HOME
The Info List - The Sixties


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The 1960S (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade that began on 1 January 1960, and ended on 31 December 1969. The term "1960s" also refers to an era more often called the SIXTIES, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends around the globe. This "cultural decade" is more loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around 1963
1963
with the Kennedy assassination and ending around 1974
1974
with the Watergate scandal
Watergate scandal
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 Politics and wars

* 2.1 Wars * 2.2 Internal conflicts * 2.3 Coups * 2.4 Nuclear threats * 2.5 Decolonization and independence

* 2.6 Prominent political events

* 2.6.1 North America

* 2.6.1.1 United States
United States
* 2.6.1.2 Canada
Canada
* 2.6.1.3 Mexico
Mexico

* 2.6.2 Europe

* 2.6.3 Asia

* 2.6.3.1 China
China
* 2.6.3.2 India
India

* 2.6.4 Africa * 2.6.5 South America

* 2.7 Gallery of notable world leaders

* 3 U.S. economics * 4 Assassinations * 5 Disasters

* 6 Social and political movements

* 6.1 Counterculture/social revolution * 6.2 Anti-war movement
Anti-war movement
* 6.3 Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
* 6.4 Hispanic and Chicano movement * 6.5 Second-wave feminism
Second-wave feminism
* 6.6 Gay rights movement * 6.7 New Left
New Left
* 6.8 Crime

* 7 Science and technology

* 7.1 Science

* 7.1.1 Space exploration * 7.1.2 Other scientific developments

* 7.2 Technology

* 7.2.1 Automobiles * 7.2.2 Electronics and communications

* 8 Popular culture

* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Film
Film
* 8.3 Television * 8.4 Fashion * 8.5 Literature * 8.6 U.S. publication of previously banned works

* 8.7 Sports

* 8.7.1 Olympics * 8.7.2 Association football * 8.7.3 Baseball * 8.7.4 Basketball * 8.7.5 Disc sports (Frisbee) * 8.7.6 Racing

* 9 Additional notable world-wide events

* 10 See also

* 10.1 Timelines

* 11 References

* 12 Further reading

* 12.1 Historiography

* 13 External links

OVERVIEW

"The Sixties", as they are known in both scholarship and popular culture, is a term used by historians, journalists, and other objective academics; in some cases nostalgically to describe the counterculture and revolution in social norms about clothing, music, drugs, dress, sexuality, formalities, and schooling; and in others pejoratively to denounce the decade as one of irresponsible excess, flamboyance, and decay of social order. The decade was also labeled the Swinging Sixties because of the fall or relaxation of social taboos especially relating to racism and sexism that occurred during this time. Commentator Christopher Booker described this era as a classical Jungian nightmare cycle, where a rigid culture, unable to contain the demands for greater individual freedom , broke free of the social constraints of the previous age through extreme deviation from the norm. He charts the rise, success, fall/nightmare and explosion in the London scene of the 1960s. Several Western nations such as the United States, United Kingdom, France, and West Germany
West Germany
turned to the political left in the early and mid-1960s.

By the end of the 1950s, war-ravaged Europe had largely finished reconstruction and began a tremendous economic boom. World War II had brought about a huge leveling of social classes in which the remnants of the old feudal gentry disappeared. There was a major expansion of the middle class in western European countries and by the 1960s, many working-class people in Western Europe could afford a radio, television, refrigerator, and motor vehicle. Meanwhile, the East such as the Soviet union and other Warsaw Pact countries were improving quickly after rebuilding from WWII. The United States, after sluggish economic growth during the 1950s, also experienced a major '60s boom. Real GDP growth averaged 6% a year during the second half of the decade. Thus, the overall worldwide economic trend in the 1960s
1960s
was one of prosperity, expansion of the middle class, and the proliferation of new domestic technology.

The confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
dominated geopolitics during the '60s, with the struggle expanding into developing nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia as the Soviet Union moved from being a regional to a truly global superpower and began vying for influence in the developing world. After President Kennedy's assassination, direct tensions between the US and Soviet Union cooled and the superpower confrontation moved into a contest for control of the Third World, a battle characterized by proxy wars, funding of insurgencies, and puppet governments.

In response to civil disobedience campaigns from groups like the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), U.S. President John F. Kennedy , a Keynesian and staunch anti-communist , pushed for social reforms. Kennedy's assassination in 1963
1963
was a shock. Liberal reforms were finally passed under Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
including civil rights for African Americans and healthcare for the elderly and the poor . Despite his large-scale Great Society programs, Johnson was increasingly reviled by the New Left
New Left
at home and abroad. The heavy-handed American role in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
outraged student protestors around the globe. The assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. upon working with underpaid Tennessee garbage collectors and the anti- Vietnam War
Vietnam War
movement , and the police response towards protesters of the 1968
1968
Democratic National Convention , defined politics of violence in the United States.

In Western Europe and Japan, organizations such as those present at May 1968
1968
, the Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction
, and the Zengakuren
Zengakuren
tested liberal democracy\'s ability to satisfy its marginalized or alienated citizenry amidst post-industrial age hybrid capitalist economies . In Britain, the Labour Party gained power in 1964. In France, the protests of 1968
1968
led to President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
temporarily fleeing the country. For some, May 1968
1968
meant the end of traditional collective action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated mainly by the so-called new social movements . Italy
Italy
formed its first left-of-center government in March 1962
1962
with a coalition of Christian Democrats , Social Democrats , and moderate Republicans . Socialists joined the ruling block in December 1963. In Brazil, João Goulart became president after Jânio Quadros resigned. In Africa the 1960s was a period of radical political change as 32 countries gained independence from their European colonial rulers .

POLITICS AND WARS

WARS

Vietnam War
Vietnam War
(1955–1975) The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence , after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961
1961

* The Cold War
Cold War
:

* The Vietnam War
Vietnam War
(1955–1975)

* 1961
1961
– Substantial (approximately 700) American advisory forces first arrive in Vietnam
Vietnam
. * 1962
1962
– By mid-1962, the number of U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam
Vietnam
had risen from 900 to 12,000. * 1963
1963
– By the time of U.S. President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
's death there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from Eisenhower's 900 advisors to cope with rising guerrilla activity in Vietnam. * 1964
1964
– In direct response to the minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident which occurred on 2 August 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress , was passed on 10 August 1964. The resolution gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. The Johnson administration subsequently cited the resolution as legal authority for its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. * 1966
1966
– After 1966
1966
with the draft in place more than 500,000 troops were sent to Vietnam
Vietnam
by the Johnson administration and college attendance soars.

* The Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) – an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba
Cuba
with support from U.S. government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. * Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War
(1961–1974) – the war was fought between Portugal\'s military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal\'s African colonies . It was a decisive ideological struggle and armed conflict of the cold war in African (Portuguese Africa and surrounding nations) and European (mainland Portugal) scenarios. Unlike other European nations, the Portuguese regime did not leave its African colonies, or the overseas provinces, during the 1950s
1950s
and 1960s. During the 1960s, various armed independence movements, most prominently led by communist -led parties who cooperated under the CONCP umbrella and pro-U.S. groups, became active in these areas, most notably in Angola , Mozambique , and Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
. During the war, several atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the conflict.

* The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
1965
began in September.

* Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
(early-20th century-present)

* Six Days War (June 1967) – a war between Israel
Israel
and the neighboring states of Egypt
Egypt
, Jordan
Jordan
, and Syria
Syria
. The Arab states of Iraq
Iraq
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Sudan
Sudan
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria
Algeria
also contributed troops and arms. At the war's end, Israel
Israel
had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
, the West Bank
West Bank
, East Jerusalem , and the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.

A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition during the Nigerian blockade of Biafra
Biafra
1967–1970.

* The Algerian War
Algerian War
came to a close in 1962. * The Nigeria Civil War began in 1967. * Civil wars in Laos and Sudan
Sudan
rage on throughout the decade. * The Al-Wadiah War was a military conflict which broke out on 27 November 1969
1969
between Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the People\'s Republic of South Yemen .

INTERNAL CONFLICTS

* Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in China
China
(1966–1976) – a period of widespread social and political upheaval in the People's Republic of China
China
which was launched by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
, the chairman of the Communist Party of China
China
. Mao alleged that "liberal bourgeois" elements were permeating the party and society at large and that they wanted to restore capitalism . Mao insisted that these elements be removed through post-revolutionary class struggle by mobilizing the thoughts and actions of China's youth, who formed Red Guards groups around the country. The movement subsequently spread into the military, urban workers, and the party leadership itself. Although Mao himself officially declared the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
to have ended in 1969, the power struggles and political instability between 1969
1969
and the arrest of the Gang of Four
Gang of Four
in 1976 are now also widely regarded as part of the Revolution. * The Troubles
The Troubles
in Northern Ireland began with the rise of the Northern Ireland civil rights movement
Northern Ireland civil rights movement
in the mid-1960s, the conflict continued into the later 1990s. * The Compton\'s Cafeteria Riot occurred in August 1966
1966
in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. This incident was one of the first recorded transgender riots in United States
United States
history, preceding the more famous 1969
1969
Stonewall Riots in New York City by three years. * The Stonewall riots occurred in June 1969
1969
in New York City. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the Stonewall Inn , in the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
neighborhood of New York City. They are frequently cited as the first instance in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted sexual minorities, and they have become the defining event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United States and around the world. * The May 1968
1968
student and worker uprisings in France
France
. * Mass socialist or Communist
Communist
movement in most European countries (particularly France
France
and Italy), with which the student-based new left was able to forge a connection. The most spectacular manifestation of this was the May student revolt of 1968
1968
in Paris that linked up with a general strike of ten million workers called by the trade unions; and for a few days seemed capable of overthrowing the government of Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
. De Gaulle went off to visit French troops in Germany to check on their loyalty. Major concessions were won for trade union rights, higher minimum wages and better working conditions. * University students protested in the hundreds of thousands against the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
in London, Paris, Berlin and Rome. * In Eastern Europe students also drew inspiration from the protests in the West. In Poland and Yugoslavia they protested against restrictions on free speech by communist regimes. * The Tlatelolco massacre
Tlatelolco massacre
– was a government massacre of student and civilian protesters and bystanders that took place during the afternoon and night of 2 October 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico
Mexico
City.

COUPS

Main article: List of coups d\'état and coup attempts § 1960–1969

Prominent coups d\'état of the decade included:

* On 16 May 1961, a coup in South Korea
South Korea
led by army officer Park Chung-hee made the establishment of temporary military rule. * In 1963, a coup in South Viet Nam leads to the death of President Ngô Đình Diệm
Ngô Đình Diệm
and the establishment of temporary military rule. * On 21 April 1967, in Greece a group of colonels established a military dictatorship for seven years. * In 1968, a coup in Iraq
Iraq
led to the overthrow of Abdul Rahman Arif by the Arab Socialist Baath Party
Baath Party
. * On 1 September 1969, a small group of military officers led by the army officer Muammar Gaddafi overthrows monarchy in Libya
Libya
.

NUCLEAR THREATS

Pictures of Soviet missile silos in Cuba
Cuba
, taken by United States spy planes on 1 November 1962.

* The Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
(16–28 October 1962) – a near-military confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union about the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba
Cuba
. After an American Naval (quarantine) blockade of Cuba
Cuba
the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
agreed to remove their missiles from Cuba
Cuba
in exchange for the U.S. removing its missiles from Turkey. * On 13 February 1960, France
France
detonated its first atomic bomb . France
France
possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1968. * On 16 October 1964, China
China
detonated its first atomic bomb . China possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1967.

DECOLONIZATION AND INDEPENDENCE

* The transformation of Africa from colonialism to independence in what is known as the decolonisation of Africa dramatically accelerated during the decade, with 32 countries gaining independence between 1960 and 1968, marking the end of the European empires that once dominated the African continent. However, the noble aspirations of these new nations quickly faded, and many states descended into anarchy , kleptocracy , dictatorships , and/or civil war . The road to prosperity has been difficult: As of 2011 , by many measures Africa continues to possess the poorest population in the world as well as the lowest life expectancy .

PROMINENT POLITICAL EVENTS

Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
's " I Have a Dream " speech in Washington, D.C., 28 August 1963
1963

North America

United States

* 1960
1960
United States
United States
presidential election, 1960
1960
– The very close campaign was the series of four Kennedy–Nixon debates; they were the first presidential debates held on television. Kennedy won a close election. * 1961
1961
– President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
promised some more aggressive confrontation with the Soviet Union; he also established the Peace Corps . * 1963
1963
Civil rights
Civil rights
becomes a central issue, as the Birmingham campaign and Birmingham riot lead to President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address , Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
's " I Have a Dream " speech at the March on Washington , and the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
* 1963
1963
– Kennedy was assassinated and replaced by Vice President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
. The nation was in shock. For the next half-century, conspiracy theorists concocted numerous alternative explanations to the official report that a lone gunman killed Kennedy. * 1964
1964
– Johnson pressed for civil rights legislation. Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964
signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This landmark piece of legislation in the United States
United States
outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. The first black riots erupt in major cities. * 1964
1964
– Johnson was reelected over Conservative spokesman Senator Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
by wide landslide; Liberals gained full control of Congress. * 1964
1964
Wilderness Act signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on 3 September. * 1965
1965
– After the events of the Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches
the National Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965
was lobbied for, and then signed into law, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Voting Rights Act outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had caused the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. * 1968
1968
– U.S. President Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
was elected defeating Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey
Hubert H. Humphrey
in November. * 1969
1969
– U.S. President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
was inaugurated in January 1969; promised "peace with honor" to end the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
.

Canada

* The Quiet Revolution in Quebec
Quebec
altered the province-city-state into a more secular society . The Jean Lesage Liberal government created a welfare state État-Providence and fomented the rise of active nationalism among Francophone French-speaking QuebecerQuébécois. * On 15 February 1965, the new Flag of Canada
Canada
was adopted in Canada, after much anticipated debate known as the Great Canadian Flag Debate. * In 1960, the Canadian Bill of Rights
Canadian Bill of Rights
becomes law, and suffrage, and the right for any Canadian citizen to vote, was finally adopted by John Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservative government. The new election act allowed First Nations people to vote for the first time.

Mexico

* The peak of the student and New Left
New Left
protests in 1968
1968
coincided with political upheavals in a number of other countries. Although these events often sprung from completely different causes, they were influenced by reports and images of what was happening in the United States and France.

By the late 1960s, Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara
Che Guevara
's famous image had become a popular symbol of rebellion for the New Left
New Left

Europe

East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961.

* British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
delivered his Wind of Change (speech) in 1960. * Construction of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
1961
1961
to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West. * Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
calls the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
of the Catholic Church, continued by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
, which met from 11 October 1962, until 8 December 1965. * In October 1964, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
was expelled from office due to his increasingly erratic and authoritarian behavior. Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
then became the new leaders of the Soviet Union. * In Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, 1968
1968
was the year of Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
's Prague Spring , a source of inspiration to many Western leftists who admired Dubček's "socialism with a human face". The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in August ended these hopes and also fatally damaged the chances of the orthodox communist parties drawing many recruits from the student protest movement.

Asia

China

* Relations with the United States
United States
remained hostile during the 1960s, although representatives from both countries held periodic meetings in Warsaw, Poland (since there was no U.S. embassy in China). President Kennedy had plans to restore Sino-US relations, but his assassination, the war in Vietnam, and the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
put an end to that. Not until Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
took office in 1969
1969
was there another opportunity. * Following Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's expulsion in 1964, Sino-Soviet relations devolved into open hostility. The Chinese were deeply disturbed by the Soviet suppression of the Prague Spring in 1968, as the latter now claimed the right to intervene in any country it saw as deviating from the correct path of socialism. Finally, in March 1969, armed clashes took place along the Sino-Soviet border in Manchuria. This drove the Chinese to restore relations with the U.S., as Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
decided that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was a much greater threat.

India

* In India
India
a literary and cultural movement started in Calcutta, Patna, and other cities by a group of writers and painters who called themselves "Hungryalists", or members of the Hungry generation
Hungry generation
. The band of writers wanted to change virtually everything and were arrested with several cases filed against them on various charges. They ultimately won these cases.

Africa

* On 1 September 1969, the Libyan monarchy was overthrown, and a radical, revolutionary, government headed by Col. Muammar al-Gadaffi took power.

South America

* In 1964, a successful coup against the democratically elected government of Brazilian president João Goulart, initiated a military dictatorship that caused over 20 years of oppression. * The Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara travelled to Africa and then Bolivia
Bolivia
in his campaigning to spread worldwide revolution. He was captured and executed in 1967
1967
by the Bolivian army, and afterwards became an iconic figure for the left wing around the world. * Juan Velasco Alvarado took power by a coup in Peru in 1968.

GALLERY OF NOTABLE WORLD LEADERS

Note: Names of country leaders shown below in BOLD face remained in power continuously throughout the entirety of the decade.

*

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
*

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
*

Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
*

MAO ZEDONG *

Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
*

CHARLES DE GAULLE *

Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
*

Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
*

David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
*

Robert Menzies
Robert Menzies
*

Harold Holt
Harold Holt
*

Lester B. Pearson *

Eduardo Frei Montalva
Eduardo Frei Montalva
*

FIDEL CASTRO *

GAMAL ABDEL NASSER *

Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
*

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
*

Sukarno
Sukarno
*

Suharto
Suharto
*

Shah MOHAMMAD REZA PAHLAVI *

Levi Eshkol *

Amintore Fanfani
Amintore Fanfani
*

Eisaku Satō *

Hayato Ikeda *

Jan de Quay
Jan de Quay
*

Piet de Jong *

Leonid Brezhnev *

FRANCISCO FRANCO *

Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
*

JOSIP BROZ TITO

U.S. ECONOMICS

The decade began with a recession from 1960–61, at that time unemployment was considered high at around 7%. In his campaign, John F. Kennedy promised to "get America moving again." His goal was economic growth of 4-6% per year and unemployment below 4%, to do this he instituted a 7% tax credit for businesses that invest in new plants and equipment. By the end of the decade, median family income had risen from $8,540 in 1963
1963
to $10,770 by 1969.

Although the first half of the decade had low inflation, by 1966 Kennedy's tax credit had reduced unemployment to 3.7% and inflation remained below 2%. With the economy booming Johnson began his "Great Society" which vastly expanded social programs. By the end of the decade under Nixon, the combined inflation and unemployment rate known as the misery index (economics) had exploded to nearly 10% with inflation at 6.2% and unemployment at 3.5% and by 1975 the misery index was almost 20%.

ASSASSINATIONS

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
assassination – President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas
Texas
Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine, minutes before his assassination.

The 1960s
1960s
were marked by several notable assassinations:

* 12 October 1960
1960
Inejiro Asanuma , leader of the Japan Socialist Party * 17 January 1961
1961
Patrice Lumumba
Patrice Lumumba
, the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Maurice Mpolo , Minister of Youth and Sports; Joseph Okito , Vice-President of the Senate. Assassinated by a Belgian and Congolese firing squad outside Lubumbashi
Lubumbashi
. * 20 February 1961
1961
Alphonse Songolo , former Minister of Communications of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Gilbert Pongo , intelligence officer and communications official. Shot in Kisangani . * 30 May 1961
1961
Rafael Trujillo
Rafael Trujillo
Dictator of Dominican Republic for 31 years, by a number of plotters including a general in his army. * 13 January 1963
1963
Sylvanus Olympio
Sylvanus Olympio
, the Prime Minister of Togo , is killed during the 1963
1963
Togolese coup d\'état . His body is dumped in front of the U.S. embassy in Lomé
Lomé
. * 27 May 1963
1963
Grigoris Lambrakis , Greek left-wing MP by far-right extremists with connections to the police and the army in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. * 12 June 1963
1963
Medgar Evers
Medgar Evers
, an NAACP
NAACP
field secretary. Assassinated by Byron de la Beckwith , a member of the Ku Klux Klan in Jackson, Mississippi
Jackson, Mississippi
. * 2 November 1963
1963
Ngô Đình Diệm
Ngô Đình Diệm
, President of South Vietnam
Vietnam
, along with his brother and chief political adviser, Ngô Đình Nhu . Assassinated by Dương Hiếu Nghĩa and Nguyễn Văn Nhung in the back of an armoured personnel carrier . * 22 November 1963
1963
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
, President of the United States. Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
while riding in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas
Dallas, Texas
. * 19 July 1964
1964
Jason Sendwe , President of North Katanga Province , Democratic Republic of the Congo. Executed by Simba rebels in Albertville
Albertville
. * 13 February 1965
1965
Humberto Delgado . Assassinated by Portuguese dictator Salazar's political police PIDE in Spain, near the Portuguese border. * 21 February 1965
1965
Malcolm X
Malcolm X
. Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
in New York City. There is a dispute about which members killed Malcolm X. * 6 September 1966
1966
Hendrik Verwoerd
Hendrik Verwoerd
, Prime Minister of South Africa and architect of apartheid was stabbed to death by Dimitri Tsafendas , a parliamentary messenger. He survived a previous attempt on his life in 1960. * 25 August 1967
1967
George Lincoln Rockwell , leader of the American Nazi Party . Assassinated by John Patler in Arlington, Virginia . * 9 October 1967
1967
Che Guevara
Che Guevara
, assassinated by the CIA and Bolivian army. * 4 April 1968
1968
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
, civil rights leader. Assassinated by James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
in Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee
. * 5 June 1968
1968
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
, United States
United States
Senator . Assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan
Sirhan Sirhan
in Los Angeles, after taking California in the presidential national primaries.

DISASTERS

NATURAL:

* The 1960
1960
Valdivia earthquake , also known as the Great Chilean earthquake, is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It caused localized tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 meters (82 ft). The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii . * 1963
1963
Skopje earthquake was a 6.1 moment magnitude earthquake which occurred in Skopje, SR Macedonia (present-day Republic of Macedonia) on 26 July 1963
1963
which killed over 1,070 people, injured between 3,000 and 4,000 and left more than 200,000 people homeless. About 80% of the city was destroyed. * 1963
1963
– Vajont dam disaster – The Vajont dam flood in Italy
Italy
was caused by a mountain sliding in the dam, and causing a flood wave that killed approximately 2,000 people in the towns in its path. * 1964
1964
– The Good Friday earthquake , the most powerful earthquake recorded in the U.S. and North America, struck Alaska
Alaska
and killed 143 people. * 1965
1965
Hurricane Betsy
Hurricane Betsy
caused severe damage to the U.S. Gulf Coast, especially in the state of Louisiana
Louisiana
. * 1969
1969
– The Cuyahoga River caught fire in Ohio. Fires had erupted on the river many times, including 22 June 1969, when a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays." This helped spur legislative action on water pollution control resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency. * 1969
1969
Hurricane Camille hit the U.S. Gulf Coast at Category 5 Status. To date it is the strongest hurricane ever recorded at landfall in means of sustained windspeed in the Atlantic Basin, reaching sustained winds of 190 mph and a low pressure of 905 mbs. It is one of only three hurricanes in the Atlantic to ever make landfall at Category 5 Status and one of only four hurricanes worldwide to reach a maximum sustained windspeed of 190 mph.

NON-NATURAL:

* On 16 December 1960, a United Airlines
United Airlines
DC-8 and a Trans World Airlines Lockheed Constellation collided over New York City and crashed, killing 134 people. * On 16 March 1962, Flying Tiger Line Flight 739 , a Lockheed Super Constellation, inexplicably disappeared over the Western Pacific, leaving all 107 on board presumed dead. Since the wreckage of the aircraft is lost to this day, the cause of the crash remains a mystery to this day. * On 3 June 1962, Air France
France
Flight 007 , a Boeing 707, crashed on takeoff from Paris. 130 people were killed in the crash while 2 survived. * On 20 May 1965, PIA Flight 705 crashed on approach to Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
. 121 died while 6 survived. * On 4 February 1966, All Nippon Airways Flight 60 , a Boeing 727, plunged into Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
for reasons unknown. All 133 people on board perished. * On 5 March 1966, BOAC Flight 911 broke up in mid-air and crashed on the slopes of Mount Fuji
Mount Fuji
. All 124 aboard died. * On 8 December 1966, the car ferry SS Heraklion sank in the Aegean Sea during a storm, killing 217 people. * On 16 March 1969, a DC-9 operating Viasa Flight 742 crashed in the Venezuelan city of Maracaibo . A total of 155 people died in the crash.

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL MOVEMENTS

COUNTERCULTURE/SOCIAL REVOLUTION

See also: Counterculture of the 1960s
Counterculture of the 1960s
and Timeline of 1960s counterculture Flower Power Bus

In the second half of the decade, young people began to revolt against the conservative norms of the time, as well as remove themselves from mainstream liberalism, in particular the high level of materialism which was so common during the era. This created a "counterculture" that sparked a social revolution throughout much of the Western world. It began in the United States
United States
as a reaction against the conservatism and social conformity of the 1950s, and the U.S. government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. The youth involved in the popular social aspects of the movement became known as hippies . These groups created a movement toward liberation in society, including the sexual revolution , questioning authority and government, and demanding more freedoms and rights for women and minorities. The Underground Press
Underground Press
, a widespread, eclectic collection of newspapers served as a unifying medium for the counterculture. The movement was also marked by the first widespread, socially accepted drug use (including LSD
LSD
and marijuana ) and psychedelic music.

ANTI-WAR MOVEMENT

Main article: Opposition to United States
United States
involvement in the Vietnam War A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at the Pentagon during an anti- Vietnam War
Vietnam War
protest. Arlington, Virginia, U.S., 1967
1967

The war in Vietnam
Vietnam
would eventually lead to a commitment of over half a million American troops, resulting in over 58,500 American deaths and producing a large-scale antiwar movement in the United States. As late as the end of 1965, few Americans protested the American involvement in Vietnam, but as the war dragged on and the body count continued to climb, civil unrest escalated. Students became a powerful and disruptive force and university campuses sparked a national debate over the war. As the movement's ideals spread beyond college campuses, doubts about the war also began to appear within the administration itself. A mass movement began rising in opposition to the Vietnam
Vietnam
War , ending in the massive Moratorium protests in 1969, as well as the movement of resistance to conscription ("the Draft") for the war.

The antiwar movement was initially based on the older 1950s
1950s
Peace movement , heavily influenced by the American Communist
Communist
Party , but by the mid- 1960s
1960s
it outgrew this and became a broad-based mass movement centered in universities and churches: one kind of protest was called a "sit-in ". Other terms heard in the United States
United States
included "the Draft ", "draft dodger ", "conscientious objector ", and " Vietnam
Vietnam
vet ". Voter age-limits were challenged by the phrase: "If you're old enough to die for your country, you're old enough to vote."

CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

Main article: Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Leaders of the Civil Rights Movement in front of the statue of Abraham Lincoln, 28 August 1963
1963

Beginning in the mid- 1950s
1950s
and continuing into the late 1960s, African-Americans in the United States
United States
aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968, particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power movement , which lasted roughly from 1966
1966
to 1975, enlarged the aims of the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency , and anti-imperialism .

The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance . Between 1955 and 1968, acts of civil disobedience and nonviolent protest produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott
Boycott
(1955–1956) in Alabama; "sit-ins " such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins
Greensboro sit-ins
(1960) in North Carolina; marches , such as the Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches
(1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.

Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964
, that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965
, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965
1965
, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968
1968
, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.

HISPANIC AND CHICANO MOVEMENT

Another large ethnic minority group, the Mexican-Americans
Mexican-Americans
, are among other Hispanics in the U.S. who fought to end racial discrimination and socioeconomic disparity. The largest Mexican-American populations was in the Southwestern United States
United States
, such as California
California
with over 1 million Chicanos
Chicanos
in Los Angeles alone, and Texas
Texas
where Jim Crow laws included Mexican-Americans
Mexican-Americans
as "non-white" in some instances to be legally segregated.

Socially, the Chicano Movement
Chicano Movement
addressed what it perceived to be negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American consciousness. It did so through the creation of works of literary and visual art that validated Mexican-American ethnicity and culture. Chicanos
Chicanos
fought to end social stigmas such as the usage of the Spanish language and advocated official bilingualism in federal and state governments.

The Chicano Movement
Chicano Movement
also addressed discrimination in public and private institutions. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American Citizens , was formed in 1929 and remains active today.

The movement gained momentum after World War II when groups such as the American G.I. Forum , which was formed by returning Mexican American veterans, joined in the efforts by other civil rights organizations.

Mexican-American civil-rights activists achieved several major legal victories including the 1947 Mendez v. Westminster
Mendez v. Westminster
U.S. Supreme Court ruling which declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin descent" was unconstitutional and the 1954 Hernandez v. Texas
Texas
ruling which declared that Mexican Americans and other racial groups in the United States
United States
were entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution .

The most prominent civil-rights organization in the Mexican-American community, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), was founded in 1968. Although modeled after the NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund , MALDEF has also taken on many of the functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and training of local leaders.

Meanwhile, Puerto Ricans in the U.S. mainland fought against racism, police brutality and socioeconomic problems affecting the three million Puerto Ricans residing in 50 states, the main concentration was in New York City.

In the 1960s
1960s
and the following 1970s, Hispanic-American culture was on the rebound like ethnic music, foods, culture and identity both became popular and assimilated into the American mainstream. Spanish-language television networks, radio stations and newspapers increased in presence across the country, especially in U.S.–Mexican border towns and East Coast cities like New York City, and the growth of the Cuban American
Cuban American
community in Miami, Florida
Miami, Florida
.

The multitude of discrimination at this time represented an inhuman side to a society that in the 1960s
1960s
was upheld as a world and industry leader. The issues of civil rights and warfare became major points of reflection of virtue and democracy, what once was viewed as traditional and inconsequential was now becoming the significance in the turning point of a culture. A document known as the Port Huron Statement exemplifies these two conditions perfectly in its first hand depiction, "while these and other problems either directly oppressed us or rankled our consciences and became our own subjective concerns, we began to see complicated and disturbing paradoxes in our surrounding America. The declaration "all men are created equal..." rang hollow before the facts of Negro life in the South and the big cities of the North. The proclaimed peaceful intentions of the United States contradicted its economic and military investments in the Cold War status quo." These intolerable issues became too visible to ignore therefore its repercussions were feared greatly, the realization that we as individuals take the responsibility for encounter and resolution in our lives issues was an emerging idealism of the 1960s.

SECOND-WAVE FEMINISM

Main article: Second-wave feminism
Second-wave feminism

A second wave of feminism in the United States
United States
and around the world gained momentum in the early 1960s. While the first wave of the early 20th century
20th century
was centered on gaining suffrage and overturning de jure inequalities, the second wave was focused on changing cultural and social norms and de facto inequalities associated with women. At the time, a woman's place was generally seen as being in the home, and they were excluded from many jobs and professions. Commercials often portrayed a woman as being helpless if her car broke down. In the U.S., a Presidential Commission on the Status of Women found discrimination against women in the workplace and every other aspect of life, a revelation which launched two decades of prominent women-centered legal reforms (i.e., the Equal Pay Act of 1963
1963
, Title IX , etc.) which broke down the last remaining legal barriers to women's personal freedom and professional success. Feminists took to the streets, marching and protesting, writing books and debating to change social and political views that limited women. In 1963, with Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
's revolutionary book, The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique
, the role of women in society, and in public and private life was questioned. By 1966, the movement was beginning to grow in size and power as women's group spread across the country and Friedan, along with other feminists, founded the National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women
. In 1968, "Women\'s Liberation " became a household term as, for the first time, the new women's movement eclipsed the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
when New York Radical Women , led by Robin Morgan , protested the annual Miss America pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City, New Jersey
. The movement continued throughout the next decades. Gloria Steinem was a key feminist.

GAY RIGHTS MOVEMENT

Main articles: Gay Liberation
Gay Liberation
and LGBT social movements
LGBT social movements

The United States, in the middle of a social revolution, led the world in LGBT rights in the late 1960s
1960s
and early 1970s. Inspired by the civil-rights movement and the women's movement, early gay-rights pioneers had begun, by the 1960s, to build a movement. These groups were rather conservative in their practices, emphasizing that gay men and women are no different from those who are straight and deserve full equality. This philosophy would be dominant again after AIDS
AIDS
, but by the very end of the 1960s, the movement's goals would change and become more radical, demanding a right to be different, and encouraging gay pride .

The symbolic birth of the gay rights movement would not come until the decade had almost come to a close. Gays were not allowed by law to congregate. Gay establishments such as the Stonewall Inn in New York City were routinely raided by the police to arrest gay people. On a night in late June 1969, LGBT people resisted, for the first time, a police raid, and rebelled openly in the streets. This uprising called the Stonewall Riots began a new period of the LGBT rights movement that in the next decade would cause dramatic change both inside the LGBT community and in the mainstream American culture.

NEW LEFT

The rapid rise of a " New Left
New Left
" applied the class perspective of Marxism
Marxism
to postwar America, but had little organizational connection with older Marxist organizations such as the Communist
Communist
Party , and even went as far as to reject organized labor as the basis of a unified left-wing movement. Sympathetic to the ideology of C. Wright Mills , the New Left
New Left
differed from the traditional left in its resistance to dogma and its emphasis on personal as well as societal change. Students for a Democratic Society
Society
(SDS) became the organizational focus of the New Left
New Left
and was the prime mover behind the opposition to the War in Vietnam. The 1960s
1960s
left also consisted of ephemeral campus-based Trotskyist , Maoist and anarchist groups, some of which by the end of the 1960s
1960s
had turned to militancy .

CRIME

The 1960s
1960s
was also associated with a large increase in crime and urban unrest of all types. Between 1960
1960
and 1969
1969
reported incidences of violent crime per 100,000 people in the United States
United States
nearly doubled and have yet to return to the levels of the early 1960s. Large riots broke out in many cities like Chicago
Chicago
, Detroit
Detroit
, Los Angeles, New York City, Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
, Oakland, California
California
and Washington, D.C. By the end of the decade, politicians like George Wallace and Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
campaigned on restoring law and order to a nation troubled with the new unrest.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE

Space Exploration

The Apollo 11
Apollo 11
mission landed the first humans on the Moon in July 1969.

The Space Race
Space Race
between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union dominated the 1960s. The Soviets sent the first man, Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
, into outer space during the Vostok 1
Vostok 1
mission on 12 April 1961
1961
and scored a host of other successes, but by the middle of the decade the U.S. was taking the lead. In May 1961, President Kennedy set for the U.S. the goal of a manned spacecraft landing on the Moon by the end of the decade.

In June 1963, Valentina Tereshkova
Valentina Tereshkova
became the first woman in space. In 1965, Soviets launched the first probe to hit another planet of the Solar system
Solar system
( Venus
Venus
), Venera 3
Venera 3
, and the first probe to make a soft landing on and transmit from the surface of the moon, Luna 9
Luna 9
. In March 1966, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched Luna 10 , which became the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.

The deaths of astronauts Gus Grissom
Gus Grissom
, Edward Higgins White
Edward Higgins White
, and Roger B. Chaffee in the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
fire on 27 January 1967, put a temporary hold on the U.S. space program, but afterward progress was steady, with the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
crew ( Frank Borman
Frank Borman
, Jim Lovell , William Anders ) being the first manned mission to orbit another celestial body (the moon) during Christmas of 1968.

On 20 July 1969, Apollo 11
Apollo 11
, the first human spaceflight landed on the Moon . Launched on 16 July 1969, it carried mission Commander Neil Armstrong , Command Module Pilot Michael Collins , and the Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
. Apollo 11
Apollo 11
fulfilled President John F. Kennedy's goal of reaching the moon by the end of the 1960s, which he had expressed during a speech given before a joint session of Congress on 25 May 1961: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."

The Soviet program lost its sense of direction with the death of chief designer Sergey Korolyov in 1966. Political pressure, conflicts between different design bureaus, and engineering problems caused by an inadequate budget would doom the Soviet attempt to land men on the moon.

A succession of unmanned American and Soviet probes traveled to the Moon, Venus
Venus
, and Mars
Mars
during the 1960s, and commercial satellites also came into use.

Other Scientific Developments

The birth control pill was introduced in 1960.

* 1960
1960
– The female birth-control contraceptive, the pill , was released in the United States
United States
after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. * 1965
1965
AstroTurf
AstroTurf
introduced. * 1967
1967
– First heart transplantation operation by Professor Christiaan Barnard
Christiaan Barnard
in South Africa.

TECHNOLOGY

Automobiles

As the 1960s
1960s
began, American cars showed a rapid rejection of 1950s styling excess, and would remain relatively clean and boxy for the entire decade. The horsepower race reached its climax in the late 1960s, with muscle cars sold by most makes. The compact Ford Mustang , launched in 1964, was one of the decade's greatest successes. The "Big Three " American automakers enjoyed their highest ever sales and profitability in the 1960s, but the demise of Studebaker
Studebaker
in 1966
1966
left American Motors Corporation
American Motors Corporation
as the last significant independent. The decade would see the car market split into different size classes for the first time, and model lineups now included compact and mid-sized cars in addition to full-sized ones.

The popular modern hatchback, with front-wheel-drive and a two-box configuration, was born in 1965
1965
with the introduction of the Renault 16 ,many of this car's design principles live on in its modern counterparts: a large rear opening incorporating the rear window, foldable rear seats to extend boot space. The Mini
Mini
, released in 1959, had first popularised the front wheel drive two-box configuration, but technically was not a hatchback as it had a fold-down bootlid.

Japanese cars also began to gain acceptance in the Western market, and popular economy models such as the Toyota Corolla , Datsun 510
Datsun 510
, and the first popular Japanese sports car, the Datsun 240Z
Datsun 240Z
, were released in the mid- to late-1960s.

Electronics And Communications

Examples of 1960s
1960s
technology, including two rotary-dial telephones and a Kodak camera.

* 1960
1960
– The first working laser was demonstrated in May by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories . * 1960
1960
Tony Hoare
Tony Hoare
announces the Quicksort
Quicksort
algorithm , the most common sorter on computers. * 1961
1961
Unimate , the first industrial robot , was introduced. * 1962
1962
– First transatlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar satellite. * 1962
1962
– The first computer video game, Spacewar!
Spacewar!
, was invented. * 1962
1962
– Red LEDs were developed. * 1963
1963
– The first geosynchronous communications satellite , SYNCOM 2 is launched. * 1963
1963
– First transpacific satellite broadcast via the Relay 1 satellite. * 1963
1963
Touch-Tone telephones introduced. * 1963
1963
Sketchpad
Sketchpad
was the first touch interactive computer graphics program. * 1963
1963
– The Nottingham
Nottingham
Electronic Valve company produced the first home video recorder called the "Telcan". * 1964
1964
8-track tape
8-track tape
audio format was developed. * 1964
1964
– The Compact Cassette
Compact Cassette
was introduced. * 1964
1964
– The first successful Minicomputer
Minicomputer
, Digital Equipment Corporation 's 12-bit PDP-8 , was marketed. * 1964
1964
– The programming language BASIC
BASIC
was created. * 1964
1964
– The world's first supercomputer , the CDC 6600
CDC 6600
, was introduced. * 1964
1964
Fairchild Semiconductor
Fairchild Semiconductor
released ICs with dual in-line packaging . * 1967
1967
PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
broadcast color television systems started publicly transmitting in Europe. * 1967
1967
– The first Automatic Teller Machine
Automatic Teller Machine
was opened in Barclays Bank , London. * 1968
1968
Ralph Baer developed his Brown Box (a working prototype of the Magnavox Odyssey). * 1968
1968
– The first public demonstration of the computer mouse , the paper paradigm Graphical user interface
Graphical user interface
, video conferencing , teleconferencing , email , and hypertext . * 1969
1969
Arpanet
Arpanet
, the research-oriented prototype of the Internet , was introduced. * 1969
1969
– CCD invented at AT"> British Invasion
British Invasion
: The Beatles arrive at John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
International Airport , 7 February 1964
1964
"The 60's were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
, Malcolm X , Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
, Che Guevara
Che Guevara
, Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
, they led a revolution of conscience. The Beatles
The Beatles
, The Doors
The Doors
, Jimi Hendrix created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí , with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves." – Carlos Santana

The rock-and-roll movement of the 1950s
1950s
quickly came to an end in 1959 as explained in the song Day The Music Died , the revelation that Jerry Lee Lewis had married his 13 year old cousin, and the induction of Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
into the US Army. As the 1960s
1960s
began, the major rock-and-roll stars of the '50s such as Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
and Little Richard had dropped off the charts and popular music in the US came to be dominated by Motown girl groups and novelty pop songs. Another important change in music during the early 1960s
1960s
was the American folk music revival which introduced Joan Baez
Joan Baez
, Pete Seeger
Pete Seeger
, The Kingston Trio , Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
, Odetta
Odetta
, and many other Singer-songwriters to the public.

Girl groups and singers such as the Shirelles , Betty Everett , Little Eva
Little Eva
, the Temptations , and the Supremes dominated the charts in the early 1960s. This style consisted typically of light pop themes about teenage romance, backed by vocal harmonies and a strong rhythm. Most girl groups were African-American, but white singers such as Lesley Gore emerged by 1963.

Around the same time, record producer Phil Spector
Phil Spector
began producing girl groups and created a new kind of pop music production that came to be known as the Wall of Sound
Wall of Sound
. This style emphasized higher budgets and more elaborate arrangements, and more melodramatic musical themes in place of a simple, light-hearted pop sound. Spector's innovations became integral to the growing sophistication of popular music from 1965
1965
onward.

Also during the early '60s, surf rock emerged, a genre that was centered in Southern California
California
and based on beach and surfing themes, in addition to the usual songs about teenage romance. The Beach Boys quickly became the premier surf rock band and almost completely overshadowed the many lesser artists in the genre. Surf rock
Surf rock
reached its peak in 1963-65, then gradually gave way to bands influenced by the counterculture movement.

While rock 'n' roll had 'disappeared' from the US charts in the early '60s, it never died out in Europe and Britain in particular was a hotbed of rock-and-roll activity during this time. In late 1963, the Beatles embarked on their first US tour. A few months later, rock-and-roll founding father Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
emerged from a 2-1/2 year prison stint and resumed recording and touring. The stage was set for the spectacular revival of rock music.

In the UK, the Beatles played raucous rock 'n' roll – as well as doo wop, girl-group songs, show tunes – and wore leather jackets. Their manager Brian Epstein
Brian Epstein
encouraged the group to wear suits. Beatlemania abruptly exploded after the group's appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. Late in 1965, the Beatles released the album Rubber Soul which marked the beginning of their transition to a sophisticated power pop group with elaborate studio arrangements and production, and a year after that, they gave up touring entirely to focus only on albums. A host of imitators followed the Beatles in the so-called British Invasion, including groups like the Rolling Stones and the Kinks who would become legends in their own right.

As the counterculture movement developed, artists began making new kinds of music influenced by the use of psychedelic drugs. Guitarist Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
emerged onto the scene in 1967
1967
with a radically new approach to electric guitar that replaced Chuck Berry, previously seen as the gold standard of rock guitar. Rock artists began to take on serious themes and social commentary/protest instead of simplistic pop themes.

A major development in popular music during the mid- 1960s
1960s
was the movement away from singles and towards albums. Previously, popular music was based around the 45 single (or even earlier, the 78 single) and albums such as they existed were little more than a hit single or two backed with filler tracks, instrumentals, and covers. The development of the AOR (album oriented rock) format was complicated and involved several concurrent events such as Phil Spector's Wall of Sound, the introduction by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
of "serious" lyrics to rock music, and the Beatles' new studio-based approach. In any case, after 1965
1965
the vinyl LP had definitively taken over as the primary format for all popular music styles.

Blues also continued to develop strongly during the '60s, but after 1965, it increasingly shifted to the young white rock audience and away from its traditional black audience, which moved on to other styles such as soul and funk.

Jazz music during the first half of the '60s was largely a continuation of '50s styles, retaining its core audience of young, urban, college-educated whites. By 1967, the death of several important jazz figures such as John Coltrane
John Coltrane
and Nat King Cole precipitated a decline in the genre. The takeover of rock in the late '60s largely spelled the end of jazz as a mainstream form of music, after it had dominated much of the first half of the 20th century.

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN MUSIC IN THE 1960S:

* Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
returned to civilian life in the U.S. after two years away in the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
. He resumes his musical career by recording "It\'s Now or Never " and "Are You Lonesome Tonight? " in March 1960. * Sam Cooke
Sam Cooke
was shot and killed at a motel in Los Angeles, California
California
at age 33 under suspicious circumstances. * Motown Record Corporation was founded in 1960. Its first Top Ten hit was " Shop Around
Shop Around
" by the Miracles in 1960. "Shop Around" peaked at number-two on the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
, and was Motown's first million-selling record. * Newcastle born Eric Burdon
Eric Burdon
and his Band " The Animals
The Animals
" hit the No. 1 in charts in the U.S. with their hit single, "House Of The Rising Sun " in 1964. * Folksinger and activist Joan Baez
Joan Baez
released her debut album on Vanguard Records in December 1960. * The Marvelettes
The Marvelettes
scored Motown Record Corporation's first US No. 1 pop hit, " Please Mr. Postman
Please Mr. Postman
" in 1961. Motown would score 110 Billboard Top-Ten hits during its run. * The Four Seasons released three straight number one hits * In a widely anticipated and publicized event, The Beatles
The Beatles
arrive in America in February 1964, spearheading the British Invasion
British Invasion
. * The Mary Poppins Original Soundtrack tops record charts. Sherman Brothers receive Grammys and double Oscars
Oscars
. * Lesley Gore at age 17 hits number one on Billboard with "It's My Party" and number two with "You Don't Own Me" behind the Beatles "I Want To Hold Your Hand ". * The Supremes scored twelve number-one hit singles between 1964
1964
and 1969, beginning with " Where Did Our Love Go ". * The Kinks
The Kinks
release " You Really Got Me " in August 1964, which tops the British charts; it is regarded as the first hard rock hit and a blueprint for related genres, such as heavy metal . * John Coltrane
John Coltrane
released A Love Supreme
A Love Supreme
in late 1964, considered among the most acclaimed jazz albums of the era. * The Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
was formed in 1965
1965
(originally The Warlocks) thus paving the way for the emergence of acid rock . * Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
went electric at the 1965
1965
Newport Folk Festival
Newport Folk Festival
. * Cilla Black
Cilla Black
's number-one hit "Anyone Who had a Heart " still remains the top-selling single by a female artist in the UK from 1964. * The Rolling Stones
Rolling Stones
had a huge No. 1 hit with their song "(I Can\'t Get No) Satisfaction " in the summer of 1965. * The Byrds
The Byrds
released a cover of Bob Dylan's " Mr. Tambourine Man
Mr. Tambourine Man
", which reached No. 1 on the U.S. charts and repeated the feat in the U.K. shortly thereafter. The extremely influential track effectively creates the musical subgenre of folk rock . * Bob Dylan's " Like a Rolling Stone
Like a Rolling Stone
" is a top-five hit on both sides of the Atlantic during the summer of 1965. * Bob Dylan's 1965
1965
albums Bringing It All Back Home and Highway 61 Revisited ushered in album-focused rock and the "folk rock " genre. * Simon and Garfunkel released " The Sound of Silence " single in 1965. * The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys
released Pet Sounds
Pet Sounds
in 1966, which significantly influenced the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
album released the following year. * Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
was called "Judas" by an audience member during the Manchester Free Trade Hall concert , the start of the bootleg recording industry follows, with recordings of this concert circulating for 30 years – wrongly labeled as – The Royal Albert Hall Concert before a legitimate release in 1998 as The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1966, The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert . * In February 1966, Nancy Sinatra's song "These Boots Are Made for Walkin' " became very popular. * In 1966, The Supremes A\' Go-Go was the first album by a female group to reach the top position of the Billboard magazine pop albums chart in the United States. * The Seekers were the first Australian Group to have a number one with "Georgy Girl" in 1966. * Jefferson Airplane released the influential Surrealistic Pillow
Surrealistic Pillow
in 1967. * The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
released its self-titled debut album The Velvet Underground "> The Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
Experience

* The Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
Experience released two successful albums during 1967, Are You Experienced and Axis: Bold as Love , that innovate both guitar, trio and recording techniques. * The Moody Blues released the album Days of Future Passed in November 1967. * R and, released their debut album Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
. * Big Brother and the Holding Company
Big Brother and the Holding Company
, with Janis Joplin
Janis Joplin
as lead singer, became an overnight sensation after their performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967
1967
and released their second album Cheap Thrills in 1968. * Gram Parsons
Gram Parsons
with The Byrds
The Byrds
released the extremely influential LP Sweetheart of the Rodeo in late 1968, forming the basis for country rock . * The Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
Experience released the highly influential double LP Electric Ladyland
Electric Ladyland
in 1968
1968
that furthered the guitar and studio innovations of his previous two albums. * Simon and Garfunkel released the single " Mrs. Robinson " in 1968; featured in the film " The Graduate ".

Woodstock Festival
Woodstock Festival
, 1969
1969

* Sly The Dirty Mac featuring John Lennon
John Lennon
, Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
and Mitch Mitchell ; Jethro Tull and Taj Mahal . * Spooky Tooth
Spooky Tooth
released their second album Spooky Two in March 1969. The album was an important hard rock milestone. * The Woodstock Festival
Woodstock Festival
, and four months later, the Altamont Free Concert in 1969. * The Who
The Who
released and toured the first rock opera Tommy in 1969. * Proto-punk band MC5
MC5
released the live album Kick Out the Jams
Kick Out the Jams
in 1969. * Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band released the avant garde Trout Mask Replica
Trout Mask Replica
in 1969. * Creedence Clearwater Revival
Creedence Clearwater Revival
released " Fortunate Son
Fortunate Son
" in 1969. The song amassed popularity with the Anti-War movement at the time and would later be used in films, TV shows, and video games depicting the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
or the U.S during the late 1960s
1960s
and early 1970s * The Stooges
The Stooges
released their debut album in 1969. * The Beatles
The Beatles
released Abbey Road in 1969. * King Crimson
King Crimson
released their debut album In the Court of the Crimson King in 1969.

FILM

See also: History of film § 1960s
1960s
, and 1960s in film

The highest-grossing film of the decade was 20th Century Fox's The Sound of Music (1965).

Some of Hollywood's most notable blockbuster films of the 1960s include:

* 2001: A Space Odyssey * The Apartment
The Apartment
* The Birds * I Am Curious (Yellow) * Bonnie and Clyde * Breakfast at Tiffany\'s * Bullitt
Bullitt
* Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
* Carnival of Souls
Carnival of Souls
* Cleopatra * Cool Hand Luke
Cool Hand Luke
* The Dirty Dozen * Doctor Zhivago * Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
* Easy Rider
Easy Rider
* Exodus * Faces * Funny Girl * Goldfinger * The Graduate * Guess Who\'s Coming to Dinner * Head * How the West Was Won * The Hustler * Ice Station Zebra * In the Heat of the Night * The Italian Job
The Italian Job
* It\'s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World * Jason and the Argonauts * Judgment at Nuremberg * The Jungle Book * Lawrence of Arabia * The Lion In Winter * The Longest Day * The Love Bug
The Love Bug
* A Man for All Seasons * The Manchurian Candidate * Mary Poppins * My Fair Lady * Medium Cool * Midnight Cowboy * Night of the Living Dead
Night of the Living Dead
* The Pink Panther
The Pink Panther
* The Odd Couple * Oliver! * One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
* One Million Years B.C.
One Million Years B.C.
* Planet of the Apes * Psycho * Romeo and Juliet * Rosemary\'s Baby * The Sound of Music * Spartacus * Swiss Family Robinson * To Kill a Mockingbird * Valley of the Dolls * West Side Story * Who\'s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? * The Wild Bunch
The Wild Bunch

The counterculture movement had a significant effect on cinema . Movies began to break social taboos such as sex and violence causing both controversy and fascination. They turned increasingly dramatic, unbalanced, and hectic as the cultural revolution was starting. This was the beginning of the New Hollywood era that dominated the next decade in theatres and revolutionized the film industry. Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. Dennis Hopper 's Easy Rider
Easy Rider
(1969) focused on the drug culture of the time. Movies also became more sexually explicit, such as Roger Vadim
Roger Vadim
's Barbarella (1968) as the counterculture progressed.

In Europe, Art Cinema
Art Cinema
gains wider distribution and sees movements like la Nouvelle Vague (The French New Wave) featuring French filmmakers such as Roger Vadim
Roger Vadim
, François Truffaut , Alain Resnais , and Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
; Cinéma vérité
Cinéma vérité
documentary movement in Canada, France
France
and the United States; Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
, Chilean filmmaker Alexandro Jodorowsky and Polish filmmakers Roman Polanski and Wojciech Jerzy Has produced original and offbeat masterpieces and the high-point of Italian filmmaking with Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
and Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
making some of their most known films during this period. Notable films from this period include: La Dolce Vita ,
; La Notte ; L\'Eclisse , The Red Desert ; Blowup
Blowup
; Fellini Satyricon ; Accattone
Accattone
; The Gospel According to St. Matthew ; Theorem ; Winter Light
Winter Light
; The Silence ; Persona ; Shame ; A Passion ; Au Hasard Balthazar
Au Hasard Balthazar
; Mouchette
Mouchette
; Last Year at Marienbad
Last Year at Marienbad
; Chronique d\'un été ; Titicut Follies ; High School ; Salesman ; La jetée ; Warrendale
Warrendale
; Knife in the Water
Knife in the Water
; Repulsion ; The Saragossa Manuscript ; El Topo
El Topo
; A Hard Day\'s Night ; and the cinema verite Dont Look Back .

In Japan, a film version of the story of the forty-seven ronin entitled Chushingura: Hana no Maki, Yuki no Maki directed by Hiroshi Inagaki was released in 1962, the legendary story was also remade as a television series in Japan. Academy Award-winning Japanese director Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
produced Yojimbo (1961), and Sanjuro (1962), which both starred Toshiro Mifune
Toshiro Mifune
as a mysterious Samurai
Samurai
swordsman for hire. Like his previous films both had a profound influence around the world. The Spaghetti Western
Spaghetti Western
genre was a direct outgrowth of the Kurosawa films. The influence of these films is most apparent in Sergio Leone
Sergio Leone
's A Fistful of Dollars (1964) starring Clint Eastwood and Walter Hill 's Last Man Standing (1996). Yojimbo was also the origin of the " Man with No Name
Man with No Name
" trend which included Sergio Leone's For a Few Dollars More , and The Good, The Bad and The Ugly both also starring Clint Eastwood, and arguably continued through his 1968
1968
opus Once Upon a Time in the West , starring Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
, Charles Bronson , Claudia Cardinale
Claudia Cardinale
, and Jason Robards
Jason Robards
. The Magnificent Seven
The Magnificent Seven
a 1960 American western film directed by John Sturges was a remake of Akira Kurosawa 's 1954 film, Seven Samurai
Samurai
.

The 1960s
1960s
were also about experimentation. With the explosion of light-weight and affordable cameras, the underground avant-garde film movement thrived. Canada's Michael Snow
Michael Snow
, Americans Kenneth Anger
Kenneth Anger
, Stan Brakhage
Stan Brakhage
, Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
, and Jack Smith . Notable films in this genre are: Dog Star Man ; Scorpio Rising ; Wavelength ; Chelsea Girls ; Blow Job ; Vinyl ; Flaming Creatures .

Significant events in the film industry in the 1960s:

* Removal of the Motion Picture Association of America
Motion Picture Association of America
's Production Code in 1967. * The decline and end of the Studio System . * The rise of 'art house ' films and theaters. * The end of the classical hollywood cinema era. * The beginning of the New Hollywood Era due to the counterculture. * The rise of independent producers that worked outside the Studio System. * Move to all-color production in Hollywood films. * The invention of the Nagra
Nagra
1/4", sync-sound, portable open-reel tape deck. * Expo 67
Expo 67
where new film formats like Imax
Imax
were invented and new ways of displaying film were tested. * Flat-bed film editing tables appear, like the Steenbeck
Steenbeck
, they eventually replace the Moviola editing platform. * The French New Wave . * Direct Cinema
Direct Cinema
and Cinéma vérité
Cinéma vérité
documentaries.

TELEVISION

Main article: 1960s in television

The most prominent American TV series of the 1960s
1960s
include: The Ed Sullivan Show , Star Trek
Star Trek
, Peyton Place , The Twilight Zone
The Twilight Zone
, The Outer Limits , The Andy Williams Show , The Dean Martin Show
The Dean Martin Show
, The Wonderful World of Disney , Alfred Hitchcock Presents
Alfred Hitchcock Presents
, The Beverly Hillbillies , Bonanza
Bonanza
, Batman , McHale\'s Navy , Laugh-In
Laugh-In
, The Dick Van Dyke Show , The Fugitive , The Tonight Show , Gunsmoke
Gunsmoke
, The Andy Griffith Show , Gilligan\'s Island , Mission: Impossible , The Flintstones , The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
, Lassie , The Danny Thomas Show , The Lucy Show
The Lucy Show
, My Three Sons
My Three Sons
, The Red Skelton Show
The Red Skelton Show
, Bewitched and I Dream of Jeannie . The Flintstones
The Flintstones
was a favoured show, receiving 40 million views an episode with an average of 3 views a day. Some programming such as The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour became controversial by challenging the foundations of America's corporate and governmental controls; making fun of world leaders, and questioning U.S. involvement in and escalation of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
.

Walt Disney
Walt Disney
, the founder of the Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Co. died on 15 December 1966, from a major tumor in his left lung.

FASHION

Main article: 1960s in fashion
1960s in fashion

Significant fashion trends of the 1960s
1960s
include:

* The Beatles
The Beatles
exerted an enormous influence on young men's fashions and hairstyles in the 1960s
1960s
which included most notably the mop-top haircut , the Beatle boots and the Nehru jacket
Nehru jacket
. * The hippie movement late in the decade also had a strong influence on clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans , tie-dye and batik fabrics, as well as paisley prints. * The bikini came into fashion in 1963
1963
after being featured in the film Beach Party . * Mary Quant
Mary Quant
invented the mini-skirt which became one of the most popular rages in the late 1960s. * Men's mainstream hairstyles ranged from the pompadour , the crew cut , the flattop hairstyle, the tapered hairstyle, and short, parted hair in the early part of the decade, to longer parted hairstyles with sideburns towards the latter half of the decade. * Women's mainstream hairstyles ranged from beehive hairdos , the bird's nest hairstyle, and the chignon hairstyle in the early part of the decade, to very short styles popularized by Twiggy
Twiggy
and Mia Farrow in Rosemary\'s Baby towards the latter half of the decade. * African-American hairstyles for men and women included the afro .

LITERATURE

See also: List of years in literature § 1960s
1960s

U.S. PUBLICATION OF PREVIOUSLY BANNED WORKS

The publication of Henry Miller
Henry Miller
's Tropic of Cancer in the United States in 1961
1961
by Grove Press led to a series of obscenity trials that tested American laws on pornography . The U.S. Supreme Court , in Grove Press, Inc., v. Gerstein, citing Jacobellis v. Ohio (which was decided the same day in 1964), overruled the state court findings of obscenity and declared the book a work of literature; it was one of the notable events in what has come to be known as the sexual revolution . Elmer Gertz , the lawyer who successfully argued the initial case for the novel's publication in Illinois
Illinois
, became a lifelong friend of Miller's; a volume of their correspondence has been published. Following the trial, in 1964–65, other books of Miller's which had also been banned in the US were published by Grove Press : Black Spring , Tropic of Capricorn , Quiet Days in Clichy , Sexus , Plexus and Nexus.

SPORTS

Olympics

There were six Olympic Games
Olympic Games
held during the decade. These were:

* 1960
1960
Summer Olympics – 25 August to 11 September 1960, in Rome, Italy * 1960
1960
Winter Olympics – 18 to 28 February 1960, in Squaw Valley , California
California
, United States * 1964
1964
Summer Olympics – 10 to 24 October 1964, in Tokyo, Japan * 1964
1964
Winter Olympics – 29 January to 9 February 1964, in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
, Austria * 1968
1968
Summer Olympics – 12 to 27 October 1968, in Mexico City
Mexico City
, Mexico
Mexico
* 1968
1968
Winter Olympics – 6 to 18 February 1968, in Grenoble
Grenoble
, France

Association Football

There were two FIFA World Cups during the decade:

* 1962
1962
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
– hosted in Chile
Chile
, won by Brazil * 1966
1966
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
– hosted and won by England

Baseball

Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
expansion in 1961
1961
included the formation of the Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels
, the move to Minnesota to become the Minnesota Twins by the former Washington Senators and the formation of a new franchise called the Washington Senators . Major League Baseball sanctioned both the Houston Colt .45s and the New York Mets
New York Mets
as new National League
National League
franchises in 1962.

In 1969, the American League
American League
expanded when the Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Royals
and Seattle Pilots
Seattle Pilots
, were admitted to the league prompting the expansion of the post-season for the first time since the creation of the World Series. The Pilots stayed just one season in Seattle before moving and becoming the Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
in 1970. The National League
National League
also added two teams in 1969, the Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
and San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres
. By 1969, at the end of the 1960s
1960s
the New York Mets
New York Mets
won the World Series
World Series
in only the 8th year of the team's existence.

Basketball

The NBA tournaments during the 1960s
1960s
were dominated by the Boston Celtics , who won eight straight titles from 1959 to 1966
1966
and added two more consecutive championships in 1968
1968
and 1969, aided by such players as Bob Cousy , Bill Russell and John Havlicek . Other notable NBA players included Lew Alcindor and Oscar Robertson
Oscar Robertson
.

At the NCAA
NCAA
level, the UCLA Bruins
UCLA Bruins
also proved dominant. Coached by John Wooden
John Wooden
, they were helped by Alcindor and by Bill Walton
Bill Walton
to win championships and dominate the American college basketball landscape during the decade.

Disc Sports (Frisbee)

Main article: Ken Westerfield
Ken Westerfield
Ken Westerfield
Ken Westerfield
helped to popularize Frisbee
Frisbee
as an alternative disc sport in the 1960s
1960s
and 1970s

Alternative sports, using the flying disc, began in the mid-sixties. As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. They would form what would become known as the counterculture . The forms of escape and resistance would manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee
Frisbee
. Starting with promotional efforts from Wham-O and Irwin Toy (Canada), a few tournaments and professionals using Frisbee
Frisbee
show tours to perform at universities, fairs and sporting events, disc sports such as freestyle , double disc court , guts , disc ultimate and disc golf became this sports first events. Two sports, the team sport of disc ultimate and disc golf are very popular worldwide and are now being played semi professionally. The World Flying Disc Federation , Professional Disc Golf Association and the Freestyle Players Association are the official rules and sanctioning organizations for flying disc sports worldwide. Major League Ultimate (MLU) and the American Ultimate Disc League
American Ultimate Disc League
(AUDL) are the first semi professional ultimate leagues

Racing

In motorsports , the Can-Am and Trans-Am series were both established in 1966. The Ford GT40
Ford GT40
won outright in the 24 Hours of Le Mans . Graham Hill edged out Jackie Stewart and Denny Hulme for the World Championship in Formula One.

ADDITIONAL NOTABLE WORLD-WIDE EVENTS

* Manson Murders
Manson Murders
– took place between 8 and 10 August 1969, which was the deaths of Sharon Tate
Sharon Tate
, Abigail Folger , along with several others in the Tate house. Killed on 9 August, Rosemary LaBianca border:solid #aaa 1px">

* 1960s
1960s
portal

* 1960s decor * The Sixties Unplugged (book)

TIMELINES

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

1960
1960
1961
1961
1962
1962
1963
1963
1964
1964
1965
1965
1966
1966
• 1967 • 1968
1968
1969
1969
Timeline of 1960s counterculture

REFERENCES

* ^ Joshua Zeitz "1964: The Year the Sixties Began", American Heritage, Oct. 2006. * ^ John Barth (1984) intro to The Literature of Exhaustion , in The Friday Book. * ^ Maslin, Janet (5 November 2007). "Brokaw Explores Another Turning Point, the \'60s". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 26 August 2011. * ^ Christopher Booker : The Neophiliacs: A Study of the Revolution in English Life In The Fifties and Sixties, Gambit Incorporated, London, 1970 * ^ "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now". Time . 31 December 1965. Retrieved 1 January 2011. Keynesianism made its biggest breakthrough under John Kennedy, who, as Arthur Schlesinger reports in A Thousand Days, "was unquestionably the first Keynesian President." * ^ Arthur Marwick, The Sixties: Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c.1958-c. 1974
1974
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 978-0-19-210022-1 ), 247–248. * ^ Erlanger, Steven (29 April 2008). "May 1968
1968
– a watershed in French life". New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012. * ^ Staricco, Juan Ignacio (2012) https://www.scribd.com/doc/112409042/The-French-May-and-the-Roots-of-Postmodern-Politics * ^ "Brief Overview of Vietnam
Vietnam
War". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 2014-02-08. * ^ "Gulf of Tonkin Measure Voted in Haste and Confusion in 1964". The New York Times
The New York Times
. 25 June 1970. * ^ Krauthammer, Charles (18 May 2007). "Prelude to the Six Days". The Washington Post
The Washington Post
. Retrieved 20 April 2010. * ^ . * ^ Jaime Pensado, "The (forgotten) Sixties in Mexico." The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture (2008) 1#1: 83-90. * ^ Curtis Cate, The Ides of August: The Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
Crisis–1961 (1978). * ^ Giuseppe Alberigo, and Matthew Sherry, A Brief History of Vatican II (2006) * ^ William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (2003), * ^ Günter, et al. eds. Bischof, The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968
1968
(Lexington Books, 2010) * ^ Krishna Dutta (2008). Calcutta: A Cultural History. Interlink Books. p. 220. * ^ "U.S. History – 1960s". * ^ "Inflation and CPI Consumer Price Index 1960-1969". * ^ "CIA man recounts Che Guevara\'s death". BBC. 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2016-06-24. * ^ "Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964
- CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21". * ^ History LULAC-League of United Latin American Citizens * ^ "americangiforum.org". americangiforum.org. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. * ^ "LatinoLA – Hollywood :: Mendez v. Westminster". LatinoLA. * ^ "Hernandez v. Texas
Texas
– The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law". oyez.org. * ^ MALDEF – About Us Archived 22 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ U.S. Census Bureau Data http://www.census.gov/statab/hist/HS-23.pdf * ^ Carlos Santana: I\'m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, 13 October 2010 * ^ Jorgensen, Ernst (1998). Elvis Presley: A life in music. The complete recording sessions, p.120. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-18572-3 * ^ Sullivan, Denise. "You Really Got Me". Allmusic. Retrieved 25 November 2009. * ^ . Box Office Mojo
Box Office Mojo
. * ^ Gertz, Elmer, and Felice Flanery Lewis, eds. (1978). Henry Miller: Years of Trial & Triumph, 1962–1964: The Correspondence of Henry Miller