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The Shard,[a] also referred to as the Shard of Glass,[9][10] Shard London
London
Bridge[11] and formerly London
London
Bridge Tower,[12][13][14] is a 95-storey skyscraper, designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano, in Southwark, London, that forms part of the Shard Quarter development. Standing 309.7 metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is the tallest building in the United Kingdom, the tallest building in the European Union, the fifth-tallest building in Europe and the 96th-tallest building in the world.[1][15][16] It is also the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the concrete tower of the Emley Moor transmitting station.[17] It replaced Southwark
Southwark
Towers, a 24-storey office block built on the site in 1975. The Shard's construction began in March 2009; it was topped out on 30 March 2012[18] and inaugurated on 5 July 2012.[19] Practical completion was achieved in November 2012. The tower's privately operated observation deck, The View from The Shard, was opened to the public on 1 February 2013.[2][20][21] The glass-clad pyramidal tower has 72 habitable floors, with a viewing gallery and open-air observation deck on the 72nd floor, at a height of 244 metres (801 ft).[5][22] The Shard
The Shard
was developed by Sellar Property Group on behalf of LBQ Ltd and is jointly owned by Sellar Property (5%) and the State of Qatar
State of Qatar
(95%).[7] The Shard
The Shard
is managed by Real Estate Management (UK) Limited on behalf of the owners.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Planning 1.2 Funding

2 Architecture

2.1 Layout

3 Construction

3.1 Gallery

4 Height 5 Tenants 6 Urban exploration, BASE jumping
BASE jumping
and climbing 7 In popular culture 8 See also

8.1 Similar structures

9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links

Background[edit] Planning[edit] In 1998, London-based entrepreneur Irvine Sellar and his then-partners decided to redevelop the 1970s-era Southwark
Southwark
Towers following a UK government white paper encouraging the development of tall buildings at major transport hubs. Sellar flew to Berlin
Berlin
in the spring of 2000 to meet the Italian architect Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
for lunch. According to Sellar, Piano spoke of his contempt for conventional tall buildings during the meal, before flipping over the restaurant's menu and sketching a spire-like sculpture emerging from the River Thames.[23] In July 2002, the then-Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, ordered a planning inquiry after the development plans for the Shard were opposed by the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment and several heritage bodies, including the Royal Parks Foundation
Royal Parks Foundation
and English Heritage.[24][25] The inquiry took place in April and May 2003,[12][26] and on 19 November 2003, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister announced that planning consent had been approved.[27] The government stated that:

Mr Prescott would only approve skyscrapers of exceptional design. For a building of this size to be acceptable, the quality of its design is critical. He is satisfied that the proposed tower is of the highest architectural quality.

The Southwark
Southwark
Towers office block, which was demolished in 2008 to make way for The Shard

Sellar and his original partners CLS Holdings plc and CN Ltd (acting for the Halabi Family Trust) secured an interim funding package of £196 million in September 2006 from the Nationwide Building Society and Kaupthing Singer & Friedlander. This enabled them to pay off the costs already incurred and to buy out the Southwark
Southwark
Towers occupational lease from the building's tenants, PricewaterhouseCoopers.[28] Vacant possession of the site was secured a year later, after PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
completed the relocation of their operations. In September 2007, preparations for the demolition of Southwark
Southwark
Towers began.[29] However, later that same month, turbulence in the financial markets reportedly put the Shard's construction in jeopardy,[30] threatening to render the project an example of the Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Index. In November 2007, building contractor Mace was awarded the contract to build the Shard for a fixed price of no more than £350 million. However, this price increased to almost £435 million in October 2008.[31] In April 2008, demolition of Southwark
Southwark
Towers was visibly under way,[32] and by October, the building had been substantially reduced in height, and was no longer visible on the skyline. The demolition was completed in early 2009, and site preparation began for the construction of the Shard. Funding[edit] In late 2007, the gathering uncertainty in the global financial markets sparked concerns about the viability of the Shard. However, in January 2008, Sellar announced that it had secured funding from a consortium of Qatari investors, who had paid £150 million to secure an 80% stake in the project.[33] The consortium included Qatar National Bank, QInvest, Qatari Islamic Bank and the Qatari property developer Barwa Real Estate, as well as Sellar Property. The deal involved a buyout of the Halabi and CLS Holdings stakes, and part of the Sellar Property stake.[34] The new owners promised to provide the first tranche of finance, allowing construction of the tower to begin. In 2009, the State of Qatar
State of Qatar
consolidated its ownership of London Bridge Quarter (known now as Shard Quarter), including The Shard, through the purchase of the private Qatari investors' stakes. Shard Quarter is today jointly owned by the State of Qatar
State of Qatar
and Sellar.[7] Architecture[edit]

Audio description of the building by Steven Berkoff

Internal structure of the Shard's spire and radiator floors, seen from the 72nd-floor observatory

Renzo Piano, the project's architect, designed The Shard
The Shard
as a spire-like sculpture emerging from the River Thames.[23] He was inspired by the railway lines next to the site, the London
London
spires depicted by the 18th-century Venetian painter Canaletto, and the masts of sailing ships.[14] Piano's design met criticism from English Heritage, who claimed the building would be "a shard of glass through the heart of historic London", giving the building its name, The Shard.[35] Piano considered the slender, spire-like form of the tower a positive addition to the London
London
skyline, recalling the church steeples featured in historic engravings of the city, and believed that its presence would be far more delicate than opponents of the project alleged. He proposed a sophisticated use of glazing, with expressive façades of angled glass panes intended to reflect sunlight and the sky above, so that the appearance of the building will change according to the weather and seasons.[36] The building features 11,000 panes of glass, with a total surface area of 602,779 square feet (56,000.0 m2) equivalent to the area of almost eight Wembley football pitches. The Shard
The Shard
was designed with energy efficiency in mind. It is fitted with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, operating on natural gas from the National Grid. Fuel is efficiently converted to electricity and heat is recovered from the engine to provide hot water for the building.[37] Following the destruction of New York's World Trade Center (WTC) in the terror attacks of 11 September 2001, architects and structural engineers worldwide began re-evaluating the design of tall structures. The Shard's early conceptual designs were among the first in the UK to be amended following the publication of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report into the collapse of the WTC. The building is designed to maintain its stability under very onerous conditions,[38] with its post-tensioned concrete and composite floors, load-bearing pillars and tapering shape giving it a sway tolerance of 400 millimetres (16 in).[39] In 2014, The Shard
The Shard
claimed first place at the Emporis
Emporis
Skyscraper Awards, recognising buildings over 100 m (328 ft) completed in the previous twelve months. The Emporis
Emporis
judges hailed the building as "a skyscraper that is recognized immediately and which is already considered London's new emblem".[40] Layout[edit]

Floors Space designation

73–95 Spire

68–72 The View from The Shard
The View from The Shard
(observatory)

53–65 Residences

34–52 Shangri-La Hotel

33 Hutong

32 aqua shard

31 oblix

28 South Hook Gas

27 Arma Partners / Campari Group

26 CoStar Group
CoStar Group
/ Marc Hermann Wealth Management

24–25 The Office Group

23 Foresight Group

22 Khazanah / Jellyfish

20-21 Kraft Heinz

19 Medical Protection Society

18 Gallup / Foresight Group

17 Warwick Business School
Warwick Business School
/ Sage Group

16 Al Jazeera English

15 Mathys & Squire / Arcapita / Xio Partners / Fulcrum Chambers

14 Duff & Phelps

13 Tabcorp Holdings
Tabcorp Holdings
/ Warwick Business School
Warwick Business School
/ Duff & Phelps / Sage Group

12 Mitie

11 Dods Group / Matches Fashion

10 Real Estate Management (UK) Limited / Robert Half
Robert Half
/ Protiviti

9 IO Oil and Gas / Sapphire Systems

8 Greenberg Traurig
Greenberg Traurig
/ Matches Fashion

7 Tiffany & Co. / Matches Fashion

4–6 Clinic (HCA Healthcare at the Shard)[41]

3 Shard Quarter Management Suite

2 Office Reception

Ground Hotel, restaurant and observatory entrances

Sources: The-Shard.com[42] and The-Shard.com[43] and Billionpoints.de.[44] Construction[edit]

The Shard
The Shard
pictured from Great Tower Street
Great Tower Street
in April 2012

In February 2009, a mobile crane and a small piling rig arrived on site. In early March 2009, the crane began putting steel beams into the ground, as part of preparations for the core of the building. Full construction began on 16 March 2009. Demolition work on New London Bridge House started in May 2009, as part of the concurrent London Bridge Place project. The first steelwork went into The Shard's piles on 28 April.[45] Five cranes were used to build The Shard, with four of them 'jumping' with the tower as it rose. Crane 1 was erected in September 2009 and Crane 2 was erected at the beginning of October.[46] By 20 October 2009, steel beams began appearing on site, with concrete being poured at the northern part of the site, ready for Crane 3. By March 2010, the concrete core was rising steadily at about 3 metres (9.8 ft) a day.[47] After a pause in March–April 2010, it continued rising, reaching the 33rd floor in mid-June, almost level with the top of Guy's Hospital, which stands at 143 metres (469 ft). On 27 July 2010, the core stopped rising, having reached the 38th floor, and was reconfigured for further construction.[48] By mid-November 2010, the core had reached the 68th floor, with the tower's steel reaching the 40th floor and glass cladding enveloping a third of the building. In late November, the core's height exceeded 235 metres (771 ft), ending One Canada Square's 18-year reign as Britain's tallest building.[49] The Shard's concrete core topped out at the 72nd floor in early 2011, standing at 244 metres (801 ft). The early part of January 2011 saw the installation of hydraulic screens, which were used to form the concrete floors of the hotel and apartment section of the tower, and rose with the floors up to the 69th floor. On 25 January 2011, the concrete pumps began pouring the first concrete floor at the 41st floor. By the end of February 2011, concrete flooring had risen to the 46th floor, with a new floor being poured on average every week. The cladding of the structure also progressed, mainly on the tower's "backpack". In February 2011, a red fox (V. vulpes) was discovered to be living on the partially-completed 72nd floor, having climbed the building site's central stairwell. Nicknamed 'Romeo' by the RSPCA, the animal was rescued and later released back into the wild.[50]

The inauguration of The Shard
The Shard
on 5 July 2012

August 2011 saw steady progress in construction, with cladding enveloping more than half the building's exterior. Pouring of the concrete floors reached the 67th floor, and progression on the tower's cladding reached the 58th floor. By mid-August, the core box had been removed. By 19 September 2011, the tower's steel was approaching the height of the completed core, reaching almost 244 metres (801 ft).[51] On 24 September, a final crane – at the time, the tallest ever built in Britain – was erected to install the skyscraper's upper spire.[52] The spire was pre-fabricated and pre-assembled based upon 3D models, and underwent a "test run" in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
before being lifted onto the building itself.[53] By late December 2011, the Shard had become the tallest building in the European Union, superseding the Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower
in Frankfurt, Germany.[54] The Shard's steel structure was topped out on 30 March 2012, when its 66-metre (217 ft), 500-tonne spire was winched into place.[55][56] The steel structure thus reached a height of 308.5 metres (1,012 ft). The final 516 panes of glass were added shortly after, topping the tower out at its full height of 309.6 metres (1,016 ft).[57] The Shard
The Shard
was inaugurated on 5 July 2012 by the Prime Minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, in a ceremony attended by Prince Andrew, Duke of York.[58] The inauguration ceremony featured a laser light show comprising 12 lasers and 30 searchlights, which illuminated the building on the London
London
skyline.[19] Practical completion of the building was achieved in November 2012. Gallery[edit]

February 2010

July 2010

September 2010

November 2010

January 2011

April 2011

August 2011

October 2011

April 2012

May 2012

October 2016

The Shard
The Shard
dominating the City of London
London
skyline, as seen from Forest Hill in July 2013

Height[edit] Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 ft) at its highest point, and 308.5 metres (1,012 ft) at the highest point of its steelwork,[18] The Shard became the tallest building in the European Union
European Union
in December 2011,[54] and the tallest completed building in Europe on 30 March 2012. It thus surpassed Frankfurt's Commerzbank Tower, which, at 259 m (850 ft), was Europe's tallest building between 1997 and 2005. Thereafter, The Shard
The Shard
successively exceeded the heights of three Moscow skyscrapers, the Triumph-Palace, Naberezhnaya Tower, and City of Capitals, each of which had held the European height record for roughly 2.5 years. However, upon its completion in November 2012, Moscow's 339-metre (1,112 ft) Mercury City Tower
Mercury City Tower
replaced The Shard as the tallest in Europe.[59][60] The Shard
The Shard
may eventually be surpassed as the EU's tallest building by the 323-metre (1,060 ft) Hermitage Plaza building, which is planned to be completed in La Défense, Paris, in 2019.[61][62] The Shard
The Shard
is the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the 330-metre (1,083 ft) concrete transmission tower at Emley Moor.[17] Another planned London
London
skyscraper, the Pinnacle, was originally proposed to rival the height of The Shard, but was reduced to a height of 287.9 metres (945 ft) because of concerns from the Civil Aviation Authority.[63] Tenants[edit] The Shard
The Shard
comprises a 26-floor office complex, occupied by 32 companies across ten business sectors, three restaurants - aqua shard, oblix and Hutong, the five-star Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, ten residential apartments and the UK's highest viewing gallery, The View from The Shard. In February 2013, The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
reported that the developers of The Shard were in negotiations to secure the first tenants of the building's 26 floors of office space. In May 2013, the Daily Mail reported that only six of The Shard's 72 habitable floors were in use, as a combination of high prices and poor situation discouraged buyers.[64] At the time, potential tenants included financial restructuring specialists Duff & Phelps, private equity firm Hatton Corporation and the South Hook Liquefied Natural Gas Company.[65][66] The Shard's fourth, fifth and sixth floors host the HCA (Hospital Corporations of America), part of London
London
Bridge Hospital. The Shard's 31st, 32nd and 33rd floors host three restaurants: Oblix,[67] Hutong[68] and Aqua Shard.[69] The building's Shangri-La Hotel, occupying floors 34–52.[70] The hotel was initially expected to open by the end of 2013,[71][72] but its opening was ultimately delayed to 6 May 2014.[73] In March 2014, Mathys & Squire became the first law firm to take tenancy in the building.[74][75] In May 2014, the Foresight Group, an investment firm, moved its head UK office into The Shard on the 17th floor.[76] In June 2015, Warwick Business School opened its new base in The Shard, occupying the same floor and was officially opened by the mayor of London, Boris Johnson.[77] It houses a 100-seat lecture theatre and a smaller one at 60 seats, plus eight seminar rooms and an IT lab, offering postgraduate and executive education.[78] In July 2013, the Qatari broadcaster Al Jazeera Media Network announced that it would open a new television studio and newsroom for Al Jazeera English
Al Jazeera English
in The Shard.[79] Al Jazeera moved in on 13 September 2014, and its first live broadcast from the building took place on 10 November 2014.[80] The facility currently houses all primary operations for Al Jazeera Media Network's channels in London; it is capable of running an entire channel independent from Al Jazeera's other hubs, and is the network's second-biggest hub after its facility in Doha, Qatar.[81] In January 2015, further tenants for The Shard
The Shard
were announced, including IO Oil & Gas Consulting, Gallup and The Office Group.[82] In May 2015, the American recruitment consultancy Robert Half International announced that it would move several branches of its business into The Shard, having purchased 20,000 square feet (1,900 m2) of floor space on the tower's tenth floor.[83] In August 2015, the international law firm Greenberg Traurig
Greenberg Traurig
announced that it would open its offices on the eighth floor of The Shard
The Shard
by the end of the year.[84] Matches Fashion took over 35,000 sq ft in January 2016, and six months later expanded its headquarter's presence in The Shard
The Shard
by 40%. In March 2016, marketing agency Jellyfish signed a lease for 9,017 square feet (837.7 m2) of office space on the 22nd floor, with occupancy beginning later in the year.[85] A month later, publishing house Dods Group let almost 17,000 sq ft on Level 11, becoming The Shard's 28th office occupier. In December, Kraft Heinz
Kraft Heinz
relocated their European and UK headquarters from Hayes in Middlesex to The Shard
The Shard
after taking 38,000 sq ft on Levels 20 & 21. The Shard
The Shard
offices were announced as fully let in October 2017, following lettings to Mitie
Mitie
and existing occupiers, Foresight Group and Warwick Business School. Urban exploration, BASE jumping
BASE jumping
and climbing[edit] In December 2011, a group of recreational trespassers calling themselves the Place Hackers evaded security and made their way to the top of the Shard building site, climbing one of the tallest cranes in the process.[86] They later posted photographs of the London
London
skyline taken from the top of the Shard on the Internet and received wide media attention. One member of the group, Oxford University
Oxford University
researcher Bradley Garrett, later revealed to various news outlets that over 20 urban explorers had made their way to the top of the building during its construction.[87] In a 2012 article for Domus magazine, Garrett wrote that "the conceptual barrier to places in our cities is brought about by a process of engineered exclusion" and that the explorers were "cultivating the creative city that money can't buy".[88] BASE jumpers reportedly jumped from The Shard
The Shard
more than a dozen times between 2009 and 2012. Four jumps were reportedly made by Essex
Essex
roofer Dan Witchalls, who had filmed one attempt with a helmet-mounted camera. The highest jump was said to have been from a height of 260 metres (850 ft).[89] In March 2016 another person BASE jumped from The Shard.[90] On 3 September 2012, a team of 40 people, including Prince Andrew, Duke of York, abseiled from the tower's 87th floor. This feat was performed to raise money for the Outward Bound
Outward Bound
Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[91][92] In November 2012, the French urban climber Alain Robert
Alain Robert
was spotted in the building by security guards. At the end of the month, the Shard's owners won an injunction to prevent him from entering or climbing the building.[93] On 11 July 2013, six female Greenpeace
Greenpeace
volunteers climbed the Shard and unfurled a flag in protest against Arctic oil drilling by Royal Dutch Shell.[94] The women announced they were "experienced climbers", but medical personnel were summoned to the base of the tower nonetheless.[94] The Shard's staff closed the tower's observatory and gave the women a safety briefing and other advice during their climb.[94] After completing their 16-hour climb, the six women were arrested by police on suspicion of aggravated trespass.[94] In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018)

The Shard
The Shard
appears in the 2012 short film The Snowman and The Snowdog and its tie-in computer game.[95] The Shard
The Shard
has a significant role in the 2013 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episode "The Bells of Saint John", as it is the headquarters of the episode's antagonist, the Great Intelligence. The Doctor vertically rode a motorbike on the face of the building and through a window to reach the Great Intelligence's headquarters.[96]

See also[edit]

Architecture portal London
London
portal

List of tallest buildings
List of tallest buildings
and structures in London List of tallest buildings
List of tallest buildings
in the world

Similar structures[edit]

Ryugyong Hotel Transamerica Pyramid Lakhta Center

Footnotes[edit]

^ The building's operators officially stylise its name as The Shard, with the word "the" capitalised.

References[edit]

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London
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The Shard
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The Shard
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- SPACE International Hotel Design". SPACE International Hotel Design. 2015-09-16. Retrieved 2018-02-21.  ^ "Excitement builds for Shangri-La's summer opening at The Shard". Hospitality Interiors. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.  ^ "Shard's luxury hotel hit by fit-out delays". Building.co.uk. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.  ^ "Shangri-La London
London
opens in The Shard". The Daily Telegraph. London. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014.  ^ Joanne, Harris (21 March 2014). "IP firm Mathys & Squire becomes first firm to move into Shard". The Lawyer. Retrieved 17 April 2014.  ^ Kate, Allen (13 February 2014). "Shard finds more tenants as Irvine Sellar steps up lettings". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 April 2014.  ^ "May 2014 news". The-Shard.com. Archived 30 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
officially opens WBS London
London
at The Shard". wbs.ac.uk (in Eng). WBS. Retrieved 3 August 2017. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ " Warwick Business School
Warwick Business School
to open London
London
campus in the Shard". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ "Al Jazeera to open new TV studio in The Shard". London
London
Evening Standard. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ "Al Jazeera moves into The Shard". The-Shard.com. 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ "Al Jazeera overhauls digital workflow with new hub". BroadcastNow.co.uk (subscription required). 6 November 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "Shard bags further flurry of tenants". CoStar UK. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ "THE SHARD SECURES A FURTHER 20,200 SQ FT LETTING FROM GLOBAL RECRUITMENT SPECIALIST, ROBERT HALF". The-Shard.com. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.  ^ "Going south of the river: Greenberg Traurig
Greenberg Traurig
Maher set for The Shard as it looks to boost City headcount". LegalBusiness.co.uk. 14 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.  ^ " The Shard
The Shard
inches closer to being filled after confirming second letting for 2016, with digital marketing agency Jellyfish due to move into level 22 soon". City A.M. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ "Trespassers reached top of London's Shard skyscraper". BBC News. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.  ^ "Shard hacking: group sneak to top of Europe's tallest building". The Guardian. London. 9 April 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ Garrett, Bradley (9 July 2012). "Scaling the Shard". Domus. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ Matthew Holehouse (13 April 2012). "Base jumper films himself parachuting off The Shard
The Shard
four times". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ "Daredevil base jumper leaps off The Shard
The Shard
skyscraper in London". ABC News. ABC. 13 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ Cooke, Jeremy (3 September 2012). "Prince Andrew abseils down Shard". Southwark, London: BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ "Prince Andrew To Leap Off Shard Skyscraper". Sky News. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ "Forget the Green Goblin ... Shard to stop French 'Spiderman' Alain Robert – with an injunction". The Independent. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  ^ a b c d " Greenpeace
Greenpeace
protesters reach summit of The Shard
The Shard
in London". BBC News. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.  ^ "The Snowman and the Snowdog, Channel 4". The Arts Desk. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.  ^ "The Bells of St John heralds Doctor Who's return". Doctor Who
Doctor Who
News. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Shard.

Official website The Shard, London The Shard
The Shard
on CTBUH
CTBUH
Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Center. The Shard
The Shard
Special. Estates Gazette. 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013. Live daylight webcam image via Google Sites. Internal and external photos of the Shard via Shardldn.com.

Records

Preceded by One Canada Square

Tallest building in London 2010–present 309 metres (1,014 ft) Current holder

Tallest building in the United Kingdom 2010–present 309 metres (1,014 ft)

Preceded by Commerzbank Tower

Tallest building in the European Union 2010–present 309 metres (1,014 ft)

Preceded by City of Capitals

Tallest building in Europe January 2012 – November 2012 309 metres (1,014 ft) Succeeded by Mercury City Tower

Links to related articles

v t e

Timeline of the tallest buildings in the United Kingdom

Victoria Tower
Victoria Tower
(98.5 m) (1860) Shell Centre
Shell Centre
(107 m) (1961) CIS Tower
CIS Tower
(118 m) (1962) Millbank Tower
Millbank Tower
(118 m) (1963) BT Tower
BT Tower
(177 m) (1964) Tower 42
Tower 42
(183 m) (1980) One Canada Square
One Canada Square
(235 m) (1991) The Shard
The Shard
(310 m) (2012)

v t e

Timeline of the tallest buildings in Europe

Victoria Tower
Victoria Tower
(98.5 m) (1860) Palais de Justice, Brussels
Palais de Justice, Brussels
(104 m) (1883) Vienna City Hall
Vienna City Hall
(105 m) (1892) Terrazza Martini Tower
Terrazza Martini Tower
(108 m) (1940) Kotelnicheskaya Embankment (176 m) (1952) Main building of Moscow State University
Main building of Moscow State University
(240 m) (1953) Messeturm
Messeturm
(257 m) (1990) Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower
(259 m) (1997) Triumph Palace
Triumph Palace
(264 m) (2003) Naberezhnaya Tower
Naberezhnaya Tower
(268 m) (2007) Capital City Moscow Tower (302 m) (2009) The Shard
The Shard
(310 m) (2012) Mercury City Tower
Mercury City Tower
(339 m) (2012) OKO: South Tower (354 m) (2015) Federation Tower
Federation Tower
(374 m) (2016)

v t e

Timeline of the tallest buildings in the European Union

Torre Breda
Torre Breda
(117 m) (1957) Pirelli Tower
Pirelli Tower
(127 m) (1958) Tour du Midi/Zuidertoren (150 m) (1967) Tour Montparnasse
Tour Montparnasse
(210 m) (1972) Messeturm
Messeturm
(257 m) (1990) Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower
(259 m) (1997) The Shard
The Shard
(310 m) (2012)

v t e

Skyscrapers over 140 metres in the United Kingdom

Completed

Liverpool

West Tower

London

10 Upper Bank Street 20 Fenchurch Street 22 Marsh Wall 25 Bank Street 30 St. Mary Axe 40 Bank Street 8 Canada Square Baltimore Tower Broadgate Tower BT Tower Citigroup Centre Guy's Hospital
Guy's Hospital
Tower Heron Tower Leadenhall Building One Canada Square One Churchill Place Pan Peninsula The Shard South Bank Tower St George Wharf Tower Strata SE1 Tower 42

Manchester

Beetham Tower

Under construction

London

1 Blackfriars 100 Bishopsgate 22 Bishopsgate 250 City Road
250 City Road
Tower 1 Canada Water Building C4 Heron Quays West Highpoint Landmark Pinnacle Maine Tower Manhattan Loft Gardens Newfoundland Quay One Nine Elms
One Nine Elms
1 & 2 Principal Tower The Scalpel South Quay Plaza Wardian East & West Towers

Manchester

Deansgate Square
Deansgate Square
(South, East and West Towers)

Approved

Birmingham

Regal Tower

London

1 Leadenhall Street 40 Leadenhall Street 69-71 Bondway North Quay One Park Drive Principal Place Riverside South Spire
Spire
London Wood Wharf

Manchester

Deansgate Square
Deansgate Square
(North Tower) Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Tower St. John's Tower Trinity Islands (Towers V and X)

Proposed

Liverpool

Shanghai Tower

v t e

Skyscrapers over 200 metres tall in the European Union

Completed

Frankfurt

Commerzbank Tower Messeturm Westend Tower Main Tower Tower 185

London

The Shard One Canada Square Heron Tower 122 Leadenhall Street

Lyon

Tour Incity

Madrid

Torre Caja Madrid Torre de Cristal Torre PwC Torre Espacio

Milan

Unicredit Tower Allianz Tower

Paris

Tour First Tour Montparnasse

Vienna

Millennium Tower DC Tower 1

Warsaw

Palace of Culture and Science Warsaw
Warsaw
Trade Tower Warsaw
Warsaw
Spire

Wroclaw

Sky Tower

Under construction

Benidorm

Residencial In Tempo

London

Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
Tower Landmark Pinnacle Newfoundland Quay Riverside South

Turin

Piedmont Region Headquarters

Warsaw

Varso Spinnaker Office Tower

Sofia

Sky Fort

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark
Southwark
Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool
Liverpool
Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

v t e

Supertall skyscrapers

Current

North America

432 Park Avenue 875 North Michigan Avenue Aon Center Bank of America Plaza Bank of America Tower Chrysler Building Empire State Building Franklin Center JPMorgan Chase Tower One World Trade Center One57 Salesforce Tower The New York Times Building Trump International Hotel and Tower Two Prudential Plaza U.S. Bank Tower Wells Fargo Plaza Willis Tower Wilshire Grand Center

South America

Gran Torre Santiago

Asia

23 Marina 85 Sky Tower Abenobashi Terminal Building
Abenobashi Terminal Building
Skyscraper
Skyscraper
(Abeno Harukas) Abraj Al Bait The Address Downtown Dubai ADNOC Headquarters Al Hamra Tower Almas Tower Arraya Tower Aspire Tower Baiyoke Tower II Bank of China Tower Burj Al Arab Burj Khalifa Cayan Tower The Center Central Plaza Chang Fu Jin Mao Tower China World Trade Center Tower III Chongqing IFS T1 Chongqing World Financial Center CITIC Plaza Diwang International Fortune Center East Pacific Center Elite Residence Emirates Office Tower Etihad Towers Eton Place Dalian Fortune Center Gate to the East Grand Hyatt Manila Greenland Puli Center Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou International Finance Center Haeundae Doosan We've the Zenith HHHR Tower The Index International Commerce Centre International Finance Centre Jiangxi Nanchang Greenland Central Plaza Jin Mao Tower Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower Kingdom Centre KK100 The Landmark Leatop Plaza Longxi International Hotel Lotte World Tower MahaNakhon The Marina Torch Minsheng Bank Building Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre
Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre
Tower 1 Nina Tower Northeast Asia Trade Tower Ocean Heights Pearl River Tower Petronas Towers Ping An Finance Centre The Pinnacle Princess Tower Rose Tower Shanghai Tower Shanghai World Financial Center Shimao International Plaza Shun Hing Square Suning Plaza 1, Wuxi Taipei 101 Telekom Tower Tianjin World Financial Center Wanda Plaza Wenzhou World Trade Center The Wharf Times Square White Magnolia Plaza World Trade Center Abu Dhabi Wuxi Maoye City - Marriott Hotel Zhongzhou Holdings Financial Center Zhuhai St. Regis Hotel & Office Tower Zifeng Tower

Europe

City of Capitals Eurasia Federation Tower Mercury City Tower OKO Tower The Shard

Australia

Q1

Under construction

North America

3 Hudson Boulevard 3 World Trade Center 9 DeKalb Avenue 30 Hudson Yards 35 Hudson Yards 45 Broad Street 50 Hudson Yards 53W53 125 Greenwich Street Central Park Tower Comcast Technology Center Manhattan West Tower
West Tower
1 One Vanderbilt The Steinway Tower Vista Tower

Asia

China

Baoneng Center Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center Changsha A9 Financial District Changsha IFS Tower T1 Chengdu Greenland Tower China Resources Centre Block A China Resources Headquarters Chongqing Corporate Avenue 1 Concord International Centre Dalian Greenland Center Dalian International Trade Center Deji Plaza Dongguan International Trade Center 1 Eye of Spring Trade Center Gemdale Gangxia Tower 1 Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower B Goldin Finance 117 Greenland Group Suzhou Center Guangxi Finance Plaza Haikou Tower Hanking Center Heartland 66 Office Tower Hon Kwok City Center Huaguoyuan Tower 1 Huaguoyuan Tower 2 Jin Wan Plaza 1 Jinan Center Financial City Logan Century Center 1 Mandarin Oriental Chengdu Nanjing Olympic Suning Tower Nanjing World Trade Center Tower 1 Ningbo Center One Shenzhen Bay Phoenix Towers Rose Rock International Finance Center Runhua Global Center 1 Shenglong Global Center Shimao Hunan Center Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 South Asian Gate Spring City 66 Suning Plaza Tower 1, Zhenjiang Suzhou IFS Suzhou Zhongnan Center Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center Tianjin Modern City Office Tower Tianjin R&F Guangdong Tower Wuhan Center Wuhan Greenland Center Xiamen International Centre Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour Yuexiu Fortune Center
Fortune Center
Tower 1 Zhujiang New City Tower

India

DB Crown Lokhandwala Minerva Namaste Tower Palais Royale Three Sixty West World One

Saudi Arabia

Capital Market Authority Headquarters Diamond Tower Jeddah Tower Lamar Towers

South Korea

LCT Landmark Tower LCT Residential Tower A LCT Residential Tower B Parc1 Tower

UAE

Address Boulevard Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower DAMAC Residenze Dubai Pearl Marina 101 Marina 106 The Skyscraper

other

Abu Dhabi Plaza The Exchange 106 Gate of Kuwait Gate of Taipei Iconic Towers Merdeka PNB 118 Pertamina Energy Tower Ryugyong Hotel The Stratford Residences VietinBank Business Center Office Tower Vincom Landmark 81

Europe

Lakhta Center

Australia

Australia 108

Construction delayed or suspended

Al Quds Endowment Tower Barwa Tower Burj Al Alam Busan Lotte Town Tower Doha
Doha
Tower and Convention Center Dubai Towers Doha Forum 66 India Tower JW Marriott International Finance Centre Lighthouse Tower Millennium Tower Orchid Heights Pentominium The Pinnacle Plaza Rakyat Qatar National Bank Tower Signature Tower Jakarta Sino-Steel Tower Skycity Square Capital Tower Tameer Commercial Tower Tour Financial Hub Center Two World Trade Center

Former

World Trade Center (1973–2001)

See also Proposed supertall skyscrapers List of architects of supertall buildings

v t e

Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts

Edsa Shangri-La, Manila
Edsa Shangri-La, Manila
(Shangri-La Plaza) Island Shangri-La Kowloon Shangri-La Living Shangri-La Makati Shangri-La, Manila Shangri-La at the Fort, Manila Shangri-La Hotel
Shangri-La Hotel
(Dubai) Shangri-La Hotel
Shangri-La Hotel
Singapore Shangri-La Hotel, Tokyo Shangri-La Kuala Lumpur Shangri-La Mactan Island Resort & Spa, Cebu Shangri-La Resort & Spa, Kota Kinabalu Shangri-La Toronto Shangri-La's Barr Al Jissah Resort & Spa Shangri-La's Fijian Resort

v t e

Emporis
Emporis
Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Award

Sofitel New York Hotel
Sofitel New York Hotel
(2000) One Wall Centre
One Wall Centre
(2001) Kingdom Centre
Kingdom Centre
(2002) 30 St Mary Axe
30 St Mary Axe
(2003) Taipei 101
Taipei 101
(2004) Turning Torso
Turning Torso
(2005) Hearst Tower (2006) Het Strijkijzer
Het Strijkijzer
(2007) Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower
Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower
(2008) Aqua (2009) Hotel Porta Fira
Hotel Porta Fira
(2010) 8 Spruce Street
8 Spruce Street
(2011) Absolute World
Absolute World
(2012) The Shard
The Shard
(2013) Wangjing SOHO
Wangjing SOHO
(2014) Shanghai Tower
Shanghai Tower
(2015)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3054418

.