1960s (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade of the
Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1960, and ended on 31
December 1969. The term "1960s" also refers to an era more often
called the Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and
political trends around the globe. This "cultural decade" is more
loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around
1963 with the
Kennedy assassination and ending around
1974 with the Watergate
2 Politics and wars
2.2 Internal conflicts
2.4 Nuclear threats
2.5 Decolonization and independence
2.6 Prominent political events
2.6.1 North America
188.8.131.52 United States
2.6.5 South America
2.7 Notable world leaders
3 U.S. economics
6 Social and political movements
Counterculture and social revolution
6.2 Anti-war movement
Civil rights movement
6.4 Hispanic and Chicano movement
6.5 Second-wave feminism
6.6 Gay rights movement
6.7 New Left
7 Science and technology
7.1.1 Space exploration
7.1.2 Other scientific developments
7.2.2 Electronics and communications
8 Popular culture
8.6 U.S. publication of previously banned works
8.7.2 Association football
8.7.5 Disc sports (Frisbee)
9 Additional notable world-wide events
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Top, L-R: 2 U.S. soldiers crawl on the ground during the
The Beatles who were part of the
British Invasion that changed music
United States and around the world. Centre, left to right: John
F. Kennedy is assassinated in 1963, after serving as President for
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. makes his famous I Have a Dream
speech to a crowd of over a million; millions participate in the
Woodstock Festival of 1969. Bottom, left to right: China's Mao Zedong
Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward plan; the Stonewall Inn, site of
major demonstrations for gay and lesbian rights; for the first time in
history, a human being sets foot on the Moon, during the Cold War-era
Space Race, July 1969.
"The Sixties", as they are known in both scholarship and popular
culture, is a term used by historians, journalists, and other
objective academics; in some cases nostalgically to describe the
counterculture and revolution in social norms about clothing, music,
drugs, dress, sexuality, formalities, and schooling; and in others
pejoratively to denounce the decade as one of irresponsible excess,
flamboyance, and decay of social order. The decade was also labeled
the Swinging Sixties because of the fall or relaxation of social
taboos especially relating to racism and sexism that occurred during
this time. Commentator Christopher Booker described this era as a
classical Jungian nightmare cycle, where a rigid culture, unable to
contain the demands for greater individual freedom, broke free of the
social constraints of the previous age through extreme deviation from
the norm. He charts the rise, success, fall/nightmare and explosion in
the London scene of the 1960s. Several Western nations such as the
United States, United Kingdom, France, and
West Germany turned to the
political left in the early and mid-1960s.
By the end of the 1950s, war-ravaged Europe had largely finished
reconstruction and began a tremendous economic boom. World War II had
brought about a huge leveling of social classes in which the remnants
of the old feudal gentry disappeared. There was a major expansion of
the middle class in western European countries and by the 1960s, many
working-class people in Western Europe could afford a radio,
television, refrigerator, and motor vehicle. Meanwhile, the East such
as the Soviet union and other Warsaw Pact countries were improving
quickly after rebuilding from WWII. The United States, after sluggish
economic growth during the 1950s, also experienced a major '60s boom.
Real GDP growth averaged 6% a year during the second half of the
decade. Thus, the overall worldwide economic trend in the
one of prosperity, expansion of the middle class, and the
proliferation of new domestic technology.
The confrontation between the US and the
Soviet Union dominated
geopolitics during the '60s, with the struggle expanding into
developing nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia as the Soviet
Union moved from being a regional to a truly global superpower and
began vying for influence in the developing world. After President
Kennedy's assassination, direct tensions between the US and Soviet
Union cooled and the superpower confrontation moved into a contest for
control of the Third World, a battle characterized by proxy wars,
funding of insurgencies, and puppet governments.
In response to civil disobedience campaigns from groups like the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), U.S. President John F.
Kennedy, a Keynesian and staunch anti-communist, pushed for social
reforms. Kennedy's assassination in
1963 was a shock. Liberal reforms
were finally passed under
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson including civil rights for
African Americans· and healthcare for the elderly and the poor.
Despite his large-scale
Great Society programs, Johnson was
increasingly reviled by the
New Left at home and abroad. The
heavy-handed American role in the
Vietnam War outraged student
protestors around the globe. The assassination of Martin Luther King,
Jr. upon working with underpaid Tennessee garbage collectors and the
Vietnam War movement, and the police response towards protesters
1968 Democratic National Convention, defined politics of
violence in the United States.
In Western Europe and Japan, organizations such as those present at
May 1968, the Red Army Faction, and the
Zengakuren tested liberal
democracy's ability to satisfy its marginalized or alienated citizenry
amidst post-industrial age hybrid capitalist economies. In Britain,
the Labour Party gained power in 1964. In France, the protests of
1968 led to President
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle temporarily fleeing the
country. For some, May
1968 meant the end of traditional collective
action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated mainly by the
so-called new social movements.
Italy formed its first
left-of-center government in March
1962 with a coalition of Christian
Democrats, Social Democrats, and moderate Republicans. Socialists
joined the ruling block in December 1963. In Brazil, João Goulart
became president after
Jânio Quadros resigned. In Africa the 1960s
was a period of radical political change as 32 countries gained
independence from their European colonial rulers.
Politics and wars
Vietnam War (1955–1975)
The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet
influence, after the
Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official
Sino-Soviet split of 1961
The Cold War:
Vietnam War (1955–1975)
1961 – Substantial (approximately 700) American advisory forces
first arrive in Vietnam.
1962 – By mid-1962, the number of U.S. military advisers in South
Vietnam had risen from 900 to 12,000.
1963 – By the time of U.S. President John F. Kennedy's death there
were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from
Eisenhower's 900 advisors to cope with rising guerrilla activity in
1964 – In direct response to the minor naval engagement known as the
Gulf of Tonkin incident
Gulf of Tonkin incident which occurred on 2 August 1964, the Gulf of
Tonkin Resolution, a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress, was passed
on 10 August 1964. The resolution gave U.S. President Lyndon B.
Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by
Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. The Johnson
administration subsequently cited the resolution as legal authority
for its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam
1966 – After
1966 with the draft in place more than 500,000 troops
were sent to
Vietnam by the Johnson administration and college
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) – an unsuccessful attempt by a
CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern
Cuba with support
from U.S. government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government
of Fidel Castro.
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974) – the war was fought between
Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in
Portugal's African colonies. It was a decisive ideological struggle
and armed conflict of the cold war in African (Portuguese Africa and
surrounding nations) and European (mainland Portugal) scenarios.
Unlike other European nations, the Portuguese regime did not leave its
African colonies, or the overseas provinces, during the
1960s. During the 1960s, various armed independence movements, most
prominently led by communist-led parties who cooperated under the
CONCP umbrella and pro-U.S. groups, became active in these areas, most
notably in Angola, Mozambique, and Portuguese Guinea. During the war,
several atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the
The Indo-Pakistani War of
1965 began in September.
Arab–Israeli conflict (early-20th century-present)
Six Days War
Six Days War (June 1967) – a war between
Israel and the neighboring
states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The Arab states of Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia,
Algeria also contributed troops
and arms. At the war's end,
Israel had gained control of the Sinai
Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the
Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the
region to this day.
A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition during
the Nigerian blockade of
Algerian War came to a close in 1962.
Nigeria Civil War
Nigeria Civil War began in 1967.
Civil wars in Laos and
Sudan rage on throughout the decade.
Al-Wadiah War was a military conflict which broke out on 27
Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of South
Cultural Revolution in
China (1966–1976) – a period of widespread
social and political upheaval in the People's Republic of
was launched by Mao Zedong, the chairman of the
Communist Party of
China. Mao alleged that "liberal bourgeois" elements were permeating
the party and society at large and that they wanted to restore
capitalism. Mao insisted that these elements be removed through
post-revolutionary class struggle by mobilizing the thoughts and
actions of China's youth, who formed Red Guards groups around the
country. The movement subsequently spread into the military, urban
workers, and the party leadership itself. Although Mao himself
officially declared the
Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, the
power struggles and political instability between
1969 and the arrest
Gang of Four
Gang of Four in 1976 are now also widely regarded as part of
The Troubles in Northern Ireland began with the rise of the Northern
Ireland civil rights movement in the mid-1960s, the conflict continued
into the later 1990s.
Compton's Cafeteria Riot
Compton's Cafeteria Riot occurred in August
1966 in the Tenderloin
district of San Francisco. This incident was one of the first recorded
transgender riots in
United States history, preceding the more famous
Stonewall Riots in New York City by three years.
Stonewall riots occurred in June
1969 in New York City. The
Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations
against a police raid that took place in the Stonewall Inn, in the
Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. They are frequently
cited as the first instance in American history when people in the
homosexual community fought back against a government-sponsored system
that persecuted sexual minorities, and they have become the defining
event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United
States and around the world.
1968 student and worker uprisings in France.
Mass socialist or
Communist movement in most European countries
France and Italy), with which the student-based new left
was able to forge a connection. The most spectacular manifestation of
this was the May student revolt of
1968 in Paris that linked up with a
general strike of ten million workers called by the trade unions; and
for a few days seemed capable of overthrowing the government of
Charles de Gaulle. De Gaulle went off to visit French troops in
Germany to check on their loyalty. Major concessions were won for
trade union rights, higher minimum wages and better working
University students protested in the hundreds of thousands against the
Vietnam War in London, Paris, Berlin and Rome.
In Eastern Europe students also drew inspiration from the protests in
the West. In Poland and Yugoslavia they protested against restrictions
on free speech by communist regimes.
Tlatelolco massacre – was a government massacre of student and
civilian protesters and bystanders that took place during the
afternoon and night of 2 October 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres
Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of
Main article: List of coups d'état and coup attempts
Prominent coups d'état of the decade included:
On 16 May 1961, a coup in
South Korea led by army officer Park
Chung-hee made the establishment of temporary military rule.
In 1963, a coup in
South Viet Nam
South Viet Nam leads to the death of President Ngô
Đình Diệm and the establishment of temporary military rule.
On 21 April 1967, in Greece a group of colonels established a military
dictatorship for seven years.
In 1968, a coup in
Iraq led to the overthrow of
Abdul Rahman Arif
Abdul Rahman Arif by
the Arab Socialist Baath Party.
On 1 September 1969, a small group of military officers led by the
Muammar Gaddafi overthrows monarchy in Libya.
Pictures of Soviet missile silos in Cuba, taken by
United States spy
planes on 1 November 1962.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis (16–28 October 1962) – a near-military
confrontation between the U.S. and the
Soviet Union about the presence
of Soviet missiles in Cuba. After an American Naval (quarantine)
Soviet Union under the leadership of Nikita
Khrushchev agreed to remove their missiles from
Cuba in exchange for
the U.S. removing its missiles from Turkey.
On 13 February 1960,
France detonated its first atomic bomb. France
possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1968.
On 16 October 1964,
China detonated its first atomic bomb. China
possessed a hydrogen bomb by 1967.
Decolonization and independence
The transformation of Africa from colonialism to independence in what
is known as the decolonisation of Africa dramatically accelerated
during the decade, with 32 countries gaining independence between 1960
and 1968, marking the end of the European empires that once dominated
the African continent. However, the noble aspirations of these new
nations quickly faded, and many states descended into
anarchy, kleptocracy, dictatorships, and/or civil war. The road to
prosperity has been difficult: As of 2011[update], by many measures
Africa continues to possess the poorest population in the world as
well as the lowest life expectancy.
Prominent political events
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, D.C.,
28 August 1963
United States presidential election,
1960 – The very close
campaign was the series of four Kennedy–Nixon debates; they were the
first presidential debates held on television. Kennedy won a close
1961 – President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy promised some more aggressive
confrontation with the Soviet Union; he also established the Peace
Betty Friedan published the book The Feminine Mystique,
reawakening the feminist movement and being largely responsible for
it's second wave.
Civil rights becomes a central issue, as the Birmingham
campaign and Birmingham riot lead to President Kennedy's Civil Rights
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the March
on Washington, and the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
1963 – Kennedy was assassinated and replaced by Vice President
Lyndon Johnson. The nation was in shock. For the next half-century,
conspiracy theorists concocted numerous alternative explanations to
the official report that a lone gunman killed Kennedy.
1964 – Johnson pressed for civil rights legislation. Civil Rights
1964 signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This
landmark piece of legislation in the
United States outlawed racial
segregation in schools, public places, and employment. The first black
riots erupt in major cities.
1964 – Johnson was reelected over Conservative spokesman Senator
Barry Goldwater by wide landslide; Liberals gained full control of
Wilderness Act signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson
on 3 September.
1965 – After the events of the
Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches the
National Voting Rights Act of
1965 was lobbied for, and then signed
into law, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Voting Rights Act
outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had caused the
widespread disenfranchisement of
African Americans in the United
1968 – U.S. President
Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon was elected defeating Vice
Hubert H. Humphrey
Hubert H. Humphrey in November.
1969 – U.S. President
Richard Nixon was inaugurated in January 1969;
promised "peace with honor" to end the
Vietnam War .
The Quiet Revolution
The Quiet Revolution in
Quebec altered the province-city-state into a
more secular society. The Jean Lesage Liberal government created a
welfare state État-Providence and fomented the rise of active
nationalism among Francophone French-speaking QuebecerQuébécois.
On 15 February 1965, the new Flag of
Canada was adopted in Canada,
after much anticipated debate known as the Great Canadian Flag Debate.
In 1960, the
Canadian Bill of Rights
Canadian Bill of Rights becomes law, and suffrage, and
the right for any Canadian citizen to vote, was finally adopted by
John Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservative government. The new
election act allowed First Nations people to vote for the first time.
The peak of the student and
New Left protests in
1968 coincided with
political upheavals in a number of other countries. Although these
events often sprung from completely different causes, they were
influenced by reports and images of what was happening in the United
States and France.
By the late 1960s, Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara's famous image
had become a popular symbol of rebellion for the New Left
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November
British Prime Minister
Harold Macmillan delivered his Wind of Change
(speech) in 1960.
Construction of the
1961 to prevent East Germans from
escaping to the West.
Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII calls the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council of the Catholic
Church, continued by Pope Paul VI, which met from 11 October 1962,
until 8 December 1965.
In October 1964, Soviet leader
Nikita Khrushchev was expelled from
office due to his increasingly erratic and authoritarian behavior.
Leonid Brezhnev and
Alexei Kosygin then became the new leaders of the
1968 was the year of Alexander Dubček's Prague
Spring, a source of inspiration to many Western leftists who admired
Dubček's "socialism with a human face". The Soviet invasion of
Czechoslovakia in August ended these hopes and also fatally damaged
the chances of the orthodox communist parties drawing many recruits
from the student protest movement.
Relations with the
United States remained hostile during the 1960s,
although representatives from both countries held periodic meetings in
Warsaw, Poland (since there was no U.S. embassy in China). President
Kennedy had plans to restore Sino-US relations, but his assassination,
the war in Vietnam, and the
Cultural Revolution put an end to that.
Richard Nixon took office in
1969 was there another
Following Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's expulsion in 1964,
Sino-Soviet relations devolved into open hostility. The Chinese were
deeply disturbed by the Soviet suppression of the
Prague Spring in
1968, as the latter now claimed the right to intervene in any country
it saw as deviating from the correct path of socialism. Finally, in
March 1969, armed clashes took place along the Sino-Soviet border in
Manchuria. This drove the Chinese to restore relations with the U.S.,
Mao Zedong decided that the
Soviet Union was a much greater threat.
India a literary and cultural movement started in Calcutta, Patna,
and other cities by a group of writers and painters who called
themselves "Hungryalists", or members of the Hungry generation. The
band of writers wanted to change virtually everything and were
arrested with several cases filed against them on various charges.
They ultimately won these cases.
On 1 September 1969, the Libyan monarchy was overthrown, and a
radical, revolutionary, government headed by Col. Muammar al-Gadaffi
In 1964, a successful coup against the democratically elected
government of Brazilian president João Goulart, initiated a military
dictatorship that caused over 20 years of oppression.
The Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara travelled to Africa
Bolivia in his campaigning to spread worldwide revolution. He
was captured and executed in
1967 by the Bolivian army, and afterwards
became an iconic figure for the left wing around the world.
Juan Velasco Alvarado
Juan Velasco Alvarado took power by a coup in Peru in 1968.
Notable world leaders
Note: Names of world leaders shown below in bold remained in power
continuously throughout the decade.
This list needs to be alphabetized. See Help:Sorting.
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Charles de Gaulle
Lester B. Pearson
Eduardo Frei Montalva
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Jan de Quay
Piet de Jong
Josip Broz Tito
The decade began with a recession from 1960–61, at that time
unemployment was considered high at around 7%. In his campaign, John
F. Kennedy promised to "get America moving again." His goal was
economic growth of 4–6% per year and unemployment below 4%. To do
this, he instituted a 7% tax credit for businesses that invest in new
plants and equipment. By the end of the decade, median family income
had risen from $8,540 in
1963 to $10,770 by 1969.
Although the first half of the decade had low inflation, by 1966
Kennedy's tax credit had reduced unemployment to 3.7% and inflation
remained below 2%. With the economy booming Johnson began his "Great
Society" which vastly expanded social programs. By the end of the
decade under Nixon, the combined inflation and unemployment rate known
as the misery index (economics) had exploded to nearly 10% with
inflation at 6.2% and unemployment at 3.5% and by 1975 the misery
index was almost 20%.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy assassination – President Kennedy with his wife,
Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential
limousine, minutes before his assassination.
1960s were marked by several notable assassinations:
1960 – Inejiro Asanuma, leader of the
1961 – Patrice Lumumba, the Prime Minister of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo; Maurice Mpolo, Minister of Youth and
Sports; Joseph Okito, Vice-President of the Senate. Assassinated by a
Belgian and Congolese firing squad outside Lubumbashi.
1961 Alphonse Songolo, former Minister of Communications
of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Gilbert Pongo, intelligence
officer and communications official. Shot in Kisangani.
Rafael Trujillo Dictator of Dominican Republic for 31
years, by a number of plotters including a general in his army.
1963 – Sylvanus Olympio, the Prime Minister of Togo, is
killed during the
1963 Togolese coup d'état. His body is dumped in
front of the U.S. embassy in Lomé.
1963 – Grigoris Lambrakis, Greek left-wing MP by far-right
extremists with connections to the police and the army in
1963 – Medgar Evers, an
NAACP field secretary. Assassinated
by Byron de la Beckwith, a member of the
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan in Jackson,
1963 – Ngô Đình Diệm, President of South Vietnam,
along with his brother and chief political adviser, Ngô Đình Nhu.
Dương Hiếu Nghĩa and
Nguyễn Văn Nhung
Nguyễn Văn Nhung in the
back of an armoured personnel carrier.
1963 – John F. Kennedy, President of the United States.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald while riding in a motorcade through
Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas.
1964 – Jason Sendwe, President of North Katanga Province,
Democratic Republic of the Congo. Executed by Simba rebels in
1965 – Humberto Delgado. Assassinated by Portuguese
dictator Salazar's political police
PIDE in Spain, near the Portuguese
1965 – Malcolm X. Assassinated by members of the Nation
of Islam in New York City. There is a dispute about which members
killed Malcolm X.
1966 – Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister of South Africa
and architect of apartheid was stabbed to death by Dimitri Tsafendas,
a parliamentary messenger. He survived a previous attempt on his life
1967 – George Lincoln Rockwell, leader of the American
Nazi Party. Assassinated by
John Patler in Arlington, Virginia.
1967 – Che Guevara, assassinated by the CIA and Bolivian
1968 – Martin Luther King, Jr., civil rights leader.
James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee.
1968 – Robert F. Kennedy,
United States Senator. Assassinated
Sirhan Sirhan in Los Angeles, after taking
California in the
presidential national primaries.
1960 Valdivia earthquake, also known as the Great Chilean
earthquake, is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded,
rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It caused localized tsunamis
that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 meters
(82 ft). The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and
devastated Hilo, Hawaii.
1963 Skopje earthquake was a 6.1 moment magnitude earthquake which
occurred in Skopje, SR Macedonia (present-day Republic of Macedonia)
on 26 July
1963 which killed over 1,070 people, injured between 3,000
and 4,000 and left more than 200,000 people homeless. About 80% of the
city was destroyed.
1963 – Vajont dam disaster – The Vajont dam flood in
caused by a mountain sliding in the dam, and causing a flood wave that
killed approximately 2,000 people in the towns in its path.
1964 – The Good Friday earthquake, the most powerful earthquake
recorded in the U.S. and North America, struck
Alaska and killed 143
Hurricane Betsy caused severe damage to the U.S. Gulf Coast,
especially in the state of Louisiana.
1969 – The
Cuyahoga River caught fire in Ohio. Fires had erupted on
the river many times, including 22 June 1969, when a river fire
captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga
as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person
"does not drown but decays." This helped spur legislative action on
water pollution control resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement, and the creation of the federal Environmental
Hurricane Camille hit the U.S. Gulf Coast at
Status. To date it is the strongest hurricane ever recorded at
landfall in means of sustained windspeed in the Atlantic Basin,
reaching sustained winds of 190 mph and a low pressure of 905
mbs. It is one of only three hurricanes in the Atlantic to ever make
Category 5 Status and one of only four hurricanes
worldwide to reach a maximum sustained windspeed of 190 mph.
On 16 December 1960, a
United Airlines DC-8 and a Trans World Airlines
Lockheed Constellation collided over New York City and crashed,
killing 134 people.
On 16 March 1962, Flying Tiger Line Flight 739, a Lockheed Super
Constellation, inexplicably disappeared over the Western Pacific,
leaving all 107 on board presumed dead. Since the wreckage of the
aircraft is lost to this day, the cause of the crash remains a mystery
to this day.
On 3 June 1962, Air
France Flight 007, a Boeing 707, crashed on
takeoff from Paris. 130 people were killed in the crash while 2
On 20 May 1965,
PIA Flight 705
PIA Flight 705 crashed on approach to Cairo, Egypt.
121 died while 6 survived.
On 4 February 1966, All Nippon Airways Flight 60, a Boeing 727,
Tokyo Bay for reasons unknown. All 133 people on board
On 5 March 1966,
BOAC Flight 911
BOAC Flight 911 broke up in mid-air and crashed on
the slopes of Mount Fuji. All 124 aboard died.
On 8 December 1966, the car ferry
SS Heraklion sank in the Aegean Sea
during a storm, killing 217 people.
On 16 March 1969, a DC-9 operating
Viasa Flight 742
Viasa Flight 742 crashed in the
Venezuelan city of Maracaibo. A total of 155 people died in the crash.
Social and political movements
Counterculture and social revolution
Counterculture of the 1960s
Counterculture of the 1960s and Timeline of 1960s
Flower Power Bus
In the second half of the decade, young people began to revolt against
the conservative norms of the time, as well as remove themselves from
mainstream liberalism, in particular the high level of materialism
which was so common during the era. This created a "counterculture"
that sparked a social revolution throughout much of the Western world.
It began in the
United States as a reaction against the conservatism
and social conformity of the 1950s, and the U.S. government's
extensive military intervention in Vietnam. The youth involved in the
popular social aspects of the movement became known as hippies. These
groups created a movement toward liberation in society, including the
sexual revolution, questioning authority and government, and demanding
more freedoms and rights for women and minorities. The Underground
Press, a widespread, eclectic collection of newspapers served as a
unifying medium for the counterculture. The movement was also marked
by the first widespread, socially accepted drug use (including
marijuana) and psychedelic music.
Main article: Opposition to
United States involvement in the Vietnam
A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at
the Pentagon during an anti-
Vietnam War protest. Arlington, Virginia,
The war in
Vietnam would eventually lead to a commitment of over half
a million American troops, resulting in over 58,500 American deaths
and producing a large-scale antiwar movement in the United States. As
late as the end of 1965, few Americans protested the American
involvement in Vietnam, but as the war dragged on and the body count
continued to climb, civil unrest escalated. Students became a powerful
and disruptive force and university campuses sparked a national debate
over the war. As the movement's ideals spread beyond college campuses,
doubts about the war also began to appear within the administration
itself. A mass movement began rising in opposition to the
ending in the massive Moratorium protests in 1969, as well as the
movement of resistance to conscription ("the Draft") for the
The antiwar movement was initially based on the older
movement, heavily influenced by the American
Communist Party, but by
1960s it outgrew this and became a broad-based mass movement
centered in universities and churches: one kind of protest was called
a "sit-in". Other terms heard in the
United States included "the
Draft", "draft dodger", "conscientious objector", and "
Voter age-limits were challenged by the phrase: "If you're old enough
to die for your country, you're old enough to vote."
Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
Leaders of the civil rights movement in front of the statue of Abraham
Lincoln, 28 August 1963
Beginning in the mid-
1950s and continuing into the late 1960s,
African-Americans in the
United States aimed at outlawing racial
discrimination against black Americans and voting rights to them. This
article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968,
particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power movement,
which lasted roughly from
1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims of the civil
rights movement to include racial dignity, economic and political
self-sufficiency, and anti-imperialism.
The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance.
Between 1955 and 1968, acts of civil disobedience and nonviolent
protest produced crisis situations between activists and government
authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and
communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that
highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of
protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the
successful Montgomery Bus
Boycott (1955–1956) in Alabama; "sit-ins"
such as the influential
Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina;
marches, such as the
Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama;
and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the civil rights
movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned
discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in
employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act
of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration
and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry
to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and
the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that banned discrimination in the sale
or rental of housing.
Hispanic and Chicano movement
Another large ethnic minority group, the Mexican-Americans, are among
Hispanics in the U.S. who fought to end racial discrimination
and socioeconomic disparity. The largest Mexican-American populations
was in the Southwestern United States, such as
California with over 1
Chicanos in Los Angeles alone, and
Jim Crow laws
Mexican-Americans as "non-white" in some instances to be
Chicano Movement addressed what it perceived to be
negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American
consciousness. It did so through the creation of works of literary and
visual art that validated Mexican-American ethnicity and culture.
Chicanos fought to end social stigmas such as the usage of the Spanish
language and advocated official bilingualism in federal and state
Chicano Movement also addressed discrimination in public and
private institutions. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican
Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from
discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin
American Citizens, was formed in 1929 and remains active today.
The movement gained momentum after World War II when groups such as
the American G.I. Forum, which was formed by returning Mexican
American veterans, joined in the efforts by other civil rights
Mexican-American civil-rights activists achieved several major legal
victories including the 1947
Mendez v. Westminster
Mendez v. Westminster U.S. Supreme Court
ruling which declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin
descent" was unconstitutional and the 1954 Hernandez v.
which declared that Mexican Americans and other racial groups in the
United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th
Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
The most prominent civil-rights organization in the Mexican-American
community, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
(MALDEF), was founded in 1968. Although modeled after the NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, MALDEF has also taken on many of
the functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and
training of local leaders.
Meanwhile, Puerto Ricans in the U.S. mainland fought against racism,
police brutality and socioeconomic problems affecting the three
million Puerto Ricans residing in 50 states, the main concentration
was in New York City.
1960s and the following 1970s, Hispanic-American culture was on
the rebound like ethnic music, foods, culture and identity both became
popular and assimilated into the American mainstream. Spanish-language
television networks, radio stations and newspapers increased in
presence across the country, especially in U.S.–Mexican border towns
and East Coast cities like New York City, and the growth of the Cuban
American community in Miami, Florida.
The multitude of discrimination at this time represented an inhuman
side to a society that in the
1960s was upheld as a world and industry
leader. The issues of civil rights and warfare became major points of
reflection of virtue and democracy, what once was viewed as
traditional and inconsequential was now becoming the significance in
the turning point of a culture. A document known as the Port Huron
Statement exemplifies these two conditions perfectly in its first hand
depiction, "while these and other problems either directly oppressed
us or rankled our consciences and became our own subjective concerns,
we began to see complicated and disturbing paradoxes in our
surrounding America. The declaration "all men are created equal..."
rang hollow before the facts of Negro life in the South and the big
cities of the North. The proclaimed peaceful intentions of the United
States contradicted its economic and military investments in the Cold
War status quo." These intolerable issues became too visible to ignore
therefore its repercussions were feared greatly, the realization that
we as individuals take the responsibility for encounter and resolution
in our lives issues was an emerging idealism of the 1960s.
Main article: Second-wave feminism
A second wave of feminism in the
United States and around the world
gained momentum in the early 1960s. While the first wave of the early
20th century was centered on gaining suffrage and overturning de jure
inequalities, the second wave was focused on changing cultural and
social norms and de facto inequalities associated with women. At the
time, a woman's place was generally seen as being in the home, and
they were excluded from many jobs and professions. In the U.S., a
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women found discrimination
against women in the workplace and every other aspect of life, a
revelation which launched two decades of prominent women-centered
legal reforms (i.e., the Equal Pay Act of 1963, Title IX, etc.) which
broke down the last remaining legal barriers to women's personal
freedom and professional success. Feminists took to the streets,
marching and protesting, writing books and debating to change social
and political views that limited women. In 1963, with Betty Friedan's
revolutionary book, The Feminine Mystique, the role of women in
society, and in public and private life was questioned. By 1966, the
movement was beginning to grow in size and power as women's group
spread across the country and Friedan, along with other feminists,
founded the National Organization for Women. In 1968, "Women's
Liberation" became a household term as, for the first time, the new
women's movement eclipsed the civil rights movement when New York
Radical Women, led by Robin Morgan, protested the annual Miss America
pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The movement continued
throughout the next decades.
Gloria Steinem was a key feminist.
Gay rights movement
Gay Liberation and LGBT social movements
The United States, in the middle of a social revolution, led the world
in LGBT rights in the late
1960s and early 1970s. Inspired by the
civil-rights movement and the women's movement, early gay-rights
pioneers had begun, by the 1960s, to build a movement. These groups
were rather conservative in their practices, emphasizing that gay men
and women are no different from those who are straight and deserve
full equality. This philosophy would be dominant again after AIDS, but
by the very end of the 1960s, the movement's goals would change and
become more radical, demanding a right to be different, and
encouraging gay pride.
The symbolic birth of the gay rights movement would not come until the
decade had almost come to a close. Gays were not allowed by law to
congregate. Gay establishments such as the
Stonewall Inn in New York
City were routinely raided by the police to arrest gay people. On a
night in late June 1969, LGBT people resisted, for the first time, a
police raid, and rebelled openly in the streets. This uprising called
Stonewall Riots began a new period of the LGBT rights movement
that in the next decade would cause dramatic change both inside the
LGBT community and in the mainstream American culture.
The rapid rise of a "New Left" applied the class perspective of
Marxism to postwar America, but had little organizational connection
with older Marxist organizations such as the
Communist Party, and even
went as far as to reject organized labor as the basis of a unified
left-wing movement. Sympathetic to the ideology of C. Wright Mills,
New Left differed from the traditional left in its resistance to
dogma and its emphasis on personal as well as societal change.
Students for a Democratic
Society (SDS) became the organizational
focus of the
New Left and was the prime mover behind the opposition to
the War in Vietnam. The
1960s left also consisted of ephemeral
campus-based Trotskyist, Maoist and anarchist groups, some of which by
the end of the
1960s had turned to militancy.
1960s was also associated with a large increase in crime and urban
unrest of all types. Between
1969 reported incidences of
violent crime per 100,000 people in the
United States nearly doubled
and have yet to return to the levels of the early 1960s. Large
riots broke out in many cities like Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, New
York City, Newark, New Jersey, Oakland,
California and Washington,
D.C. By the end of the decade, politicians like
George Wallace and
Richard Nixon campaigned on restoring law and order to a nation
troubled with the new unrest.
Science and technology
Apollo 11 mission landed the first humans on the Moon in July
Space Race between the
United States and the Soviet Union
dominated the 1960s. The Soviets sent the first man, Yuri Gagarin,
into outer space during the
Vostok 1 mission on 12 April
scored a host of other successes, but by the middle of the decade the
U.S. was taking the lead. In May 1961, President Kennedy set for the
U.S. the goal of a manned spacecraft landing on the Moon by the end of
In June 1963,
Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space. In
1965, Soviets launched the first probe to hit another planet of the
Solar system (Venus), Venera 3, and the first probe to make a soft
landing on and transmit from the surface of the moon, Luna 9. In March
Soviet Union launched Luna 10, which became the first space
probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
The deaths of astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger B. Chaffee
Apollo 1 fire on 27 January
1967 put a temporary hold on the
U.S. space program, but afterward progress was steady, with the Apollo
8 crew (Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, William Anders) being the first
manned mission to orbit another celestial body (the moon) during
Christmas of 1968.
On 20 July 1969, Apollo 11, the first human spaceflight landed on the
Moon. Launched on 16 July 1969, it carried mission Commander Neil
Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and the Lunar Module
Pilot Buzz Aldrin.
Apollo 11 fulfilled President John F. Kennedy's
goal of reaching the moon by the end of the 1960s, which he had
expressed during a speech given before a joint session of Congress on
25 May 1961: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to
achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the
Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."
The Soviet program lost its sense of direction with the death of chief
Sergey Korolyov in 1966. Political pressure, conflicts
between different design bureaus, and engineering problems caused by
an inadequate budget would doom the Soviet attempt to land men on the
A succession of unmanned American and Soviet probes traveled to the
Moon, Venus, and
Mars during the 1960s, and commercial satellites also
came into use.
Other scientific developments
The birth control pill was introduced in 1960.
1960 – The female birth-control contraceptive, the pill, was
released in the
United States after Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
1967 – First heart transplantation operation by Professor Christiaan
Barnard in South Africa.
1960s began, American cars showed a rapid rejection of 1950s
styling excess, and would remain relatively clean and boxy for the
entire decade. The horsepower race reached its climax in the late
1960s, with muscle cars sold by most makes. The compact Ford Mustang,
launched in 1964, was one of the decade's greatest successes. The "Big
Three" American automakers enjoyed their highest ever sales and
profitability in the 1960s, but the demise of
American Motors Corporation
American Motors Corporation as the last significant independent. The
decade would see the car market split into different size classes for
the first time, and model lineups now included compact and mid-sized
cars in addition to full-sized ones.
The popular modern hatchback, with front-wheel-drive and a two-box
configuration, was born in
1965 with the introduction of the Renault
16，many of this car's design principles live on in its modern
counterparts: a large rear opening incorporating the rear window,
foldable rear seats to extend boot space. The Mini, released in 1959,
had first popularised the front wheel drive two-box configuration, but
technically was not a hatchback as it had a fold-down bootlid.
Japanese cars also began to gain acceptance in the Western market, and
popular economy models such as the Toyota Corolla, Datsun 510, and the
first popular Japanese sports car, the Datsun 240Z, were released in
the mid- to late-1960s.
Electronics and communications
1960s technology, including two rotary-dial telephones and
a Kodak camera.
1960 – The first working laser was demonstrated in May by Theodore
Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories.
Tony Hoare announces the
Quicksort algorithm, the most common
sorter on computers.
1961 – Unimate, the first industrial robot, was introduced.
1962 – First transatlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar
1962 – The first computer video game, Spacewar!, was invented.
1962 – Red LEDs were developed.
1963 – The first geosynchronous communications satellite, Syncom 2
1963 – First transpacific satellite broadcast via the Relay 1
Touch-Tone telephones introduced.
Sketchpad was the first touch interactive computer graphics
1963 – The
Nottingham Electronic Valve company produced the first
home video recorder called the "Telcan".
8-track tape audio format was developed.
1964 – The
Compact Cassette was introduced.
1964 – The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment
Corporation's 12-bit PDP-8, was marketed.
1964 – The programming language
BASIC was created.
1964 – The world's first supercomputer, the CDC 6600, was
Fairchild Semiconductor released ICs with dual in-line
SECAM broadcast color television systems started
publicly transmitting in Europe.
1967 – The first
Automatic Teller Machine
Automatic Teller Machine was opened in Barclays
Ralph Baer developed his
Brown Box (a working prototype of
the Magnavox Odyssey).
1968 – The first public demonstration of the computer mouse, the
paper paradigm Graphical user interface, video conferencing,
teleconferencing, email, and hypertext.
1969 – Arpanet, the research-oriented prototype of the Internet, was
1969 – CCD invented at AT&T Bell Labs, used as the electronic
imager in still and video cameras.
The counterculture movement dominated the second half of the 1960s,
its most famous moments being the
Summer of Love
Summer of Love in San Francisco in
1967, and the
Woodstock Festival in upstate New York in 1969.
Psychedelic drugs, especially LSD, were widely used medicinally,
spiritually and recreationally throughout the late 1960s, and were
Timothy Leary with his slogan "Turn on, tune in, drop
Ken Kesey and the
Merry Pranksters also played a part in the
role of "turning heads on". Psychedelic influenced the music, artwork
and films of the decade, and a number of prominent musicians died of
drug overdoses (see 27 Club). There was a growing interest in Eastern
religions and philosophy, and many attempts were made to found
communes, which varied from supporting free love to religious
The Beatles arrive at
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy International
Airport, 7 February 1964
"The 60's [sic] were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi,
Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a
revolution of conscience. The Beatles, The Doors,
Jimi Hendrix created
revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí, with many
colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to
– Carlos Santana
The rock-and-roll movement of the
1950s quickly came to an end in 1959
as explained in the song Day The Music Died, the revelation that Jerry
Lee Lewis had married his 13 year old cousin, and the induction of
Elvis Presley into the US Army. As the
1960s began, the major
rock-and-roll stars of the '50s such as
Chuck Berry and Little Richard
had dropped off the charts and popular music in the US came to be
dominated by Motown girl groups and novelty pop songs. Another
important change in music during the early
1960s was the American folk
music revival which introduced Joan Baez, Pete Seeger, The Kingston
Trio, Harry Belafonte, Bob Dylan, Odetta, and many other
Singer-songwriters to the public.
Girl groups and female singers, such as the Shirelles, Betty Everett,
Little Eva, the Dixie Cups, the Ronettes, and the Supremes dominated
the charts in the early 1960s. This style consisted typically of light
pop themes about teenage romance, backed by vocal harmonies and a
strong rhythm. Most girl groups were African-American, but white girl
groups and singers, such as Lesley Gore, the Angels, and the
Shangri-Las emerged by 1963.
Around the same time, record producer
Phil Spector began producing
girl groups and created a new kind of pop music production that came
to be known as the Wall of Sound. This style emphasized higher budgets
and more elaborate arrangements, and more melodramatic musical themes
in place of a simple, light-hearted pop sound. Spector's innovations
became integral to the growing sophistication of popular music from
Also during the early '60s, surf rock emerged, a rock subgenre that
was centered in Southern
California and based on beach and surfing
themes, in addition to the usual songs about teenage romance and
The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys quickly became the premier surf rock band
and almost completely overshadowed the many lesser artists in the
Surf rock reached its peak in 1963–65, then gradually gave
way to bands influenced by the counterculture movement.
The car song also emerged as a rock subgenre in the early 60s, which
coupled with the surf rock subgenre. Such notable songs include
"Little Deuce Coupe," "409," and "Shut Down," all by the Beach Boys;
Jan and Dean's "Little Old Lady from Pasadena" and "Drag City," among
The early 60s also saw the golden age of another rock subgenre, the
teen tragedy song, with such songs as Ray Peterson's "Tell Laura I
Love Her," Jan and Dean's "Dead Man's Curve," the Shangri-Las' "Leader
of the Pack," and J. Frank Wilson and the Cavaliers' "Last Kiss."
While rock 'n' roll had 'disappeared' from the US charts in the early
'60s, it never died out in Europe and Britain in particular was a
hotbed of rock-and-roll activity during this time. In late 1963, the
Beatles embarked on their first US tour. A few months later,
rock-and-roll founding father
Chuck Berry emerged from a 2-1/2 year
prison stint and resumed recording and touring. The stage was set for
the spectacular revival of rock music.
In the UK, the Beatles played raucous rock 'n' roll – as well as doo
wop, girl-group songs, show tunes – and wore leather jackets. Their
Brian Epstein encouraged the group to wear suits. Beatlemania
abruptly exploded after the group's appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show
in 1964. Late in 1965, the Beatles released the album Rubber Soul
which marked the beginning of their transition to a sophisticated
power pop group with elaborate studio arrangements and production, and
a year after that, they gave up touring entirely to focus only on
albums. A host of imitators followed the Beatles in the so-called
British Invasion, including groups like the
Rolling Stones and the
Kinks who would become legends in their own right.
As the counterculture movement developed, artists began making new
kinds of music influenced by the use of psychedelic drugs. Guitarist
Jimi Hendrix emerged onto the scene in
1967 with a radically new
approach to electric guitar that replaced Chuck Berry, previously seen
as the gold standard of rock guitar. Rock artists began to take on
serious themes and social commentary/protest instead of simplistic pop
A major development in popular music during the mid-
1960s was the
movement away from singles and towards albums. Previously, popular
music was based around the 45 single (or even earlier, the 78 single)
and albums such as they existed were little more than a hit single or
two backed with filler tracks, instrumentals, and covers. The
development of the AOR (album oriented rock) format was complicated
and involved several concurrent events such as Phil Spector's Wall of
Sound, the introduction by
Bob Dylan of "serious" lyrics to rock
music, and the Beatles' new studio-based approach. In any case, after
1965 the vinyl LP had definitively taken over as the primary format
for all popular music styles.
Blues also continued to develop strongly during the '60s, but after
1965, it increasingly shifted to the young white rock audience and
away from its traditional black audience, which moved on to other
styles such as soul and funk.
Jazz music during the first half of the '60s was largely a
continuation of '50s styles, retaining its core audience of young,
urban, college-educated whites. By 1967, the death of several
important jazz figures such as
John Coltrane and Nat King Cole
precipitated a decline in the genre. The takeover of rock in the late
'60s largely spelled the end of jazz as a mainstream form of music,
after it had dominated much of the first half of the 20th century.
Country music gained popularity on the West Coast, due in large part
to the Bakersfield sound, led by
Buck Owens and Merle Haggard. Female
country artists were also becoming more mainstream (in a genre
dominated by men in prior decades), with such acts as Patsy Cline,
Loretta Lynn, and Tammy Wynette.
Significant events in music in the 1960s:
Elvis Presley returned to civilian life in the U.S. after two years
away in the U.S. Army. He resumes his musical career by recording
"It's Now or Never" and "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" in March 1960.
Country music stars Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas, and Hawkshaw Hawkins
were killed when their plane crashed in Camden, TN while returning
home from a
Kansas City benefit show in March 1963.
In July 1964, a plane crash claimed the life of another country music
legend, Jim Reeves, when the plane he was piloting crashed in a
turbulent thunderstorm while on final approach to Nashville
Sam Cooke was shot and killed at a motel in Los Angeles, California
[11 December 1964] at age 33 under suspicious circumstances.
Motown Record Corporation was founded in 1960. Its first Top Ten hit
was "Shop Around" by the Miracles in 1960. "Shop Around" peaked at
number-two on the Billboard Hot 100, and was Motown's first
Eric Burdon and his Band "The Animals" hit the No. 1 in
charts in the U.S. with their hit single, "House Of The Rising Sun" in
Folksinger and activist
Joan Baez released her debut album on Vanguard
Records in December 1960.
The Marvelettes scored Motown Record Corporation's first US No. 1
pop hit, "Please Mr. Postman" in 1961. Motown would score 110
Billboard Top-Ten hits during its run.
The Four Seasons released three straight number one hits
In a widely anticipated and publicized event,
The Beatles arrive in
America in February 1964, spearheading the British Invasion.
The Mary Poppins Original Soundtrack tops record charts. Sherman
Brothers receive Grammys and double Oscars.
Lesley Gore at age 17 hits number one on Billboard with "It's My
Party" and number two with "You Don't Own Me" behind the Beatles "I
Want To Hold Your Hand".
The Supremes scored twelve number-one hit singles between
1969, beginning with "Where Did Our Love Go".
The Kinks release "You Really Got Me" in August 1964, which tops the
British charts; it is regarded as the first hard rock hit and a
blueprint for related genres, such as heavy metal.
John Coltrane released
A Love Supreme
A Love Supreme in late 1964, considered among
the most acclaimed jazz albums of the era.
Grateful Dead was formed in
1965 (originally The Warlocks) thus
paving the way for the emergence of acid rock.
Bob Dylan went electric at the
1965 Newport Folk Festival.
Cilla Black's number-one hit "Anyone Who had a Heart" still remains
the top-selling single by a female artist in the UK from 1964.
Rolling Stones had a huge No. 1 hit with their song "(I Can't
Get No) Satisfaction" in the summer of 1965.
The Byrds released a cover of Bob Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man", which
reached No. 1 on the U.S. charts and repeated the feat in the
U.K. shortly thereafter. The extremely influential track effectively
creates the musical subgenre of folk rock.
Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone" is a top-five hit on both sides of
the Atlantic during the summer of 1965.
Bringing It All Back Home
Bringing It All Back Home and Highway 61
Revisited ushered in album-focused rock and the "folk rock" genre.
Simon and Garfunkel
Simon and Garfunkel released "The Sound of Silence" single in 1965.
The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys released
Pet Sounds in 1966, which significantly
influenced the Beatles'
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album
released the following year.
Bob Dylan was called "Judas" by an audience member during the
Free Trade Hall
Free Trade Hall concert, the start of the bootleg recording
industry follows, with recordings of this concert circulating for 30
years – wrongly labeled as – The Royal Albert Hall Concert before
a legitimate release in 1998 as The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan
Live 1966, The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert.
In February 1966, Nancy Sinatra's song "These Boots Are Made for
Walkin' " became very popular.
The Supremes A' Go-Go was the first album by a female group
to reach the top position of the Billboard magazine pop albums chart
in the United States.
The Seekers were the first Australian Group to have a number one with
"Georgy Girl" in 1966.
Jefferson Airplane released the influential
Surrealistic Pillow in
The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground released its self-titled debut album The Velvet
Underground & Nico in 1967.
The Doors released its self-titled debut album
The Doors in January
Forever Changes in 1967.
Procol Harum released
A Whiter Shade Of Pale
A Whiter Shade Of Pale in 1967.
Cream released "Disraeli Gears" in 1967.
Jimi Hendrix Experience
Jimi Hendrix Experience released two successful albums during
1967, Are You Experienced and Axis: Bold as Love, that innovate both
guitar, trio and recording techniques.
The Moody Blues
The Moody Blues released the album
Days of Future Passed
Days of Future Passed in November
R & B legend
Otis Redding has his first No. 1 hit with the
legendary Sitting on the Dock of the Bay. He also played at the
Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival in
1967 just before he died in a plane crash.
Pink Floyd released its debut record The Piper at the Gates of Dawn.
Bob Dylan released the
Country rock album John Wesley Harding in
Bee Gees released their international debut album
Bee Gees 1st in
1967 which included the pop standard "To Love Somebody".
Monterey Pop Festival
Monterey Pop Festival in
1967 was the beginning of the so-called
"Summer of Love".
The Beatles released
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967. It
was nicknamed "The Soundtrack of the Summer of Love".
Johnny Cash released
At Folsom Prison
At Folsom Prison in 1968.
The Yardbirds fold,
Led Zeppelin was formed by Jimmy Page
and manager Peter Grant, with Robert Plant,
John Bonham and John Paul
Jones; and, released their debut album Led Zeppelin.
Big Brother and the Holding Company, with
Janis Joplin as lead singer,
became an overnight sensation after their performance at the Monterey
Pop Festival in
1967 and released their second album Cheap Thrills in
Gram Parsons with
The Byrds released the extremely influential LP
Sweetheart of the Rodeo
Sweetheart of the Rodeo in late 1968, forming the basis for country
Jimi Hendrix Experience released the highly influential double LP
Electric Ladyland in
1968 that furthered the guitar and studio
innovations of his previous two albums.
Simon and Garfunkel
Simon and Garfunkel released the single "Mrs. Robinson" in 1968;
featured in the film "The Graduate".
Country music newcomer
Jeannie C. Riley
Jeannie C. Riley released the country and pop
hit "Harper Valley PTA" in 1968, which is about a miniskirt-wearing
mother of a teenage girl who was criticized by the local PTA for
supposedly setting a bad example for her daughter, but turns the
tables by exposing some of the PTA members' wrongdoings. The song,
along with Riley's mod persona in connection with it, apparently gave
country music a sexual revolution of its own, as hemlines of other
female country artists' stage attire began rising in the years that
Woodstock Festival, 1969
Sly & the Family Stone revolutionized black music with their
1968 hit single "Dance to the Music" and by
international sensations with the release of their hit record Stand!.
The band cemented their position as a vital counterculture band when
they performed at the Woodstock Festival.
The Gun released "Race with the Devil" in October 1968.
After a long performance drought,
Elvis Presley made a successful
return to TV and live performances after spending most of the decade
starring in movies, beginning with his '68 Comeback
1968 on NBC, followed in
1969 by a summer engagement in Las
Vegas, setting the stage for Presley's many concert tours and
continued Vegas engagements throughout the
1970s until his death in
Rolling Stones filmed the TV special The
Rolling Stones Rock and
Roll Circus in December
1968 but the film was not released for
transmission. Considered for decades as a fabled "lost" performance
until released in North America on
VHS in 1996. Features
performances from The Who;
The Dirty Mac featuring John Lennon, Eric
Clapton and Mitch Mitchell; Jethro Tull and Taj Mahal.
Spooky Tooth released their second album
Spooky Two in March 1969. The
album was an important hard rock milestone.
The Woodstock Festival, and four months later, the Altamont Free
Concert in 1969.
The Who released and toured the first rock opera Tommy in 1969.
MC5 released the live album
Kick Out the Jams
Kick Out the Jams in 1969.
Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band
Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band released the avant garde Trout
Mask Replica in 1969.
Creedence Clearwater Revival
Creedence Clearwater Revival released "Fortunate Son" in 1969. The
song amassed popularity with the Anti-War movement at the time and
would later be used in films, TV shows, and video games depicting the
Vietnam War or the U.S during the late
1960s and early 1970s
The Stooges released their debut album in 1969.
The Beatles released
Abbey Road in 1969.
King Crimson released their debut album In the Court of the Crimson
King in 1969.
See also: History of film § 1960s, and
1960s in film
The highest-grossing film of the decade was 20th Century Fox's The
Sound of Music (1965).
Some of Hollywood's most notable blockbuster films of the 1960s
2001: A Space Odyssey
I Am Curious (Yellow)
Bonnie and Clyde
Breakfast at Tiffany's
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Carnival of Souls
Cool Hand Luke
The Dirty Dozen
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
How the West Was Won
Ice Station Zebra
In the Heat of the Night
The Italian Job
It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
Jason and the Argonauts
Judgment at Nuremberg
The Jungle Book
Lawrence of Arabia
The Lion in Winter
The Longest Day
The Love Bug
A Man for All Seasons
The Manchurian Candidate
My Fair Lady
Night of the Living Dead
The Pink Panther
The Odd Couple
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Million Years B.C.
Planet of the Apes
Romeo and Juliet
The Sound of Music
Swiss Family Robinson
To Kill a Mockingbird
Valley of the Dolls
West Side Story
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
The Wild Bunch
The counterculture movement had a significant effect on cinema. Movies
began to break social taboos such as sex and violence causing both
controversy and fascination. They turned increasingly dramatic,
unbalanced, and hectic as the cultural revolution was starting. This
was the beginning of the
New Hollywood era that dominated the next
decade in theatres and revolutionized the film industry. Films of this
time also focused on the changes happening in the world. Dennis
Easy Rider (1969) focused on the drug culture of the time.
Movies also became more sexually explicit, such as Roger Vadim's
Barbarella (1968) as the counterculture progressed.
Art Cinema gains wider distribution and sees movements like
la Nouvelle Vague (The French New Wave) featuring French filmmakers
such as Roger Vadim, François Truffaut, Alain Resnais, and Jean-Luc
Cinéma vérité documentary movement in Canada,
the United States; Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, Chilean filmmaker
Alexandro Jodorowsky and Polish filmmakers
Roman Polanski and Wojciech
Jerzy Has produced original and offbeat masterpieces and the
high-point of Italian filmmaking with
Michelangelo Antonioni and
Federico Fellini making some of their most known films during this
period. Notable films from this period include: La Dolce Vita, 8½; La
Notte; L'Eclisse, The Red Desert; Blowup; Fellini Satyricon;
Accattone; The Gospel According to St. Matthew; Theorem; Winter Light;
The Silence; Persona; Shame; A Passion; Au Hasard Balthazar;
Mouchette; Last Year at Marienbad; Chronique d'un été; Titicut
Follies; High School; Salesman; La jetée; Warrendale; Knife in the
Water; Repulsion; The Saragossa Manuscript; El Topo; A Hard Day's
Night; and the cinema verite Dont Look Back.
In Japan, a film version of the story of the forty-seven ronin
entitled Chushingura: Hana no Maki, Yuki no Maki directed by Hiroshi
Inagaki was released in 1962, the legendary story was also remade as a
television series in Japan. Academy Award-winning Japanese director
Akira Kurosawa produced Yojimbo (1961), and
Sanjuro (1962), which both
Toshiro Mifune as a mysterious
Samurai swordsman for hire.
Like his previous films both had a profound influence around the
Spaghetti Western genre was a direct outgrowth of the
Kurosawa films. The influence of these films is most apparent in
A Fistful of Dollars
A Fistful of Dollars (1964) starring
Clint Eastwood and
Walter Hill's Last Man Standing (1996). Yojimbo was also the origin of
the "Man with No Name" trend which included Sergio Leone's For a Few
Dollars More, and
The Good, The Bad and The Ugly
The Good, The Bad and The Ugly both also starring
Clint Eastwood, and arguably continued through his
1968 opus Once Upon
a Time in the West, starring Henry Fonda, Charles Bronson, Claudia
Cardinale, and Jason Robards.
The Magnificent Seven
The Magnificent Seven a
western film directed by
John Sturges was a remake of Akira Kurosawa's
1954 film, Seven Samurai.
1960s were also about experimentation. With the explosion of
light-weight and affordable cameras, the underground avant-garde film
movement thrived. Canada's Michael Snow, Americans Kenneth Anger, Stan
Brakhage, Andy Warhol, and Jack Smith. Notable films in this genre
are: Dog Star Man; Scorpio Rising; Wavelength; Chelsea Girls; Blow
Job; Vinyl; Flaming Creatures.
Significant events in the film industry in the 1960s:
Removal of the Motion Picture Association of America's Production Code
The decline and end of the Studio System.
The rise of 'art house' films and theaters.
The end of the classical hollywood cinema era.
The beginning of the
New Hollywood Era due to the counterculture.
The rise of independent producers that worked outside the Studio
Move to all-color production in Hollywood films.
The invention of the
Nagra 1/4", sync-sound, portable open-reel tape
Expo 67 where new film formats like
Imax were invented and new ways of
displaying film were tested.
Flat-bed film editing tables appear, like the Steenbeck, they
eventually replace the
Moviola editing platform.
The French New Wave.
Direct Cinema and
Cinéma vérité documentaries.
1960s in television
The most prominent American TV series of the
1960s include: The Ed
Sullivan Show, Star Trek, Peyton Place, The Twilight Zone, The Outer
Limits, The Andy Williams Show, The Dean Martin Show, The Wonderful
World of Disney, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Beverly Hillbillies,
Bonanza, Batman, McHale's Navy, Laugh-In, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The
Fugitive, The Tonight Show, Gunsmoke, The Andy Griffith Show,
Gilligan's Island, Mission: Impossible, The Flintstones, The
Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, Lassie, The Danny Thomas Show, The
Lucy Show, My Three Sons, The Red Skelton Show,
Bewitched and I Dream
The Flintstones was a favoured show, receiving 40 million
views an episode with an average of 3 views a day. Some programming
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour became controversial by
challenging the foundations of America's corporate and governmental
controls; making fun of world leaders, and questioning U.S.
involvement in and escalation of the
Walt Disney, the founder of the
Walt Disney Co. died on 15 December
1966, from a major tumor in his left lung.
1960s in fashion
Significant fashion trends of the
The Beatles exerted an enormous influence on young men's fashions and
hairstyles in the
1960s which included most notably the mop-top
Beatle boots and the Nehru jacket.
The hippie movement late in the decade also had a strong influence on
clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans, tie-dye and batik
fabrics, as well as paisley prints.
The bikini came into fashion in
1963 after being featured in the film
Mary Quant invented the miniskirt, which became one of the most
popular fashion rages in the late
1960s among young women and teenage
girls. Its popularity continued throughout the first half of the 1970s
and then disappeared temporarily from mainstream fashion before making
a comeback in the mid-1980s.
Men's mainstream hairstyles ranged from the pompadour, the crew cut,
the flattop hairstyle, the tapered hairstyle, and short, parted hair
in the early part of the decade, to longer parted hairstyles with
sideburns towards the latter half of the decade.
Women's mainstream hairstyles ranged from beehive hairdos, the bird's
nest hairstyle, and the chignon hairstyle in the early part of the
decade, to very short styles popularized by
Mia Farrow in
Rosemary's Baby towards the latter half of the decade.
African-American hairstyles for men and women included the afro.
List of years in literature § 1960s
U.S. publication of previously banned works
The publication of Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer in the United
Grove Press led to a series of obscenity trials that
tested American laws on pornography. The U.S. Supreme Court, in Grove
Press, Inc., v. Gerstein, citing
Jacobellis v. Ohio
Jacobellis v. Ohio (which was decided
the same day in 1964), overruled the state court findings of obscenity
and declared the book a work of literature; it was one of the notable
events in what has come to be known as the sexual revolution. Elmer
Gertz, the lawyer who successfully argued the initial case for the
novel's publication in Illinois, became a lifelong friend of Miller's;
a volume of their correspondence has been published. Following the
trial, in 1964–65, other books of Miller's which had also been
banned in the US were published by Grove Press: Black Spring, Tropic
of Capricorn, Quiet Days in Clichy, Sexus, Plexus and Nexus.
There were six
Olympic Games held during the decade. These were:
1960 Summer Olympics – 25 August to 11 September 1960, in
1960 Winter Olympics – 18 to 28 February 1960, in Squaw
Valley, California, United States
1964 Summer Olympics – 10 to 24 October 1964, in Tokyo, Japan
1964 Winter Olympics – 29 January to 9 February 1964, in
1968 Summer Olympics – 12 to 27 October 1968, in
1968 Winter Olympics – 6 to 18 February 1968, in Grenoble,
There were two FIFA World Cups during the decade:
1962 FIFA World Cup – hosted in Chile, won by Brazil
1966 FIFA World Cup – hosted and won by England
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball expansion in
1961 included the formation of the
Los Angeles Angels, the move to Minnesota to become the Minnesota
Twins by the former Washington Senators and the formation of a new
franchise called the Washington Senators. Major League Baseball
sanctioned both the
Houston Colt .45s
Houston Colt .45s and the
New York Mets
New York Mets as new
National League franchises in 1962.
In 1969, the
American League expanded when the
Kansas City Royals and
Seattle Pilots, were admitted to the league prompting the expansion of
the post-season for the first time since the creation of the World
Series. The Pilots stayed just one season in Seattle before moving and
Milwaukee Brewers in 1970. The
National League also added
two teams in 1969, the
Montreal Expos and San Diego Padres. By 1969,
at the end of the
New York Mets
New York Mets won the
World Series in only
the 8th year of the team's existence.
The NBA tournaments during the
1960s were dominated by the Boston
Celtics, who won eight straight titles from 1959 to
1966 and added two
more consecutive championships in
1968 and 1969, aided by such players
as Bob Cousy, Bill Russell and John Havlicek. Other notable NBA
players included Wilt Chamberlain, Elgin Baylor,
Jerry West and Oscar
NCAA level, the
UCLA Bruins also proved dominant. Coached by
John Wooden, they were helped by
Lew Alcindor and by
Bill Walton to
win championships and dominate the American college basketball
landscape during the decade.
Disc sports (Frisbee)
Main article: Ken Westerfield
Ken Westerfield helped to popularize
Frisbee as an alternative disc
sport in the
1960s and 1970s
Alternative sports, using the flying disc, began in the mid-sixties.
As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they
resisted and looked for alternatives. They would form what would
become known as the counterculture. The forms of escape and resistance
would manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative
lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress, music and
alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a
Frisbee. Starting with promotional efforts from
Wham-O and Irwin
Toy (Canada), a few tournaments and professionals using
tours to perform at universities, fairs and sporting events, disc
sports such as freestyle, double disc court, guts, disc ultimate and
disc golf became this sports first events. Two sports, the
team sport of disc ultimate and disc golf are very popular worldwide
and are now being played semi professionally. The World Flying
Professional Disc Golf Association
Professional Disc Golf Association and the Freestyle
Players Association are the official rules and sanctioning
organizations for flying disc sports worldwide. Major League Ultimate
(MLU) and the
American Ultimate Disc League
American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) are the first semi
professional ultimate leagues
In motorsports, the
Trans-Am series were both established
in 1966. The
Ford GT40 won outright in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Graham
Hill edged out Jackie Stewart and Denny Hulme for the World
Championship in Formula One.
Additional notable world-wide events
Manson Murders – took place between 8 and 10 August 1969, which was
the deaths of Sharon Tate, Abigail Folger, along with several others
in the Tate house. Killed on 9 August,
Rosemary LaBianca & Leno
Canada celebrated its 100th anniversary of Confederation in
hosting Expo 67, the World's Fair, in Montreal, Quebec. During the
anniversary celebrations, French president
Charles De Gaulle
Charles De Gaulle visited
Canada, and caused a considerable uproar by declaring his support for
The Sixties Unplugged (book)
The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most
prominent events of the decade:
1966 • 1967
1969 • Timeline of
^ Joshua Zeitz Archived 6 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. "1964:
The Year the Sixties Began", American Heritage, Oct. 2006.
John Barth (1984) intro to The Literature of Exhaustion, in The
^ Maslin, Janet (5 November 2007). "Brokaw Explores Another Turning
Point, the '60s". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
^ Christopher Booker: The Neophiliacs: A Study of the Revolution in
English Life In The Fifties and Sixties, Gambit Incorporated, London,
^ "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now". Time. 31 December 1965.
Retrieved 1 January 2011. Keynesianism made its biggest breakthrough
under John Kennedy, who, as Arthur Schlesinger reports in A Thousand
Days, "was unquestionably the first Keynesian President."
^ Arthur Marwick, The Sixties:
Cultural Revolution in Britain, France,
Italy, and the United States, c.1958-c.
1974 (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1998, ISBN 978-0-19-210022-1), 247–248.
^ Erlanger, Steven (29 April 2008). "May
1968 – a watershed in
French life". New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
^ Staricco, Juan Ignacio (2012)
^ "Brief Overview of
Vietnam War". Swarthmore College Peace
Collection. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved
^ "Gulf of Tonkin Measure Voted in Haste and Confusion in 1964". The
New York Times. 25 June 1970.
^ Krauthammer, Charles (18 May 2007). "Prelude to the Six Days". The
Washington Post. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
^ Jaime Pensado, "The (forgotten) Sixties in Mexico." The Sixties: A
Journal of History, Politics and Culture (2008) 1#1: 83–90.
^ Curtis Cate, The Ides of August: The
Berlin Wall Crisis–1961
^ Giuseppe Alberigo, and Matthew Sherry, A Brief History of Vatican II
^ William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (2003),
^ Günter, et al. eds. Bischof, The
Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact
1968 (Lexington Books, 2010)
^ Krishna Dutta (2008). Calcutta: A Cultural History. Interlink Books.
p. 220. ISBN 978-1-56656-721-3.
^ "U.S. History – 1960s".
^ "Inflation and CPI Consumer Price Index 1960–1969".
^ "CIA man recounts Che Guevara's death". BBC. 2007-10-08. Retrieved
^ "Civil Rights Act of
1964 - CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment
Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21".
^ History LULAC-League of United Latin American Citizens
^ "americangiforum.org". americangiforum.org. Archived from the
original on 6 July 2015.
^ "LatinoLA – Hollywood :: Mendez v. Westminster".
^ "Hernandez v.
Texas – The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College
of Law". oyez.org.
^ MALDEF – About Us Archived 22 April 2008 at the Wayback
^ U.S. Census Bureau Data https://www.census.gov/statab/hist/HS-23.pdf
Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Carlos Santana: I'm Immortal interview by Punto Digital, 13 October
^ Jorgensen, Ernst (1998). Elvis Presley: A life in music. The
complete recording sessions, p.120. St. Martin's Press.
^ Sullivan, Denise. "You Really Got Me". AllMusic. Retrieved 25
^ . Box Office Mojo.
^ Gertz, Elmer, and Felice Flanery Lewis, eds. (1978). Henry Miller:
Years of Trial & Triumph, 1962–1964: The Correspondence of Henry
Miller and Elmer Gertz. Carbondale: Southern
Press. ISBN 0-8093-0860-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
^ Henry Miller, Preface to Big Sur and the Oranges of Hieronymus
Bosch, New York: New Directions, 1957, p. ix.
Jordan Holtzman-Conston (2010). Countercultural Sports in America:
The History and Meaning of Ultimate Frisbee. Waltham, Mass.
^ "World Flying Disc Federation". WFDF Official Website. Retrieved 19
^ "World Flying Disc Federation". History of the Flying Disc. Archived
from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
^ "Professional Disc Golf Association". PDGA Official Website.
Retrieved 19 October 2013.
^ "American Ultimate Disc League". AUDL Official Website. Retrieved 20
Anastakis, Dimitry, ed. The Sixties: passion, politics, and style
(McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 2008.) Canadian emphasis
Baugess, James S., and Abbe Debolt, eds. Encyclopedia of the Sixties:
Decade of Culture and
Counterculture (2 vol, 2012; also E-book)
871pp; 500 entries by scholars excerpt and text search; online review
Berton, Pierre. 1967: the Last Good Year (Toronto: Doubleday Canada,
1997). Canadian events
Brooks, Victor. Last Season of Innocence: The Teen Experience in the
1960s (Rowman & Littlefield, 2012) 207 pp.
Brown, Timothy Scott.
West Germany and the Global Sixties (2013)
Farber, David, ed. The Sixties: From Memory to History (1994),
Scholarly essays on the United States
Flamm, Michael W. and David Steigerwald. Debating the 1960s: Liberal,
Conservative, and Radical Perspectives (2007) on USA
Marwick, Arthur. The Sixties:
Cultural Revolution in Britain, France,
Italy, and the United States, c.1958-c.
1974 (Oxford University Press,
1998, ISBN 978-0-19-210022-1)
Padva, Gilad. Animated Nostalgia and Invented Authenticity in Arte's
Summer of the Sixties. In Padva, Gilad, Queer Nostalgia in Cinema and
Pop Culture, pp. 13–34 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014,
Palmer, Bryan D. Canada's 1960s: The Ironies of Identity in a
Rebellious Era. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
Sandbrook, Dominic. Never Had It So Good: A History of Britain from
Suez to the Beatles (2006) 928pp; excerpt and text search
Sandbrook, Dominic. White Heat: A History of Britain in the Swinging
Sixties (2 vol 2007)
Strain, Christopher B. The Long Sixties: America, 1955–1973 (Wiley,
2017). xii, 204 pp.
Unger, Debi, and Irwin Unger, eds. The Times Were a Changin': The
Sixties Reader (1998) excerpt and text search
DeKoven, Marianne. The Sixties and the Emergence of the Postmodern
(Duke University Press, 2004)
Farber, David R. The Sixties: From Memory to History (1994) excerpt
and text search
Heale, Michael J. (March 2005). "The Sixties as History: A Review of
the Political Historiography". Reviews in American History. 33 (1):
133–152. JSTOR 30031497.
Hunt, Andrew. "When Did the Sixties Happen? Searching for New
Directions", Journal of Social History (1999) 33#1 pp 147–161.
Pensado, Jaime. "The (forgotten) Sixties in Mexico." The Sixties: A
Journal of History, Politics and Culture(2008) 1#1: 83–90.
Rising, George Goodwin. "Stuck in the sixties: Conservatives and the
legacies of the 1960s." (PhD U. of Arizona, 2003). online
Ira Chernus, "When Did "the '60s" Begin? A Cautionary Tale for
Historians" 4 Feb 2014, History News Network
"1964" (PBS documentary, 2013)
Zurawik, David (20 January 1991). "On PBS, Six Hours Of The '60s". The
Baltimore Sun Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1960s.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: 1960s
The 1960s: A Bibliography
CBC Digital Archives –
1960s a GoGo
The Sixties Project
Heroes of the 1960s – slideshow by Life magazine
The 60s: Literary Tradition and Social Change, exhibit at the
University of Virginia, Library,
1960s protest movements in America
1960s in Europe (Online Teaching and Research Guide)
1960s Fashion Feature, including biographies, interviews, clothing
and resources". Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original
on 9 May 2008.
The 1960s – articles, video, pictures, and facts
1960s photographic archive
Events by month
History of the 20th century
State leaders: 1901–1950