grouped separately and whose authorship is sometimes questioned.
* Genji's rise and fall
* Youth, chapters 1–33: Love, romance, and exile * Success and setbacks, chapters 34–41: A taste of power and the death of his beloved wife
* The transition (chapters 42–44): Very short episodes following Genji's death * Uji, chapters 45–54: Genji's official and secret descendants, Niou and Kaoru
The 54th and last chapter "The Floating Bridge of Dreams" is sometimes argued to be a separate part from the Uji part by modern scholars. It seems to continue the story from the previous chapters, but has an unusually abstract chapter title. It is the only chapter whose title has no clear reference within the text, but this may be because the chapter is unfinished. This question is more difficult because we do not know exactly when the chapters acquired their titles.
LIST OF CHAPTERS
The English translations here are taken from the
CHAPTER JAPANESE WALEY SEIDENSTICKER TYLER WASHBURN
01 Kiritsubo (桐壺) "Kiritsubo" "The Paulownia Court" "The Paulownia Pavilion" "The Lady of the Paulownia-Courtyard Chambers"
02 Hahakigi (帚木) "The Broom-Tree" "Broom Cypress"
03 Utsusemi (空蝉) "Utsusemi" "The Shell of the Locust" "The Cicada Shell" "A Molted Cicada Shell"
04 Yūgao (夕顔) "Yugao" "Evening Faces" "The Twilight Beauty" "The Lady of the Evening Faces"
07 Momiji no Ga (紅葉賀) "The Festival of Red Leaves" "An Autumn Excursion" "Beneath the Autumn Leaves" "An Imperial Celebration of Autumn Foliages"
08 Hana no En (花宴) "The Flower Feast" "The Festival of the Cherry Blossoms" "Under the Cherry Blossoms" "A Banquet Celebrating Cherry Blossoms"
09 Aoi (葵) "Aoi" "Heartvine" "Heart-to-Heart" "Leaves of Wild Ginger"
10 Sakaki (榊) "The Sacred Tree" "The Green Branch" "A Branch of Sacred Evergreens"
11 Hana Chiru Sato (花散里) "The Village of Falling Flowers" "The Orange Blossoms" "Falling Flowers" "The Lady at the Villa of Scattering Orange Blossoms"
12 Suma (須磨) "Exile at Suma" "Suma" "Exile to Suma"
13 Akashi (明石) "Akashi" "The Lady at Akashi"
14 Miotsukushi (澪標) "The Flood Gauge" "Channel Buoys" "The Pilgrimage to Sumiyoshi" "Channel Markers"
15 Yomogiu (蓬生) "The Palace in the Tangled Woods" "The Wormwood Patch" "A Waste of Weeds" "A Ruined Villa of Tangled Gardens"
16 Sekiya (関屋) "A Meeting at the Frontier" "The Gatehouse" "At the Pass" "The Barrier Gate"
17 E Awase (絵合) "The Picture Competition" "A Picture Contest" "The Picture Contest" "A Contest of Illustrations"
18 Matsukaze (松風) "The Wind in the Pine-Trees" "The Wind in the Pines" "Wind in the Pines"
19 Usugumo (薄雲) "A Wreath of Cloud" "A Rack of Clouds" "Wisps of Cloud" "A Thin Veil of Clouds"
20 Asagao (朝顔) "Asagao" "The Morning Glory" "The Bluebell" "Bellflowers"
21 Otome (乙女) "The Maiden" "The Maidens" "Maidens of the Dance"
22 Tamakazura (玉鬘) "Tamakatsura" "The Jewelled Chaplet" "The Tendril Wreath" "A Lovely Garland"
23 Hatsune (初音) "The First Song of the Year" "The First Warbler" "The Warbler's First Song" "First Song of Spring"
24 Kochō (胡蝶) "The Butterflies" "Butterflies"
25 Hotaru (螢) "The Glow-Worm" "Fireflies" "The Fireflies" "Fireflies"
26 Tokonatsu (常夏) "A Bed of Carnations" "Wild Carnation" "The Pink" "Wild Pinks"
27 Kagaribi (篝火) "The Flares" "Flares" "The Cressets" "Cresset Fires"
28 Nowaki (野分) "The Typhoon" "An Autumn Tempest"
29 Miyuki (行幸) "The Royal Visit" "The Royal Outing" "The Imperial Progress" "An Imperial Excursion"
30 Fujibakama (藤袴) "Blue Trousers" "Purple Trousers" "Thoroughwort Flowers" "Mistflowers"
31 Makibashira (真木柱) "Makibashira" "The Cypress Pillar" "The Handsome Pillar" "A Beloved Pillar of Cypress"
32 Umegae (梅枝) "The Spray of Plum-Blossom" "A Branch of Plum" "The Plum Tree Branch" "A Branch of Plum"
33 Fuji no Uraba (藤裏葉) "Fuji no Uraba" "Wisteria Leaves" "New Wisteria Leaves" "Shoots of Wisteria Leaves"
34 Wakana: Jō (若菜上) "Wakana, Part I" "New Herbs, Part I" "Spring Shoots I" "Early Spring Genesis: Part 1"
35 Wakana: Ge (若菜下) "Wakana, Part II" "New Herbs, Part II" "Spring Shoots II" "Early Spring Genesis: Part 2"
36 Kashiwagi (柏木) "Kashiwagi" "The Oak Tree"
37 Yokobue (横笛) "The Flute" "The Transverse Flute"
38 Suzumushi (鈴虫) (not translated) "The Bell Cricket" "Bell Crickets"
39 Yūgiri (夕霧) "Yugiri" "Evening Mist"
40 Minori (御法) "The Law" "Rites" "The Law" "Rites of Sacred Law"
41 Maboroshi (幻) "Mirage" "The Wizard" "The Seer" "Spirit Summoner"
X Kumogakure (雲隠)
"Vanished into the Clouds"
42 Niō Miya (匂宮) "Niou" "His Perfumed Highness" "The Perfumed Prince" "The Fragrant Prince"
43 Kōbai (紅梅) "Kobai" "The Rose Plum" "Red Plum Blossoms" "Red Plum"
44 Takekawa (竹河) "Bamboo River"
45 Hashihime (橋姫) "The Bridge Maiden" "The Lady at the Bridge" "The Maiden of the Bridge" "The Divine Princess at Uji Bridge"
46 Shī ga Moto (椎本) "At the Foot of the Oak-Tree" "Beneath the Oak" "At the Foot of the Oak Tree"
47 Agemaki (総角) "Agemaki" "Trefoil Knots" "A Bowknot Tied in Maiden's Loops"
48 Sawarabi (早蕨) "Fern-Shoots" "Early Ferns" "Bracken Shoots" "Early Fiddlehead Greens"
49 Yadorigi (宿木) "The Mistletoe" "The Ivy" "Trees Encoiled in Vines of Ivy"
50 Azumaya (東屋) "The Eastern House" "The Eastern Cottage" "A Hut in the Eastern Provinces"
51 Ukifune (浮舟) "Ukifune" "A Boat upon the Waters" "A Drifting Boat" "A Boat Cast Adrift"
52 Kagerō (蜻蛉) "The Gossamer-Fly" "The Drake Fly" "The Mayfly" "Ephemerids"
53 Tenarai (手習) "Writing-Practice" "The Writing Practice" "Writing Practice" "Practising Calligraphy"
54 Yume no Ukihashi (夢浮橋) "The Bridge of Dreams" "The Floating Bridge of Dreams" "A Floating Bridge in a Dream"
The additional chapter between 41 and 42 in some manuscripts is called 雲隠 (Kumogakure) which means "Vanished into the Clouds" — the chapter is a title only, and is probably intended to evoke Genji's death. Some scholars have posited the existence of a chapter between 1 and 2 which is now lost, which would have introduced some characters that (as it stands now) appear very abruptly.
The Waley translation completely omits the 38th chapter.
Later authors have composed additional chapters, most often either between 41 and 42, or after the end.
The original manuscript written by Murasaki Shikibu no longer exists. Numerous copies, totaling around 300 according to Ikeda Kikan, exist with differences between each. It is thought that Shikibu often went back and edited early manuscripts introducing discrepancies with earlier copies.
The various manuscripts are classified into three categories:
* Kawachibon (河内本) * Aobyōshibon (青表紙本) * Beppon (別本)
In the 13th century, two major attempts by Minamoto no Chikayuki and Fujiwara Teika were made to edit and revise the differing manuscripts. The Chikayuki manuscript is known as the Kawachibon; edits were many beginning in 1236 and completing in 1255. The Teika manuscript is known as the Aobyōshibon; its edits are more conservative and thought to better represent the original. These two manuscripts were used as the basis for many future copies.
The Beppon category represents all other manuscripts not belonging to either Kawachibon or Aobyōshibon. This includes older but incomplete manuscripts, mixed manuscripts derived from both Kawachibon and Aobyōshibon, and commentaries.
On March 10, 2008, it was announced that a late Kamakura period manuscript was found in Kyōto. It is the sixth chapter "Suetsumuhana" and is 65 pages in length. Most remaining manuscripts are based on copies of the Teika manuscript which introduced revisions in the original. This newly discovered manuscript belongs to a different lineage and was not influenced by Teika. Professor Yamamoto Tokurō, who examined the manuscript said, "This is a precious discovery as Kamakura manuscripts are so rare." Professor Katō Yōsuke said, "This is an important discovery as it asserts that non-Teika manuscripts were being read during the Kamakura period."
On October 29, 2008, Konan Women\'s University announced that a mid-Kamakura period manuscript was found. It is the 32nd chapter, Umegae, and is recognized as the oldest extant copy of this chapter dating between 1240–80. This beppon manuscript is 74 pages in length and differs from Aobyōshi manuscripts in at least four places, raising the "possibility that the contents may be closer to the undiscovered Murasaki Shikibu original manuscript".
Late 16th or early 17th century hanging scroll in ink and gold leaf illustrating a scene from Genji.
A twelfth-century scroll, the Genji
Monogatari Emaki , contains
illustrated scenes from the Genji together with handwritten sōgana
text. This scroll is the earliest extant example of a Japanese
"picture scroll": collected illustrations and calligraphy of a single
work. The original scroll is believed to have comprised 10-20 rolls
and covered all 54 chapters. The extant pieces include only 19
illustrations and 65 pages of text, plus nine pages of fragments. This
is estimated at roughly 15% of the envisioned original. The Tokugawa
Art Museum in
Other notable versions are by Tosa Mitsuoki , who lived from 1617 to 1691. His paintings are closely based on Heian style from the existing scrolls from the 12th century and are fully complete. The tale was also a popular theme in Ukiyo-e prints from the Edo period .
Pages from the illustrated handscroll from the 12th century
The complexities of the style mentioned in the previous section make it unreadable by the average Japanese person without dedicated study of the language of the tale. Therefore, translations into modern Japanese and other languages solve these problems by modernizing the language, unfortunately losing some of the meaning, and by giving names to the characters, usually the traditional names used by academics. This gives rise to anachronisms ; for instance Genji's first wife is named Aoi because she is known as the lady of the Aoi chapter, in which she dies.
Both scholars and writers have tried translating it. The first translation into modern Japanese was made by the poet Yosano Akiko . Other known translations were done by the novelists Jun\'ichirō Tanizaki and Fumiko Enchi .
Because of the cultural difference, reading an annotated version of
the Genji is quite common, even among Japanese. There are several
annotated versions by novelists, including
Seiko Tanabe , Jakucho
Setouchi and Osamu Hashimoto. Many works, including a manga series
and different television dramas, are derived from The Tale of Genji.
There have been at least five manga adaptations of the Genji. A manga
Waki Yamato , Asakiyumemishi (
The Tale of Genji
Most Japanese high-school students read selections of the Genji (the original, not a translation) in their Japanese classes.
The first partial translation of Genji
Monogatari into English was by
Suematsu Kenchō , published in 1882.
Major English Translations In Chronological Order
* The Suematsu Genji (1882) — Suematsu's Genji was the first
translation into English, but is considered of poor quality and is not
often read today. Significantly, only a few chapters were completed.
* The Waley Genji (1921–1933) — Waley's Genji is considered a
great achievement for his time, although some purists have criticized
Waley's changes to the original. Others have criticized as
overly-free the manner in which Waley translated the original text.
Regardless, it continues to be well-appreciated and widely read today.
When the Waley Genji was first published, it was eagerly received.
For example, Time explained that "the reviewers' floundering tributes
indicate something of its variegated appeal. In limpid prose The Tale
combines curiously modern social satire with great charm of narrative.
Translator Waley has done service to literature in salvaging to the
Occident this masterpiece of the Orient."
* The Seidensticker Genji (1976) — Seidensticker's Genji is an
attempt to correct what were perceived to have been Waley's failings
without necessarily making his translation obsolete. Seidensticker
hews more closely to the original text, but in the interests of
readability, he takes some liberties. For example, he identifies the
cast of characters by name so that the narrative can be more easily
followed by a broad-based audience of Western readers. (In 2008, a
RECEPTION AND LEGACY
The Tale of Genji
The Genji is also often referred to as "the first novel", though there is considerable debate over this — some of the debate involving whether Genji can even be considered a "novel". Some consider the psychological insight, complexity and unity of the work to qualify it for "novel" status while simultaneously disqualifying earlier works of prose fiction. Others see these arguments as subjective and unconvincing.
Related claims, perhaps in an attempt to sidestep these debates, are
that Genji is the "first psychological novel" or "historical novel ",
"the first novel still considered to be a classic" or other more
qualified terms. However, critics have almost consistently described
The Tale of Genji
The novel and other works by Lady Murasaki are staple reading material in the curricula of Japanese schools. The Bank of Japan issued the 2000 Yen banknote in her honor, featuring a scene from the novel based on the 12th century illustrated handscroll.
FILMS AND ADAPTATIONS
The Tale of Genji
An anime television series was made in 2009 by director Osamu Dezaki .
The Tale of Genji
Portuguese film director Paulo Rocha made a loose film adaptation of the Genji Monogatari adapted to the 1980s Portuguese context in 1987, O Desejado ou As Montanhas da Lua ("The Desired One or the Mountains of the Moon").
* Novels portal
* ^ Lyons, Martyn (2011). Books: A Living History. Los Angeles: J.
Paul Getty Museum. p. 30. access-date= requires url= (help )
Birmingham Museum of Art (2010).
Birmingham Museum of Art :
guide to the collection. : Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 49. ISBN
* ^ A B ""The Tale of Genji" - Playboy of the eastern world". The
Economist . Retrieved January 9, 2014.
* ^ Yosano, Akiko
* ^ The Diary of Lady Murasaki, ed.
Richard Bowring , Penguin
Classics 2005, p.31, note 41. In his introduction to the text, Bowring
discusses its dating which, in any case, is generally accepted by most
authorities. Royall Tyler, in his edition of the Tale of Genji cited
below, also draws attention to the entry in
Murasaki Shikibu's diary:
see the Penguin Books edition, 2003, Introduction, p.xvii
* ^ A B C D Shikibu, Murasaki; Tyler, Royall (2002). The Tale of
* ^ Seidensticker (1976: xi)
* ^ Martin, Gary. "When in Rome, do as the Romans do". The Phrase
Finder. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
* ^ Yamagishi (1958: 14)
* ^ Yamagishi (1958: 14–6)
* ^ Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten (1986: 621–2)
* ^ "鎌倉後期の源氏物語写本見つかる" (in Janapese).
Sankei News. 2008-03-10. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14.
Retrieved 2008-03-11. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link )
(in Janapese). Yomiuri. 2008-03-10. Archived from the original on
2008-03-14. Retrieved 2008-03-11. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language
* ^ A B
(in Janapese). Yomiuri. 2008-10-29. Archived from the original on
2008-11-01. Retrieved 2008-10-29. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language
(in Janapese). Sankei News. 2008-10-29. Archived from the original on
August 2, 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-29. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language
(in Janapese). Mainichi. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2008-10-29. CS1 maint:
Unrecognized language (link )
* ^ Walker, James. Big in Japan: "Jakucho Setouchi: Nun re-writes
The Tale of Genji", Archived April 26, 2009, at the
* Bargen, Doris G (June 1988). "Spirit Possession in the Context of
Dramatic Expressions of Gender Conflict: The Aoi Episode of the Genji
monogatari". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 48 (1): 95–130.
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