The 1960S (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade that began on
1 January 1960, and ended on 31 December 1969. The term "1960s" also
refers to an era more often called the SIXTIES, denoting the complex
of inter-related cultural and political trends around the globe. This
"cultural decade" is more loosely defined than the actual decade,
1963 with the Kennedy assassination and ending around
1974 with the
Watergate scandal .
* 1 Overview
* 2 Politics and wars
* 2.1 Wars
* 2.2 Internal conflicts
* 2.3 Coups
* 2.4 Nuclear threats
* 2.5 Decolonization and independence
* 2.6 Prominent political events
* 2.6.1 North America
* 2.6.2 Europe
* 2.6.3 Asia
* 2.6.4 Africa
* 2.6.5 South America
* 2.7 Gallery of notable world leaders
* 3 U.S. economics
* 4 Assassinations
* 5 Disasters
* 6 Social and political movements
* 6.1 Counterculture/social revolution
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
* 6.4 Hispanic and Chicano movement
Gay rights movement
* 6.8 Crime
* 7 Science and technology
* 7.1 Science
* 7.1.1 Space exploration
* 7.1.2 Other scientific developments
* 7.2 Technology
* 7.2.1 Automobiles
* 7.2.2 Electronics and communications
* 8 Popular culture
* 8.1 Music
* 8.3 Television
* 8.4 Fashion
* 8.5 Literature
* 8.6 U.S. publication of previously banned works
* 8.7 Sports
* 8.7.1 Olympics
* 8.7.2 Association football
* 8.7.3 Baseball
* 8.7.4 Basketball
* 8.7.5 Disc sports (Frisbee)
* 8.7.6 Racing
* 9 Additional notable world-wide events
* 10 See also
* 10.1 Timelines
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 12.1 Historiography
* 13 External links
"The Sixties", as they are known in both scholarship and popular
culture, is a term used by historians, journalists, and other
objective academics; in some cases nostalgically to describe the
counterculture and revolution in social norms about clothing, music,
drugs, dress, sexuality, formalities, and schooling; and in others
pejoratively to denounce the decade as one of irresponsible excess,
flamboyance, and decay of social order. The decade was also labeled
the Swinging Sixties because of the fall or relaxation of social
taboos especially relating to racism and sexism that occurred during
this time. Commentator
Christopher Booker described this era as a
classical Jungian nightmare cycle, where a rigid culture, unable to
contain the demands for greater individual freedom , broke free of the
social constraints of the previous age through extreme deviation from
the norm. He charts the rise, success, fall/nightmare and explosion in
the London scene of the 1960s. Several Western nations such as the
United States, United Kingdom, France, and
West Germany turned to the
political left in the early and mid-1960s.
By the end of the 1950s, war-ravaged Europe had largely finished
reconstruction and began a tremendous economic boom. World War II had
brought about a huge leveling of social classes in which the remnants
of the old feudal gentry disappeared. There was a major expansion of
the middle class in western European countries and by the 1960s, many
working-class people in Western Europe could afford a radio,
television, refrigerator, and motor vehicle. Meanwhile, the East such
as the Soviet union and other Warsaw Pact countries were improving
quickly after rebuilding from WWII. The United States, after sluggish
economic growth during the 1950s, also experienced a major '60s boom.
Real GDP growth averaged 6% a year during the second half of the
decade. Thus, the overall worldwide economic trend in the
one of prosperity, expansion of the middle class, and the
proliferation of new domestic technology.
The confrontation between the US and the
Soviet Union dominated
geopolitics during the '60s, with the struggle expanding into
developing nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia as the Soviet
Union moved from being a regional to a truly global superpower and
began vying for influence in the developing world. After President
Kennedy's assassination, direct tensions between the US and Soviet
Union cooled and the superpower confrontation moved into a contest for
control of the Third World, a battle characterized by proxy wars,
funding of insurgencies, and puppet governments.
In response to civil disobedience campaigns from groups like the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), U.S. President John F. Kennedy
, a Keynesian and staunch anti-communist , pushed for social
reforms. Kennedy's assassination in
1963 was a shock. Liberal reforms
were finally passed under
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson including civil rights for
African Americans and healthcare for the elderly and the poor .
Despite his large-scale
Great Society programs, Johnson was
increasingly reviled by the
New Left at home and abroad. The
heavy-handed American role in the
Vietnam War outraged student
protestors around the globe. The assassination of Martin Luther King,
Jr. upon working with underpaid Tennessee garbage collectors and the
Vietnam War movement , and the police response towards protesters
1968 Democratic National Convention , defined politics of
violence in the United States.
In Western Europe and Japan, organizations such as those present at
1968 , the
Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction , and the
Zengakuren tested liberal
democracy\'s ability to satisfy its marginalized or alienated
citizenry amidst post-industrial age hybrid capitalist economies . In
Britain, the Labour Party gained power in 1964. In France, the
1968 led to President
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle temporarily
fleeing the country. For some, May
1968 meant the end of traditional
collective action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated
mainly by the so-called new social movements .
Italy formed its first
left-of-center government in March
1962 with a coalition of Christian
Democrats , Social Democrats , and moderate Republicans . Socialists
joined the ruling block in December 1963. In Brazil, João Goulart
became president after
Jânio Quadros resigned. In Africa the 1960s
was a period of radical political change as 32 countries gained
independence from their European colonial rulers .
POLITICS AND WARS
Vietnam War (1955–1975) The maximum territorial extent
of countries in the world under Soviet influence , after the Cuban
Revolution of 1959 and before the official
Sino-Soviet split of
Cold War :
Vietnam War (1955–1975)
1961 – Substantial (approximately 700) American advisory forces
first arrive in
1962 – By mid-1962, the number of U.S. military advisers in
Vietnam had risen from 900 to 12,000.
1963 – By the time of U.S. President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy 's death
there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up
from Eisenhower's 900 advisors to cope with rising guerrilla activity
1964 – In direct response to the minor naval engagement known as
Gulf of Tonkin incident which occurred on 2 August 1964, the Gulf
of Tonkin Resolution , a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress , was
passed on 10 August 1964. The resolution gave U.S. President Lyndon B.
Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by
Congress, for the use of military force in
Southeast Asia . The
Johnson administration subsequently cited the resolution as legal
authority for its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in the
1966 – After
1966 with the draft in place more than 500,000
troops were sent to
Vietnam by the Johnson administration and college
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) – an unsuccessful attempt by a
CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern
Cuba with support
from U.S. government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government
of Fidel Castro.
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974) – the war was fought
between Portugal\'s military and the emerging nationalist movements in
Portugal\'s African colonies . It was a decisive ideological struggle
and armed conflict of the cold war in African (Portuguese Africa and
surrounding nations) and European (mainland Portugal) scenarios.
Unlike other European nations, the Portuguese regime did not leave its
African colonies, or the overseas provinces, during the
1960s. During the 1960s, various armed independence movements, most
prominently led by communist -led parties who cooperated under the
CONCP umbrella and pro-U.S. groups, became active in these areas, most
notably in Angola , Mozambique , and
Portuguese Guinea . During the
war, several atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the
* The Indo-Pakistani War of
1965 began in September.
Arab–Israeli conflict (early-20th century-present)
Six Days War (June 1967) – a war between
Israel and the
neighboring states of
Jordan , and
Syria . The Arab states of
Saudi Arabia ,
contributed troops and arms. At the war's end,
Israel had gained
control of the
Sinai Peninsula , the
Gaza Strip , the
West Bank , East
Jerusalem , and the
Golan Heights . The results of the war affect the
geopolitics of the region to this day.
A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition
during the Nigerian blockade of
Algerian War came to a close in 1962.
Nigeria Civil War began in 1967.
* Civil wars in Laos and
Sudan rage on throughout the decade.
Al-Wadiah War was a military conflict which broke out on 27
Saudi Arabia and the People\'s Republic of South
Cultural Revolution in
China (1966–1976) – a period of
widespread social and political upheaval in the People's Republic of
China which was launched by
Mao Zedong , the chairman of the Communist
China . Mao alleged that "liberal bourgeois" elements were
permeating the party and society at large and that they wanted to
restore capitalism . Mao insisted that these elements be removed
through post-revolutionary class struggle by mobilizing the thoughts
and actions of China's youth, who formed Red Guards groups around the
country. The movement subsequently spread into the military, urban
workers, and the party leadership itself. Although Mao himself
officially declared the
Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, the
power struggles and political instability between
1969 and the arrest
Gang of Four
Gang of Four in 1976 are now also widely regarded as part of
The Troubles in Northern Ireland began with the rise of the
Northern Ireland civil rights movement
Northern Ireland civil rights movement in the mid-1960s, the conflict
continued into the later 1990s.
* The Compton\'s Cafeteria Riot occurred in August
1966 in the
Tenderloin district of San Francisco. This incident was one of the
first recorded transgender riots in
United States history, preceding
the more famous
Stonewall Riots in New York City by three years.
Stonewall riots occurred in June
1969 in New York City. The
Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations
against a police raid that took place in the
Stonewall Inn , in the
Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. They are frequently
cited as the first instance in American history when people in the
homosexual community fought back against a government-sponsored system
that persecuted sexual minorities, and they have become the defining
event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United
States and around the world.
* The May
1968 student and worker uprisings in
* Mass socialist or
Communist movement in most European countries
France and Italy), with which the student-based new left
was able to forge a connection. The most spectacular manifestation of
this was the May student revolt of
1968 in Paris that linked up with a
general strike of ten million workers called by the trade unions; and
for a few days seemed capable of overthrowing the government of
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle . De Gaulle went off to visit French troops in
Germany to check on their loyalty. Major concessions were won for
trade union rights, higher minimum wages and better working
* University students protested in the hundreds of thousands against
Vietnam War in London, Paris, Berlin and Rome.
* In Eastern Europe students also drew inspiration from the protests
in the West. In Poland and Yugoslavia they protested against
restrictions on free speech by communist regimes.
Tlatelolco massacre – was a government massacre of student
and civilian protesters and bystanders that took place during the
afternoon and night of 2 October 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres
Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of
Main article: List of coups d\'état and coup attempts § 1960–1969
Prominent coups d\'état of the decade included:
* On 16 May 1961, a coup in
South Korea led by army officer Park
Chung-hee made the establishment of temporary military rule.
* In 1963, a coup in
South Viet Nam leads to the death of President
Ngô Đình Diệm
Ngô Đình Diệm and the establishment of temporary military rule.
* On 21 April 1967, in Greece a group of colonels established a
military dictatorship for seven years.
* In 1968, a coup in
Iraq led to the overthrow of Abdul Rahman Arif
by the Arab Socialist
Baath Party .
* On 1 September 1969, a small group of military officers led by the
Muammar Gaddafi overthrows monarchy in
Pictures of Soviet missile silos in
Cuba , taken by United
States spy planes on 1 November 1962.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis (16–28 October 1962) – a
near-military confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
about the presence of Soviet missiles in
Cuba . After an American
Naval (quarantine) blockade of
Soviet Union under the
Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove their missiles from
Cuba in exchange for the U.S. removing its missiles from Turkey.
* On 13 February 1960,
France detonated its first atomic bomb .
France possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1968.
* On 16 October 1964,
China detonated its first atomic bomb . China
possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1967.
DECOLONIZATION AND INDEPENDENCE
* The transformation of Africa from colonialism to independence in
what is known as the decolonisation of Africa dramatically accelerated
during the decade, with 32 countries gaining independence between 1960
and 1968, marking the end of the European empires that once dominated
the African continent. However, the noble aspirations of these new
nations quickly faded, and many states descended into anarchy ,
kleptocracy , dictatorships , and/or civil war . The road to
prosperity has been difficult: As of 2011 , by many measures Africa
continues to possess the poorest population in the world as well as
the lowest life expectancy .
PROMINENT POLITICAL EVENTS
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. 's "
I Have a Dream " speech in
Washington, D.C., 28 August
United States presidential election,
1960 – The very
close campaign was the series of four Kennedy–Nixon debates; they
were the first presidential debates held on television. Kennedy won a
1961 – President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy promised some more aggressive
confrontation with the Soviet Union; he also established the Peace
Civil rights becomes a central issue, as the Birmingham
campaign and Birmingham riot lead to President Kennedy's Civil Rights
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. 's "
I Have a Dream " speech at the
March on Washington , and the
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
1963 – Kennedy was assassinated and replaced by Vice President
Lyndon Johnson . The nation was in shock. For the next half-century,
conspiracy theorists concocted numerous alternative explanations to
the official report that a lone gunman killed Kennedy.
1964 – Johnson pressed for civil rights legislation. Civil
Rights Act of
1964 signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
This landmark piece of legislation in the
United States outlawed
racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. The
first black riots erupt in major cities.
1964 – Johnson was reelected over Conservative spokesman Senator
Barry Goldwater by wide landslide; Liberals gained full control of
Wilderness Act signed into law by President Lyndon B.
Johnson on 3 September.
1965 – After the events of the
Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches the
National Voting Rights Act of
1965 was lobbied for, and then signed
into law, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Voting Rights Act
outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had caused the
widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United
1968 – U.S. President
Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon was elected defeating
Hubert H. Humphrey
Hubert H. Humphrey in November.
1969 – U.S. President
Richard Nixon was inaugurated in January
1969; promised "peace with honor" to end the
Vietnam War .
The Quiet Revolution in
Quebec altered the province-city-state
into a more secular society . The Jean Lesage Liberal government
created a welfare state État-Providence and fomented the rise of
active nationalism among Francophone French-speaking
* On 15 February 1965, the new Flag of
Canada was adopted in Canada,
after much anticipated debate known as the Great Canadian Flag Debate.
* In 1960, the
Canadian Bill of Rights
Canadian Bill of Rights becomes law, and suffrage,
and the right for any Canadian citizen to vote, was finally adopted by
John Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservative government. The new
election act allowed First Nations people to vote for the first time.
* The peak of the student and
New Left protests in
with political upheavals in a number of other countries. Although
these events often sprung from completely different causes, they were
influenced by reports and images of what was happening in the United
States and France.
By the late 1960s, Argentine revolutionary
Che Guevara 's famous
image had become a popular symbol of rebellion for the
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20
* British Prime Minister
Harold Macmillan delivered his Wind of
Change (speech) in 1960.
* Construction of the
1961 to prevent East Germans from
escaping to the West.
Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII calls the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council of the Catholic
Church, continued by
Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI , which met from 11 October 1962,
until 8 December 1965.
* In October 1964, Soviet leader
Nikita Khrushchev was expelled from
office due to his increasingly erratic and authoritarian behavior.
Leonid Brezhnev and
Alexei Kosygin then became the new leaders of the
1968 was the year of
Alexander Dubček 's
Prague Spring , a source of inspiration to many Western leftists who
admired Dubček's "socialism with a human face". The Soviet invasion
Czechoslovakia in August ended these hopes and also fatally damaged
the chances of the orthodox communist parties drawing many recruits
from the student protest movement.
* Relations with the
United States remained hostile during the
1960s, although representatives from both countries held periodic
meetings in Warsaw, Poland (since there was no U.S. embassy in China).
President Kennedy had plans to restore Sino-US relations, but his
assassination, the war in Vietnam, and the
Cultural Revolution put an
end to that. Not until
Richard Nixon took office in
1969 was there
* Following Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's expulsion in 1964,
Sino-Soviet relations devolved into open hostility. The Chinese were
deeply disturbed by the Soviet suppression of the
Prague Spring in
1968, as the latter now claimed the right to intervene in any country
it saw as deviating from the correct path of socialism. Finally, in
March 1969, armed clashes took place along the Sino-Soviet border in
Manchuria. This drove the Chinese to restore relations with the U.S.,
Mao Zedong decided that the
Soviet Union was a much greater threat.
India a literary and cultural movement started in Calcutta,
Patna, and other cities by a group of writers and painters who called
themselves "Hungryalists", or members of the
Hungry generation . The
band of writers wanted to change virtually everything and were
arrested with several cases filed against them on various charges.
They ultimately won these cases.
* On 1 September 1969, the Libyan monarchy was overthrown, and a
radical, revolutionary, government headed by Col. Muammar al-Gadaffi
* In 1964, a successful coup against the democratically elected
government of Brazilian president João Goulart, initiated a military
dictatorship that caused over 20 years of oppression.
* The Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara travelled to
Africa and then
Bolivia in his campaigning to spread worldwide
revolution. He was captured and executed in
1967 by the Bolivian army,
and afterwards became an iconic figure for the left wing around the
Juan Velasco Alvarado took power by a coup in Peru in 1968.
GALLERY OF NOTABLE WORLD LEADERS
Note: Names of country leaders shown below in BOLD face remained in
power continuously throughout the entirety of the decade.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
CHARLES DE GAULLE
Lester B. Pearson
Eduardo Frei Montalva
Eduardo Frei Montalva
GAMAL ABDEL NASSER
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Shah MOHAMMAD REZA PAHLAVI
Jan de Quay
Jan de Quay
Piet de Jong
JOSIP BROZ TITO
The decade began with a recession from 1960–61, at that time
unemployment was considered high at around 7%. In his campaign, John
F. Kennedy promised to "get America moving again." His goal was
economic growth of 4-6% per year and unemployment below 4%, to do this
he instituted a 7% tax credit for businesses that invest in new plants
and equipment. By the end of the decade, median family income had
risen from $8,540 in
1963 to $10,770 by 1969.
Although the first half of the decade had low inflation, by 1966
Kennedy's tax credit had reduced unemployment to 3.7% and inflation
remained below 2%. With the economy booming Johnson began his "Great
Society" which vastly expanded social programs. By the end of the
decade under Nixon, the combined inflation and unemployment rate known
as the misery index (economics) had exploded to nearly 10% with
inflation at 6.2% and unemployment at 3.5% and by 1975 the misery
index was almost 20%.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy assassination – President Kennedy with his
wife, Jacqueline, and
Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential
limousine, minutes before his assassination.
1960s were marked by several notable assassinations:
* 12 October
Inejiro Asanuma , leader of the Japan
* 17 January
Patrice Lumumba , the Prime Minister of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo ;
Maurice Mpolo , Minister of Youth
Joseph Okito , Vice-President of the Senate. Assassinated
by a Belgian and Congolese firing squad outside
* 20 February
Alphonse Songolo , former Minister of
Communications of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Gilbert Pongo
, intelligence officer and communications official. Shot in Kisangani
* 30 May
Rafael Trujillo Dictator of Dominican Republic for
31 years, by a number of plotters including a general in his army.
* 13 January
Sylvanus Olympio , the Prime Minister of Togo
, is killed during the
1963 Togolese coup d\'état . His body is
dumped in front of the U.S. embassy in
* 27 May
Grigoris Lambrakis , Greek left-wing MP by
far-right extremists with connections to the police and the army in
* 12 June
Medgar Evers , an
NAACP field secretary.
Byron de la Beckwith , a member of the
Ku Klux Klan in
Jackson, Mississippi .
* 2 November
Ngô Đình Diệm
Ngô Đình Diệm , President of South
Vietnam , along with his brother and chief political adviser, Ngô
Đình Nhu . Assassinated by
Dương Hiếu Nghĩa and Nguyễn Văn
Nhung in the back of an armoured personnel carrier .
* 22 November
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy , President of the United
States. Assassinated by
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald while riding in a motorcade
Dealey Plaza in
Dallas, Texas .
* 19 July
Jason Sendwe , President of North Katanga
Province , Democratic Republic of the Congo. Executed by Simba rebels
* 13 February
Humberto Delgado . Assassinated by Portuguese
dictator Salazar's political police
PIDE in Spain, near the Portuguese
* 21 February
Malcolm X . Assassinated by members of the
Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam in New York City. There is a dispute about which
members killed Malcolm X.
* 6 September
Hendrik Verwoerd , Prime Minister of South
Africa and architect of apartheid was stabbed to death by Dimitri
Tsafendas , a parliamentary messenger. He survived a previous attempt
on his life in 1960.
* 25 August
George Lincoln Rockwell , leader of the
American Nazi Party . Assassinated by
John Patler in Arlington,
* 9 October
Che Guevara , assassinated by the CIA and
* 4 April
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. , civil rights leader.
James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray in
Memphis, Tennessee .
* 5 June
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy ,
United States Senator .
Sirhan Sirhan in Los Angeles, after taking California
in the presidential national primaries.
1960 Valdivia earthquake , also known as the Great Chilean
earthquake, is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded,
rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It caused localized tsunamis
that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 meters
(82 ft). The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and
Hilo, Hawaii .
1963 Skopje earthquake was a 6.1 moment magnitude earthquake which
occurred in Skopje, SR Macedonia (present-day Republic of Macedonia)
on 26 July
1963 which killed over 1,070 people, injured between 3,000
and 4,000 and left more than 200,000 people homeless. About 80% of the
city was destroyed.
1963 – Vajont dam disaster – The Vajont dam flood in
caused by a mountain sliding in the dam, and causing a flood wave that
killed approximately 2,000 people in the towns in its path.
1964 – The Good Friday earthquake , the most powerful earthquake
recorded in the U.S. and North America, struck
Alaska and killed 143
Hurricane Betsy caused severe damage to the U.S. Gulf
Coast, especially in the state of
1969 – The
Cuyahoga River caught fire in Ohio. Fires had erupted
on the river many times, including 22 June 1969, when a river fire
captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga
as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person
"does not drown but decays." This helped spur legislative action on
water pollution control resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement, and the creation of the federal Environmental
Hurricane Camille hit the U.S. Gulf Coast at
Status. To date it is the strongest hurricane ever recorded at
landfall in means of sustained windspeed in the Atlantic Basin,
reaching sustained winds of 190 mph and a low pressure of 905 mbs. It
is one of only three hurricanes in the Atlantic to ever make landfall
Category 5 Status and one of only four hurricanes worldwide to
reach a maximum sustained windspeed of 190 mph.
* On 16 December 1960, a
United Airlines DC-8 and a Trans World
Airlines Lockheed Constellation collided over New York City and
crashed, killing 134 people.
* On 16 March 1962,
Flying Tiger Line Flight 739 , a Lockheed Super
Constellation, inexplicably disappeared over the Western Pacific,
leaving all 107 on board presumed dead. Since the wreckage of the
aircraft is lost to this day, the cause of the crash remains a mystery
to this day.
* On 3 June 1962, Air
France Flight 007 , a Boeing 707, crashed on
takeoff from Paris. 130 people were killed in the crash while 2
* On 20 May 1965,
PIA Flight 705 crashed on approach to
Egypt . 121 died while 6 survived.
* On 4 February 1966,
All Nippon Airways Flight 60 , a Boeing 727,
Tokyo Bay for reasons unknown. All 133 people on board
* On 5 March 1966,
BOAC Flight 911 broke up in mid-air and crashed
on the slopes of
Mount Fuji . All 124 aboard died.
* On 8 December 1966, the car ferry
SS Heraklion sank in the Aegean
Sea during a storm, killing 217 people.
* On 16 March 1969, a DC-9 operating
Viasa Flight 742 crashed in the
Venezuelan city of
Maracaibo . A total of 155 people died in the
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL MOVEMENTS
Counterculture of the 1960s
Counterculture of the 1960s and Timeline of 1960s
Flower Power Bus
In the second half of the decade, young people began to revolt
against the conservative norms of the time, as well as remove
themselves from mainstream liberalism, in particular the high level of
materialism which was so common during the era. This created a
"counterculture" that sparked a social revolution throughout much of
the Western world. It began in the
United States as a reaction against
the conservatism and social conformity of the 1950s, and the U.S.
government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. The youth
involved in the popular social aspects of the movement became known as
hippies . These groups created a movement toward liberation in
society, including the sexual revolution , questioning authority and
government, and demanding more freedoms and rights for women and
Underground Press , a widespread, eclectic collection
of newspapers served as a unifying medium for the counterculture. The
movement was also marked by the first widespread, socially accepted
drug use (including
LSD and marijuana ) and psychedelic music.
Main article: Opposition to
United States involvement in the Vietnam
War A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on
guard at the Pentagon during an anti-
Vietnam War protest. Arlington,
The war in
Vietnam would eventually lead to a commitment of over half
a million American troops, resulting in over 58,500 American deaths
and producing a large-scale antiwar movement in the United States. As
late as the end of 1965, few Americans protested the American
involvement in Vietnam, but as the war dragged on and the body count
continued to climb, civil unrest escalated. Students became a powerful
and disruptive force and university campuses sparked a national debate
over the war. As the movement's ideals spread beyond college campuses,
doubts about the war also began to appear within the administration
itself. A mass movement began rising in opposition to the
, ending in the massive Moratorium protests in 1969, as well as the
movement of resistance to conscription ("the Draft") for the war.
The antiwar movement was initially based on the older
movement , heavily influenced by the American
Communist Party , but by
1960s it outgrew this and became a broad-based mass movement
centered in universities and churches: one kind of protest was called
a "sit-in ". Other terms heard in the
United States included "the
Draft ", "draft dodger ", "conscientious objector ", and "
". Voter age-limits were challenged by the phrase: "If you're old
enough to die for your country, you're old enough to vote."
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement Leaders of the Civil Rights
Movement in front of the statue of Abraham Lincoln, 28 August
Beginning in the mid-
1950s and continuing into the late 1960s,
African-Americans in the
United States aimed at outlawing racial
discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to
them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and
1968, particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power
movement , which lasted roughly from
1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity, economic and
political self-sufficiency , and anti-imperialism .
The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance
. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of civil disobedience and nonviolent
protest produced crisis situations between activists and government
authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and
communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that
highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of
protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the
successful Montgomery Bus
Boycott (1955–1956) in Alabama; "sit-ins "
such as the influential
Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina;
marches , such as the
Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama;
and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights
Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of
1964 , that banned
discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in
employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act
1965 , that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration
and Nationality Services Act of
1965 , that dramatically opened entry
to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and
the Fair Housing Act of
1968 , that banned discrimination in the sale
or rental of housing.
HISPANIC AND CHICANO MOVEMENT
Another large ethnic minority group, the
Mexican-Americans , are
Hispanics in the U.S. who fought to end racial
discrimination and socioeconomic disparity. The largest
Mexican-American populations was in the Southwestern
United States ,
California with over 1 million
Chicanos in Los Angeles alone,
Jim Crow laws included
"non-white" in some instances to be legally segregated.
Chicano Movement addressed what it perceived to be
negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American
consciousness. It did so through the creation of works of literary and
visual art that validated Mexican-American ethnicity and culture.
Chicanos fought to end social stigmas such as the usage of the Spanish
language and advocated official bilingualism in federal and state
Chicano Movement also addressed discrimination in public and
private institutions. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican
Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from
discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin
American Citizens , was formed in 1929 and remains active today.
The movement gained momentum after World War II when groups such as
American G.I. Forum , which was formed by returning Mexican
American veterans, joined in the efforts by other civil rights
Mexican-American civil-rights activists achieved several major legal
victories including the 1947
Mendez v. Westminster
Mendez v. Westminster U.S. Supreme Court
ruling which declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin
descent" was unconstitutional and the 1954 Hernandez v.
which declared that Mexican Americans and other racial groups in the
United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th
Amendment of the U.S. Constitution .
The most prominent civil-rights organization in the Mexican-American
community, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
(MALDEF), was founded in 1968. Although modeled after the
Defense and Educational Fund , MALDEF has also taken on many of the
functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and
training of local leaders.
Meanwhile, Puerto Ricans in the U.S. mainland fought against racism,
police brutality and socioeconomic problems affecting the three
million Puerto Ricans residing in 50 states, the main concentration
was in New York City.
1960s and the following 1970s, Hispanic-American culture was
on the rebound like ethnic music, foods, culture and identity both
became popular and assimilated into the American mainstream.
Spanish-language television networks, radio stations and newspapers
increased in presence across the country, especially in U.S.–Mexican
border towns and East Coast cities like New York City, and the growth
Cuban American community in
Miami, Florida .
The multitude of discrimination at this time represented an inhuman
side to a society that in the
1960s was upheld as a world and industry
leader. The issues of civil rights and warfare became major points of
reflection of virtue and democracy, what once was viewed as
traditional and inconsequential was now becoming the significance in
the turning point of a culture. A document known as the Port Huron
Statement exemplifies these two conditions perfectly in its first hand
depiction, "while these and other problems either directly oppressed
us or rankled our consciences and became our own subjective concerns,
we began to see complicated and disturbing paradoxes in our
surrounding America. The declaration "all men are created equal..."
rang hollow before the facts of Negro life in the South and the big
cities of the North. The proclaimed peaceful intentions of the United
States contradicted its economic and military investments in the Cold
War status quo." These intolerable issues became too visible to ignore
therefore its repercussions were feared greatly, the realization that
we as individuals take the responsibility for encounter and resolution
in our lives issues was an emerging idealism of the 1960s.
A second wave of feminism in the
United States and around the world
gained momentum in the early 1960s. While the first wave of the early
20th century was centered on gaining suffrage and overturning de jure
inequalities, the second wave was focused on changing cultural and
social norms and de facto inequalities associated with women. At the
time, a woman's place was generally seen as being in the home, and
they were excluded from many jobs and professions. Commercials often
portrayed a woman as being helpless if her car broke down. In the
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women found
discrimination against women in the workplace and every other aspect
of life, a revelation which launched two decades of prominent
women-centered legal reforms (i.e., the Equal Pay Act of
1963 , Title
IX , etc.) which broke down the last remaining legal barriers to
women's personal freedom and professional success. Feminists took to
the streets, marching and protesting, writing books and debating to
change social and political views that limited women. In 1963, with
Betty Friedan 's revolutionary book,
The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique , the role
of women in society, and in public and private life was questioned. By
1966, the movement was beginning to grow in size and power as women's
group spread across the country and Friedan, along with other
feminists, founded the
National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women . In 1968,
"Women\'s Liberation " became a household term as, for the first time,
the new women's movement eclipsed the
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement when New
York Radical Women , led by
Robin Morgan , protested the annual Miss
America pageant in
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City, New Jersey . The movement continued
throughout the next decades.
Gloria Steinem was a key feminist.
GAY RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Gay Liberation and
LGBT social movements
LGBT social movements
The United States, in the middle of a social revolution, led the
world in LGBT rights in the late
1960s and early 1970s. Inspired by
the civil-rights movement and the women's movement, early gay-rights
pioneers had begun, by the 1960s, to build a movement. These groups
were rather conservative in their practices, emphasizing that gay men
and women are no different from those who are straight and deserve
full equality. This philosophy would be dominant again after
but by the very end of the 1960s, the movement's goals would change
and become more radical, demanding a right to be different, and
encouraging gay pride .
The symbolic birth of the gay rights movement would not come until
the decade had almost come to a close. Gays were not allowed by law to
congregate. Gay establishments such as the
Stonewall Inn in New York
City were routinely raided by the police to arrest gay people. On a
night in late June 1969, LGBT people resisted, for the first time, a
police raid, and rebelled openly in the streets. This uprising called
Stonewall Riots began a new period of the LGBT rights movement
that in the next decade would cause dramatic change both inside the
LGBT community and in the mainstream American culture.
The rapid rise of a "
New Left " applied the class perspective of
Marxism to postwar America, but had little organizational connection
with older Marxist organizations such as the
Communist Party , and
even went as far as to reject organized labor as the basis of a
unified left-wing movement. Sympathetic to the ideology of C. Wright
Mills , the
New Left differed from the traditional left in its
resistance to dogma and its emphasis on personal as well as societal
change. Students for a Democratic
Society (SDS) became the
organizational focus of the
New Left and was the prime mover behind
the opposition to the War in Vietnam. The
1960s left also consisted of
ephemeral campus-based Trotskyist , Maoist and anarchist groups, some
of which by the end of the
1960s had turned to militancy .
1960s was also associated with a large increase in crime and
urban unrest of all types. Between
1969 reported incidences
of violent crime per 100,000 people in the
United States nearly
doubled and have yet to return to the levels of the early 1960s.
Large riots broke out in many cities like
Detroit , Los
Angeles, New York City,
Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey , Oakland,
Washington, D.C. By the end of the decade, politicians like George
Richard Nixon campaigned on restoring law and order to a
nation troubled with the new unrest.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Apollo 11 mission landed the first humans on the Moon in
Space Race between the
United States and the Soviet Union
dominated the 1960s. The Soviets sent the first man,
Yuri Gagarin ,
into outer space during the
Vostok 1 mission on 12 April
scored a host of other successes, but by the middle of the decade the
U.S. was taking the lead. In May 1961, President Kennedy set for the
U.S. the goal of a manned spacecraft landing on the Moon by the end of
In June 1963,
Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space.
In 1965, Soviets launched the first probe to hit another planet of the
Solar system (
Venera 3 , and the first probe to make a soft
landing on and transmit from the surface of the moon,
Luna 9 . In
March 1966, the
Soviet Union launched
Luna 10 , which became the first
space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
The deaths of astronauts
Gus Grissom ,
Edward Higgins White
Edward Higgins White , and
Roger B. Chaffee in the
Apollo 1 fire on 27 January 1967, put a
temporary hold on the U.S. space program, but afterward progress was
steady, with the
Apollo 8 crew (
Frank Borman ,
Jim Lovell , William
Anders ) being the first manned mission to orbit another celestial
body (the moon) during Christmas of 1968.
On 20 July 1969,
Apollo 11 , the first human spaceflight landed on
the Moon . Launched on 16 July 1969, it carried mission Commander Neil
Armstrong , Command Module Pilot Michael Collins , and the Lunar
Buzz Aldrin .
Apollo 11 fulfilled President John F.
Kennedy's goal of reaching the moon by the end of the 1960s, which he
had expressed during a speech given before a joint session of Congress
on 25 May 1961: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to
achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the
Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."
The Soviet program lost its sense of direction with the death of
Sergey Korolyov in 1966. Political pressure, conflicts
between different design bureaus, and engineering problems caused by
an inadequate budget would doom the Soviet attempt to land men on the
A succession of unmanned American and Soviet probes traveled to the
Venus , and
Mars during the 1960s, and commercial satellites
also came into use.
Other Scientific Developments
The birth control pill was introduced in 1960.
1960 – The female birth-control contraceptive, the pill , was
released in the
United States after Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
1967 – First heart transplantation operation by Professor
Christiaan Barnard in South Africa.
1960s began, American cars showed a rapid rejection of 1950s
styling excess, and would remain relatively clean and boxy for the
entire decade. The horsepower race reached its climax in the late
1960s, with muscle cars sold by most makes. The compact Ford Mustang ,
launched in 1964, was one of the decade's greatest successes. The "Big
Three " American automakers enjoyed their highest ever sales and
profitability in the 1960s, but the demise of
American Motors Corporation
American Motors Corporation as the last significant independent. The
decade would see the car market split into different size classes for
the first time, and model lineups now included compact and mid-sized
cars in addition to full-sized ones.
The popular modern hatchback, with front-wheel-drive and a two-box
configuration, was born in
1965 with the introduction of the Renault
16 ，many of this car's design principles live on in its modern
counterparts: a large rear opening incorporating the rear window,
foldable rear seats to extend boot space. The
Mini , released in 1959,
had first popularised the front wheel drive two-box configuration, but
technically was not a hatchback as it had a fold-down bootlid.
Japanese cars also began to gain acceptance in the Western market,
and popular economy models such as the
Toyota Corolla ,
Datsun 510 ,
and the first popular Japanese sports car, the
Datsun 240Z , were
released in the mid- to late-1960s.
Electronics And Communications
1960s technology, including two rotary-dial
telephones and a Kodak camera.
1960 – The first working laser was demonstrated in May by
Theodore Maiman at
Hughes Research Laboratories .
Tony Hoare announces the
Quicksort algorithm , the most
common sorter on computers.
Unimate , the first industrial robot , was introduced.
1962 – First transatlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar
1962 – The first computer video game,
Spacewar! , was invented.
1962 – Red LEDs were developed.
1963 – The first geosynchronous communications satellite ,
SYNCOM 2 is launched.
1963 – First transpacific satellite broadcast via the Relay 1
Touch-Tone telephones introduced.
Sketchpad was the first touch interactive computer
1963 – The
Nottingham Electronic Valve company produced the
first home video recorder called the "Telcan".
8-track tape audio format was developed.
1964 – The
Compact Cassette was introduced.
1964 – The first successful
Minicomputer , Digital Equipment
Corporation 's 12-bit
PDP-8 , was marketed.
1964 – The programming language
BASIC was created.
1964 – The world's first supercomputer , the
CDC 6600 , was
Fairchild Semiconductor released ICs with dual in-line
SECAM broadcast color television systems started
publicly transmitting in Europe.
1967 – The first
Automatic Teller Machine
Automatic Teller Machine was opened in Barclays
Bank , London.
Ralph Baer developed his
Brown Box (a working prototype
of the Magnavox Odyssey).
1968 – The first public demonstration of the computer mouse ,
the paper paradigm
Graphical user interface
Graphical user interface , video conferencing ,
teleconferencing , email , and hypertext .
Arpanet , the research-oriented prototype of the Internet
, was introduced.
1969 – CCD invented at AT">
British Invasion : The Beatles
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy International Airport , 7 February
"The 60's were a leap in human consciousness.
Mahatma Gandhi , Malcolm
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King ,
Che Guevara ,
Mother Teresa , they led a
revolution of conscience.
The Beatles ,
The Doors , Jimi Hendrix
created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí ,
with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go
there to find themselves." –
The rock-and-roll movement of the
1950s quickly came to an end in
1959 as explained in the song Day The Music Died , the revelation that
Jerry Lee Lewis had married his 13 year old cousin, and the induction
Elvis Presley into the US Army. As the
1960s began, the major
rock-and-roll stars of the '50s such as
Chuck Berry and Little Richard
had dropped off the charts and popular music in the US came to be
dominated by Motown girl groups and novelty pop songs. Another
important change in music during the early
1960s was the American folk
music revival which introduced
Joan Baez ,
Pete Seeger , The Kingston
Harry Belafonte ,
Bob Dylan ,
Odetta , and many other
Singer-songwriters to the public.
Girl groups and singers such as the Shirelles ,
Betty Everett ,
Little Eva , the Temptations , and the Supremes dominated the charts
in the early 1960s. This style consisted typically of light pop themes
about teenage romance, backed by vocal harmonies and a strong rhythm.
Most girl groups were African-American, but white singers such as
Lesley Gore emerged by 1963.
Around the same time, record producer
Phil Spector began producing
girl groups and created a new kind of pop music production that came
to be known as the
Wall of Sound
Wall of Sound . This style emphasized higher
budgets and more elaborate arrangements, and more melodramatic musical
themes in place of a simple, light-hearted pop sound. Spector's
innovations became integral to the growing sophistication of popular
Also during the early '60s, surf rock emerged, a genre that was
centered in Southern
California and based on beach and surfing themes,
in addition to the usual songs about teenage romance. The Beach Boys
quickly became the premier surf rock band and almost completely
overshadowed the many lesser artists in the genre.
Surf rock reached
its peak in 1963-65, then gradually gave way to bands influenced by
the counterculture movement.
While rock 'n' roll had 'disappeared' from the US charts in the early
'60s, it never died out in Europe and Britain in particular was a
hotbed of rock-and-roll activity during this time. In late 1963, the
Beatles embarked on their first US tour. A few months later,
rock-and-roll founding father
Chuck Berry emerged from a 2-1/2 year
prison stint and resumed recording and touring. The stage was set for
the spectacular revival of rock music.
In the UK, the Beatles played raucous rock 'n' roll – as well as
doo wop, girl-group songs, show tunes – and wore leather jackets.
Brian Epstein encouraged the group to wear suits.
Beatlemania abruptly exploded after the group's appearance on the Ed
Sullivan Show in 1964. Late in 1965, the Beatles released the album
Rubber Soul which marked the beginning of their transition to a
sophisticated power pop group with elaborate studio arrangements and
production, and a year after that, they gave up touring entirely to
focus only on albums. A host of imitators followed the Beatles in the
so-called British Invasion, including groups like the Rolling Stones
and the Kinks who would become legends in their own right.
As the counterculture movement developed, artists began making new
kinds of music influenced by the use of psychedelic drugs. Guitarist
Jimi Hendrix emerged onto the scene in
1967 with a radically new
approach to electric guitar that replaced Chuck Berry, previously seen
as the gold standard of rock guitar. Rock artists began to take on
serious themes and social commentary/protest instead of simplistic pop
A major development in popular music during the mid-
1960s was the
movement away from singles and towards albums. Previously, popular
music was based around the 45 single (or even earlier, the 78 single)
and albums such as they existed were little more than a hit single or
two backed with filler tracks, instrumentals, and covers. The
development of the AOR (album oriented rock) format was complicated
and involved several concurrent events such as Phil Spector's Wall of
Sound, the introduction by
Bob Dylan of "serious" lyrics to rock
music, and the Beatles' new studio-based approach. In any case, after
1965 the vinyl LP had definitively taken over as the primary format
for all popular music styles.
Blues also continued to develop strongly during the '60s, but after
1965, it increasingly shifted to the young white rock audience and
away from its traditional black audience, which moved on to other
styles such as soul and funk.
Jazz music during the first half of the '60s was largely a
continuation of '50s styles, retaining its core audience of young,
urban, college-educated whites. By 1967, the death of several
important jazz figures such as
John Coltrane and Nat King Cole
precipitated a decline in the genre. The takeover of rock in the late
'60s largely spelled the end of jazz as a mainstream form of music,
after it had dominated much of the first half of the 20th century.
SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN MUSIC IN THE 1960S:
Elvis Presley returned to civilian life in the U.S. after two
years away in the
U.S. Army . He resumes his musical career by
recording "It\'s Now or Never " and "Are You Lonesome Tonight? " in
Sam Cooke was shot and killed at a motel in Los Angeles,
California at age 33 under suspicious circumstances.
* Motown Record Corporation was founded in 1960. Its first Top Ten
hit was "
Shop Around " by the Miracles in 1960. "Shop Around" peaked
at number-two on the
Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100 , and was Motown's first
* Newcastle born
Eric Burdon and his Band "
The Animals " hit the No.
1 in charts in the U.S. with their hit single, "House Of The Rising
Sun " in 1964.
* Folksinger and activist
Joan Baez released her debut album on
Vanguard Records in December 1960.
The Marvelettes scored Motown Record Corporation's first US No. 1
pop hit, "
Please Mr. Postman
Please Mr. Postman " in 1961. Motown would score 110
Billboard Top-Ten hits during its run.
* The Four Seasons released three straight number one hits
* In a widely anticipated and publicized event,
The Beatles arrive
in America in February 1964, spearheading the
British Invasion .
* The Mary Poppins Original Soundtrack tops record charts. Sherman
Brothers receive Grammys and double
Lesley Gore at age 17 hits number one on Billboard with "It's My
Party" and number two with "You Don't Own Me" behind the Beatles "I
Want To Hold Your Hand ".
The Supremes scored twelve number-one hit singles between
1969, beginning with "
Where Did Our Love Go ".
The Kinks release "
You Really Got Me " in August 1964, which tops
the British charts; it is regarded as the first hard rock hit and a
blueprint for related genres, such as heavy metal .
John Coltrane released
A Love Supreme
A Love Supreme in late 1964, considered
among the most acclaimed jazz albums of the era.
Grateful Dead was formed in
1965 (originally The Warlocks)
thus paving the way for the emergence of acid rock .
Bob Dylan went electric at the
Newport Folk Festival
Newport Folk Festival .
Cilla Black 's number-one hit "Anyone Who had a Heart " still
remains the top-selling single by a female artist in the UK from 1964.
Rolling Stones had a huge No. 1 hit with their song "(I Can\'t
Get No) Satisfaction " in the summer of 1965.
The Byrds released a cover of Bob Dylan's "
Mr. Tambourine Man
Mr. Tambourine Man ",
which reached No. 1 on the U.S. charts and repeated the feat in the
U.K. shortly thereafter. The extremely influential track effectively
creates the musical subgenre of folk rock .
* Bob Dylan's "
Like a Rolling Stone
Like a Rolling Stone " is a top-five hit on both
sides of the Atlantic during the summer of 1965.
* Bob Dylan's
Bringing It All Back Home and Highway 61
Revisited ushered in album-focused rock and the "folk rock " genre.
Simon and Garfunkel released "
The Sound of Silence " single in
The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys released
Pet Sounds in 1966, which significantly
influenced the Beatles'
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album
released the following year.
Bob Dylan was called "Judas" by an audience member during the
Free Trade Hall concert , the start of the bootleg
recording industry follows, with recordings of this concert
circulating for 30 years – wrongly labeled as – The Royal Albert
Hall Concert before a legitimate release in 1998 as The Bootleg Series
Bob Dylan Live 1966, The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert .
* In February 1966, Nancy Sinatra's song "These Boots Are Made for
Walkin' " became very popular.
* In 1966,
The Supremes A\' Go-Go was the first album by a female
group to reach the top position of the Billboard magazine pop albums
chart in the United States.
The Seekers were the first Australian Group to have a number one
with "Georgy Girl" in 1966.
Jefferson Airplane released the influential
Surrealistic Pillow in
The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground released its self-titled debut album The
Velvet Underground "> The
Jimi Hendrix Experience
Jimi Hendrix Experience released two successful albums during
1967, Are You Experienced and Axis: Bold as Love , that innovate both
guitar, trio and recording techniques.
The Moody Blues released the album
Days of Future Passed in
* R and, released their debut album
Led Zeppelin .
Big Brother and the Holding Company
Big Brother and the Holding Company , with
Janis Joplin as lead
singer, became an overnight sensation after their performance at the
Monterey Pop Festival in
1967 and released their second album Cheap
Thrills in 1968.
Gram Parsons with
The Byrds released the extremely influential LP
Sweetheart of the Rodeo in late 1968, forming the basis for country
Jimi Hendrix Experience released the highly influential double
Electric Ladyland in
1968 that furthered the guitar and studio
innovations of his previous two albums.
Simon and Garfunkel released the single "
Mrs. Robinson " in 1968;
featured in the film "
The Graduate ".
Woodstock Festival ,
The Dirty Mac featuring
John Lennon ,
Eric Clapton and Mitch
Mitchell ; Jethro Tull and Taj Mahal .
Spooky Tooth released their second album
Spooky Two in March 1969.
The album was an important hard rock milestone.
Woodstock Festival , and four months later, the Altamont Free
Concert in 1969.
The Who released and toured the first rock opera Tommy in 1969.
* Proto-punk band
MC5 released the live album
Kick Out the Jams
Kick Out the Jams in
Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band released the avant garde
Trout Mask Replica
Trout Mask Replica in 1969.
Creedence Clearwater Revival
Creedence Clearwater Revival released "
Fortunate Son " in 1969.
The song amassed popularity with the Anti-War movement at the time and
would later be used in films, TV shows, and video games depicting the
Vietnam War or the U.S during the late
1960s and early 1970s
The Stooges released their debut album in 1969.
The Beatles released
Abbey Road in 1969.
King Crimson released their debut album In the Court of the
Crimson King in 1969.
See also: History of film §
1960s , and
1960s in film
The highest-grossing film of the decade was 20th Century Fox's The
Sound of Music (1965).
Some of Hollywood's most notable blockbuster films of the 1960s
* 2001: A Space Odyssey
* The Birds
I Am Curious (Yellow)
* Bonnie and Clyde
* Breakfast at Tiffany\'s
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Carnival of Souls
Carnival of Souls
Cool Hand Luke
Cool Hand Luke
The Dirty Dozen
* Doctor Zhivago
* Funny Girl
* Guess Who\'s Coming to Dinner
* How the West Was Won
* The Hustler
Ice Station Zebra
* In the Heat of the Night
The Italian Job
The Italian Job
* It\'s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
* Jason and the Argonauts
Judgment at Nuremberg
* The Jungle Book
* Lawrence of Arabia
The Lion In Winter
* The Longest Day
The Love Bug
The Love Bug
* A Man for All Seasons
* The Manchurian Candidate
* Mary Poppins
* My Fair Lady
Night of the Living Dead
Night of the Living Dead
The Pink Panther
The Pink Panther
* The Odd Couple
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Million Years B.C.
One Million Years B.C.
* Planet of the Apes
* Romeo and Juliet
* Rosemary\'s Baby
* The Sound of Music
* Swiss Family Robinson
* To Kill a Mockingbird
* Valley of the Dolls
* West Side Story
* Who\'s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
The Wild Bunch
The Wild Bunch
The counterculture movement had a significant effect on cinema .
Movies began to break social taboos such as sex and violence causing
both controversy and fascination. They turned increasingly dramatic,
unbalanced, and hectic as the cultural revolution was starting. This
was the beginning of the
New Hollywood era that dominated the next
decade in theatres and revolutionized the film industry. Films of this
time also focused on the changes happening in the world. Dennis Hopper
Easy Rider (1969) focused on the drug culture of the time. Movies
also became more sexually explicit, such as
Roger Vadim 's Barbarella
(1968) as the counterculture progressed.
Art Cinema gains wider distribution and sees movements
like la Nouvelle Vague (The French New Wave) featuring French
filmmakers such as
Roger Vadim ,
François Truffaut ,
Alain Resnais ,
Jean-Luc Godard ;
Cinéma vérité documentary movement in Canada,
France and the United States; Swedish filmmaker
Ingmar Bergman ,
Alexandro Jodorowsky and Polish filmmakers Roman
Wojciech Jerzy Has produced original and offbeat
masterpieces and the high-point of Italian filmmaking with
Michelangelo Antonioni and
Federico Fellini making some of their most
known films during this period. Notable films from this period
La Dolce Vita ,
La Notte ; L\'Eclisse , The Red Desert
Fellini Satyricon ;
Accattone ; The Gospel According to St.
Matthew ; Theorem ;
Winter Light ; The Silence ; Persona ; Shame ; A
Au Hasard Balthazar
Au Hasard Balthazar ;
Last Year at Marienbad
Last Year at Marienbad ;
Chronique d\'un été ;
Titicut Follies ; High School ; Salesman ; La
Knife in the Water
Knife in the Water ; Repulsion ; The Saragossa
El Topo ; A Hard Day\'s Night ; and the cinema verite
Dont Look Back .
In Japan, a film version of the story of the forty-seven ronin
entitled Chushingura: Hana no Maki, Yuki no Maki directed by Hiroshi
Inagaki was released in 1962, the legendary story was also remade as a
television series in Japan. Academy Award-winning Japanese director
Akira Kurosawa produced Yojimbo (1961), and
Sanjuro (1962), which both
Toshiro Mifune as a mysterious
Samurai swordsman for hire.
Like his previous films both had a profound influence around the
Spaghetti Western genre was a direct outgrowth of the
Kurosawa films. The influence of these films is most apparent in
Sergio Leone 's
A Fistful of Dollars (1964) starring Clint Eastwood
and Walter Hill 's Last Man Standing (1996). Yojimbo was also the
origin of the "
Man with No Name
Man with No Name " trend which included Sergio Leone's
For a Few Dollars More , and
The Good, The Bad and The Ugly both also
starring Clint Eastwood, and arguably continued through his
Once Upon a Time in the West , starring
Henry Fonda , Charles Bronson
Claudia Cardinale , and
Jason Robards .
The Magnificent Seven
The Magnificent Seven a 1960
American western film directed by
John Sturges was a remake of Akira
Kurosawa 's 1954 film, Seven
1960s were also about experimentation. With the explosion of
light-weight and affordable cameras, the underground avant-garde film
movement thrived. Canada's
Michael Snow , Americans
Kenneth Anger ,
Stan Brakhage ,
Andy Warhol , and Jack Smith . Notable films in this
Dog Star Man ; Scorpio Rising ; Wavelength ; Chelsea Girls
; Blow Job ; Vinyl ;
Flaming Creatures .
Significant events in the film industry in the 1960s:
* Removal of the
Motion Picture Association of America
Motion Picture Association of America 's Production
Code in 1967.
* The decline and end of the Studio System .
* The rise of 'art house ' films and theaters.
* The end of the classical hollywood cinema era.
* The beginning of the
New Hollywood Era due to the counterculture.
* The rise of independent producers that worked outside the Studio
* Move to all-color production in Hollywood films.
* The invention of the
Nagra 1/4", sync-sound, portable open-reel
Expo 67 where new film formats like
Imax were invented and new
ways of displaying film were tested.
* Flat-bed film editing tables appear, like the
Steenbeck , they
eventually replace the
Moviola editing platform.
French New Wave .
Direct Cinema and
Cinéma vérité documentaries.
1960s in television
The most prominent American TV series of the
1960s include: The Ed
Sullivan Show ,
Star Trek , Peyton Place ,
The Twilight Zone
The Twilight Zone , The
Outer Limits ,
The Andy Williams Show ,
The Dean Martin Show
The Dean Martin Show , The
Wonderful World of Disney ,
Alfred Hitchcock Presents
Alfred Hitchcock Presents , The Beverly
Bonanza , Batman , McHale\'s Navy ,
Laugh-In , The Dick
Van Dyke Show , The Fugitive ,
The Tonight Show ,
Gunsmoke , The Andy
Griffith Show , Gilligan\'s Island , Mission: Impossible , The
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet , Lassie , The Danny
Thomas Show ,
The Lucy Show
The Lucy Show ,
My Three Sons
My Three Sons ,
The Red Skelton Show
The Red Skelton Show ,
I Dream of Jeannie .
The Flintstones was a favoured
show, receiving 40 million views an episode with an average of 3 views
a day. Some programming such as The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
became controversial by challenging the foundations of America's
corporate and governmental controls; making fun of world leaders, and
questioning U.S. involvement in and escalation of the
Vietnam War .
Walt Disney , the founder of the
Walt Disney Co. died on 15 December
1966, from a major tumor in his left lung.
1960s in fashion
1960s in fashion
Significant fashion trends of the
The Beatles exerted an enormous influence on young men's fashions
and hairstyles in the
1960s which included most notably the mop-top
haircut , the
Beatle boots and the
Nehru jacket .
* The hippie movement late in the decade also had a strong influence
on clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans , tie-dye and batik
fabrics, as well as paisley prints.
* The bikini came into fashion in
1963 after being featured in the
Beach Party .
Mary Quant invented the mini-skirt which became one of the most
popular rages in the late 1960s.
* Men's mainstream hairstyles ranged from the pompadour , the crew
cut , the flattop hairstyle, the tapered hairstyle, and short, parted
hair in the early part of the decade, to longer parted hairstyles with
sideburns towards the latter half of the decade.
* Women's mainstream hairstyles ranged from beehive hairdos , the
bird's nest hairstyle, and the chignon hairstyle in the early part of
the decade, to very short styles popularized by
Twiggy and Mia Farrow
in Rosemary\'s Baby towards the latter half of the decade.
* African-American hairstyles for men and women included the afro .
List of years in literature §
U.S. PUBLICATION OF PREVIOUSLY BANNED WORKS
The publication of
Henry Miller 's Tropic of Cancer in the United
Grove Press led to a series of obscenity trials that
tested American laws on pornography . The U.S. Supreme Court , in
Grove Press, Inc., v. Gerstein, citing
Jacobellis v. Ohio (which was
decided the same day in 1964), overruled the state court findings of
obscenity and declared the book a work of literature; it was one of
the notable events in what has come to be known as the sexual
Elmer Gertz , the lawyer who successfully argued the
initial case for the novel's publication in
Illinois , became a
lifelong friend of Miller's; a volume of their correspondence has been
published. Following the trial, in 1964–65, other books of Miller's
which had also been banned in the US were published by
Grove Press :
Black Spring , Tropic of Capricorn , Quiet Days in Clichy , Sexus ,
Plexus and Nexus.
There were six
Olympic Games held during the decade. These were:
1960 Summer Olympics – 25 August to 11 September 1960, in Rome,
1960 Winter Olympics – 18 to 28 February 1960, in Squaw Valley ,
California , United States
1964 Summer Olympics – 10 to 24 October 1964, in Tokyo, Japan
1964 Winter Olympics – 29 January to 9 February 1964, in
Innsbruck , Austria
1968 Summer Olympics – 12 to 27 October 1968, in
Mexico City ,
1968 Winter Olympics – 6 to 18 February 1968, in
There were two FIFA World Cups during the decade:
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup – hosted in
Chile , won by Brazil
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup – hosted and won by England
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball expansion in
1961 included the formation of the
Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels , the move to Minnesota to become the Minnesota
Twins by the former Washington Senators and the formation of a new
franchise called the Washington Senators . Major League Baseball
sanctioned both the
Houston Colt .45s and the
New York Mets
New York Mets as new
National League franchises in 1962.
In 1969, the
American League expanded when the
Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Royals and
Seattle Pilots , were admitted to the league prompting the expansion
of the post-season for the first time since the creation of the World
Series. The Pilots stayed just one season in Seattle before moving and
Milwaukee Brewers in 1970. The
National League also added
two teams in 1969, the
Montreal Expos and
San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres . By 1969,
at the end of the
New York Mets
New York Mets won the
World Series in only
the 8th year of the team's existence.
The NBA tournaments during the
1960s were dominated by the Boston
Celtics , who won eight straight titles from 1959 to
1966 and added
two more consecutive championships in
1968 and 1969, aided by such
Bob Cousy , Bill Russell and
John Havlicek . Other notable
NBA players included
Lew Alcindor and
Oscar Robertson .
NCAA level, the
UCLA Bruins also proved dominant. Coached by
John Wooden , they were helped by Alcindor and by
Bill Walton to win
championships and dominate the American college basketball landscape
during the decade.
Disc Sports (Frisbee)
Ken Westerfield helped to
Frisbee as an alternative disc sport in the
1960s and 1970s
Alternative sports, using the flying disc, began in the mid-sixties.
As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they
resisted and looked for alternatives. They would form what would
become known as the counterculture . The forms of escape and
resistance would manifest in many ways including social activism,
alternative lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress,
music and alternative recreational activities, including that of
Frisbee . Starting with promotional efforts from Wham-O
Irwin Toy (Canada), a few tournaments and professionals using
Frisbee show tours to perform at universities, fairs and sporting
events, disc sports such as freestyle , double disc court , guts ,
disc ultimate and disc golf became this sports first events. Two
sports, the team sport of disc ultimate and disc golf are very popular
worldwide and are now being played semi professionally. The World
Flying Disc Federation ,
Professional Disc Golf Association and the
Freestyle Players Association are the official rules and sanctioning
organizations for flying disc sports worldwide. Major League Ultimate
(MLU) and the
American Ultimate Disc League
American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) are the first semi
professional ultimate leagues
In motorsports , the
Trans-Am series were both established
in 1966. The
Ford GT40 won outright in the
24 Hours of Le Mans .
Graham Hill edged out Jackie Stewart and Denny Hulme for the World
Championship in Formula One.
ADDITIONAL NOTABLE WORLD-WIDE EVENTS
Manson Murders – took place between 8 and 10 August 1969, which
was the deaths of
Sharon Tate ,
Abigail Folger , along with several
others in the Tate house. Killed on 9 August, Rosemary LaBianca
border:solid #aaa 1px">
The Sixties Unplugged (book)
The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most
prominent events of the decade:
1966 • 1967
Timeline of 1960s counterculture
* ^ Joshua Zeitz "1964: The Year the Sixties Began", American
Heritage, Oct. 2006.
John Barth (1984) intro to
The Literature of Exhaustion , in
The Friday Book.
* ^ Maslin, Janet (5 November 2007). "Brokaw Explores Another
Turning Point, the \'60s".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved 26 August
Christopher Booker : The Neophiliacs: A Study of the Revolution
in English Life In The Fifties and Sixties, Gambit Incorporated,
* ^ "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now". Time . 31 December
1965. Retrieved 1 January 2011. Keynesianism made its biggest
breakthrough under John Kennedy, who, as Arthur Schlesinger reports in
A Thousand Days, "was unquestionably the first Keynesian President."
* ^ Arthur Marwick, The Sixties:
Cultural Revolution in Britain,
France, Italy, and the United States, c.1958-c.
1974 (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1998, ISBN 978-0-19-210022-1 ), 247–248.
* ^ Erlanger, Steven (29 April 2008). "May
1968 – a watershed in
French life". New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
* ^ Staricco, Juan Ignacio (2012)
* ^ "Brief Overview of
Vietnam War". Swarthmore College Peace
Collection. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved
* ^ "Gulf of Tonkin Measure Voted in Haste and Confusion in 1964".
The New York Times
The New York Times . 25 June 1970.
* ^ Krauthammer, Charles (18 May 2007). "Prelude to the Six Days".
The Washington Post
The Washington Post . Retrieved 20 April 2010.
* ^ .
* ^ Jaime Pensado, "The (forgotten) Sixties in Mexico." The
Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture (2008) 1#1: 83-90.
* ^ Curtis Cate, The Ides of August: The
Berlin Wall Crisis–1961
* ^ Giuseppe Alberigo, and Matthew Sherry, A Brief History of
Vatican II (2006)
* ^ William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (2003),
* ^ Günter, et al. eds. Bischof, The
Prague Spring and the Warsaw
Pact Invasion of
1968 (Lexington Books, 2010)
* ^ Krishna Dutta (2008). Calcutta: A Cultural History. Interlink
Books. p. 220.
* ^ "U.S. History – 1960s".
* ^ "Inflation and CPI Consumer Price Index 1960-1969".
* ^ "CIA man recounts Che Guevara\'s death". BBC. 2007-10-08.
* ^ "Civil Rights Act of
1964 - CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment
Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21".
* ^ History LULAC-League of United Latin American Citizens
* ^ "americangiforum.org". americangiforum.org. Archived from the
original on 6 July 2015.
* ^ "LatinoLA – Hollywood :: Mendez v. Westminster". LatinoLA.
* ^ "Hernandez v.
Texas – The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent
College of Law". oyez.org.
* ^ MALDEF – About Us Archived 22 April 2008 at the Wayback
* ^ U.S. Census Bureau Data
* ^ Carlos Santana: I\'m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, 13
* ^ Jorgensen, Ernst (1998). Elvis Presley: A life in music. The
complete recording sessions, p.120. St. Martin's Press. ISBN
* ^ Sullivan, Denise. "You Really Got Me". Allmusic. Retrieved 25
* ^ .
Box Office Mojo
Box Office Mojo .
* ^ Gertz, Elmer, and Felice Flanery Lewis, eds. (1978). Henry
Miller: Years of Trial & Triumph, 1962–1964: The Correspondence of