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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Zion
(Russian: Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion
Zion
is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish
Jewish
plan for global domination. The forgery was first published in Russia
Russia
in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. According to the claims made by some of its publishers, the Protocols are the minutes of a late 19th-century meeting where Jewish
Jewish
leaders discussed their goal of global Jewish hegemony by subverting the morals of Gentiles, and by controlling the press and the world's economies. Henry Ford
Henry Ford
funded printing of 500,000 copies that were distributed throughout the United States in the 1920s. The Nazis sometimes used the Protocols as propaganda against Jews; it was assigned by some German teachers, as if factual, to be read by German schoolchildren after the Nazis came to power in 1933,[1] despite having been exposed as fraudulent by The Times
The Times
of London
London
in 1921. It is still widely available today in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by some proponents as a genuine document.

Contents

1 Creation

1.1 Political conspiracy background 1.2 Sources employed 1.3 Literary forgery 1.4 Maurice Joly 1.5 Hermann Goedsche

2 Structure and content 3 History

3.1 Publication history 3.2 First Russian language
Russian language
editions

3.2.1 Conspiracy references

3.3 Emergence in Russia

3.3.1 Krushevan and Nilus editions 3.3.2 Stolypin's fraud investigation, 1905

3.4 The Protocols in the West

3.4.1 English language imprints

3.4.1.1 United States

3.4.2 The Times
The Times
exposes a forgery, 1921

3.5 Arab
Arab
world 3.6 Switzerland

3.6.1 The Berne
Berne
Trial, 1934–35 3.6.2 The Basel
Basel
Trial

3.7 Germany

3.7.1 German language publications

3.8 Italy 3.9 Modern era

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links

Creation

Part of a series on

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v t e

The Protocols is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. Textual evidence shows that it could not have been produced prior to 1901. It is notable that the title of Sergei Nilus's widely distributed edition contains the dates "1902–1903", and it is likely that the document was actually written at this time in Russia, despite Nilus' attempt to cover this up by inserting French-sounding words into his edition.[2] Cesare G. De Michelis argues that it was manufactured in the months after a Russian Zionist congress in September 1902, and that it was originally a parody of Jewish
Jewish
idealism meant for internal circulation among antisemites until it was decided to clean it up and publish it as if it were real. Self-contradictions in various testimonies show that the individuals involved—including the text's initial publisher, Pavel Krushevan—deliberately obscured the origins of the text and lied about it in the decades afterwards.[3] If the placement of the forgery in 1902–1903 Russia
Russia
is correct, then it was written at the beginning of the anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogroms in the Russian Empire, in which thousands of Jews died or fled the country. Many of the people whom De Michelis suspects of involvement in the forgery were directly responsible for inciting the pogroms.[citation needed] Political conspiracy background Towards the end of the 18th century, following the Partitions of Poland, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
inherited the world's largest Jewish population. The Jews lived in shtetls in the West of the Empire, in the Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement
and until the 1840s, local Jewish
Jewish
affairs were organised through the qahal, including for purposes of taxation and conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. Following the ascent of liberalism in Europe, the Russian ruling class became more hardline in its reactionary policies, upholding the banner of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality, whereby non-Orthodox and non-Russian subjects, including the Jews, were not always embraced. Jews who attempted to assimilate were regarded with suspicion as potential "infiltrators" supposedly trying to "take over society", while Jews who remained attached to traditional Jewish
Jewish
culture were resented as undesirable aliens.

The Book of the Kahal (1869) by Jacob Brafman, in the Russian language original.

Resentment towards Jews, for the aforementioned reasons, existed in Russian society, but the idea of a Protocols-esque international Jewish
Jewish
conspiracy for world domination was minted in the 1860s. Jacob Brafman, a Russian Jew from Minsk, had a falling out with agents of the local kahal – the semi-autonomous Jewish
Jewish
government – and consequently turned against Judaism. He subsequently converted to the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
and authored polemics against the Talmud
Talmud
and the kahal. Brafman claimed in his books The Local and Universal Jewish Brotherhoods (1868) and The Book of the Kahal (1869), published in Vilna, that the kahal continued to exist in secret and that it had as its principal aim undermining Christian entrepreneurs, taking over their property and ultimately seizing power. He also claimed that it was an international conspiritorial network, under the central control of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, which was based in Paris and then under the leadership of Adolphe Crémieux, a prominent freemason. The Vilna
Vilna
Talmudist, Jacob Barit, attempted to refute Brafman's claim. The impact of Brafman's work took on an international aspect, as it was translated into English, French, German and other languages. The image of the "kahal" as a secret international Jewish
Jewish
shadow government working as a state within a state was picked up by anti- Jewish
Jewish
publications in Russia
Russia
and was taken seriously by some Russian officials such as P. A. Cherevin and Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev who in the 1880s urged governor-generals of provinces to seek out the supposed kahal. This was around the time of the Narodnaya Volya attempted assassination on Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II of Russia
and the subsequent anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogroms in the Russian Empire. In France it was translated by Monsignor Ernest Jouin in 1925, a proponent of Catholic intégrisme, who was also a supporter of the Protocols. In 1928, Siegfried Passarge a geographer active in the Third Reich, translated it into German. Aside from Brafman, there were other early writings which posited a similar concept to the Protocols. This includes The Conquest of the World by the Jews (1878),[4] published in Basel
Basel
and authored by Osman Bey (born Frederick Millingen). The author, Millingen, was a British subject of Dutch- Jewish
Jewish
extraction (the grandson of James Millingen), but served as an officer in the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
where he was born. He traveled around much, spending time as a Muslim
Muslim
before ending up a Russian Orthodox Christian. He was last seen alive in Paris in 1901. Bey's work was followed up by Hippolytus Lutostansky's The Talmud
Talmud
and the Jews (1879) which claimed that Jews wanted to divide Russia
Russia
among themselves.[5] Incidentally, in a 1904 edition of The Talmud
Talmud
and the Jews, Hippolytus directly quoted verbatim the first, little-known 1903 edition of the Protocols.[6] Sources employed Source material for the forgery consisted jointly of Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu
Montesquieu
(Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli
Machiavelli
and Montesquieu), an 1864 political satire by Maurice Joly;[7] and a chapter from Biarritz, an 1868 novel by the antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche, which had been translated into Russian in 1872.[8] A major source for the Protocols was Der Judenstaat
Der Judenstaat
by Theodor Herzl, which was referred to as Zionist Protocols in its initial French and Russian editions. Paradoxically, early Russian editions of the Protocols assert that they did not come from a Zionist organization.[9] The text, which nowhere advocates for Zionism, resembles a parody of Herzl's ideas.[10] Literary forgery The Protocols is one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery, with analysis and proof of its fraudulent origin going as far back as 1921.[11] The forgery is an early example of "conspiracy theory" literature.[12] Written mainly in the first person plural,[a] the text includes generalizations, truisms, and platitudes on how to take over the world: take control of the media and the financial institutions, change the traditional social order, etc. It does not contain specifics.[14] Maurice Joly Elements of the Protocols were plagiarized from Joly's fictional Dialogue in Hell, a thinly veiled attack on the political ambitions of Napoleon III, who, represented by the non- Jewish
Jewish
character Machiavelli,[15] plots to rule the world. Joly, a monarchist and legitimist, was imprisoned in France for 15 months as a direct result of his book's publication. Scholars have noted the irony that Dialogue in Hell was itself a plagiarism, at least in part, of a novel by Eugène Sue, Les Mystères du Peuple (1849–56).[16] Identifiable phrases from Joly constitute 4% of the first half of the first edition, and 12% of the second half; later editions, including most translations, have longer quotes from Joly.[17] The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's Dialogues 1–17. For example:

Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli
Machiavelli
and Montesquieu The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

How are loans made? By the issue of bonds entailing on the Government the obligation to pay interest proportionate to the capital it has been paid. Thus, if a loan is at 5%, the State, after 20 years, has paid out a sum equal to the borrowed capital. When 40 years have expired it has paid double, after 60 years triple: yet it remains debtor for the entire capital sum. — Montesquieu, Dialogues, p. 209

A loan is an issue of Government paper which entails an obligation to pay interest amounting to a percentage of the total sum of the borrowed money. If a loan is at 5%, then in 20 years the Government would have unnecessarily paid out a sum equal to that of the loan in order to cover the percentage. In 40 years it will have paid twice; and in 60 thrice that amount, but the loan will still remain as an unpaid debt. — Protocols, p. 77

Like the god Vishnu, my press will have a hundred arms, and these arms will give their hands to all the different shades of opinion throughout the country. — Machiavelli, Dialogues, p. 141

These newspapers, like the Indian god Vishnu, will be possessed of hundreds of hands, each of which will be feeling the pulse of varying public opinion. — Protocols, p. 43

Now I understand the figure of the god Vishnu; you have a hundred arms like the Indian idol, and each of your fingers touches a spring. — Montesquieu, Dialogues, p. 207

Our Government will resemble the Hindu god Vishnu. Each of our hundred hands will hold one spring of the social machinery of State. — Protocols, p. 65

Philip Graves
Philip Graves
brought this plagiarism to light in a series of articles in The Times
The Times
in 1921, the first published evidence that the Protocols was not an authentic document.[18][19] Hermann Goedsche Main article: Hermann Goedsche "Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian Secret Police. He had been forced to leave the postal work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in 1849."[20] Following his dismissal, Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist, and wrote literary fiction under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe.[21] His 1868 novel Biarritz (To Sedan) contains a chapter called "The Jewish
Jewish
Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel." In it, Goedsche (who was unaware that only two of the original twelve Biblical "tribes" remained) depicts a clandestine nocturnal meeting of members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal that is planning a diabolical " Jewish
Jewish
conspiracy." At midnight, the Devil appears to contribute his opinions and insight. The chapter closely resembles a scene in Alexandre Dumas' Giuseppe Balsamo (1848), in which Joseph Balsamo a.k.a. Alessandro Cagliostro
Alessandro Cagliostro
and company plot the Affair of the Diamond Necklace.[22] In 1872 a Russian translation of "The Jewish
Jewish
Cemetery in Prague" appeared in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. François Bournand, in his Les Juifs et nos Contemporains (1896), reproduced the soliloquy at the end of the chapter, in which the character Levit expresses as factual the wish that Jews be "kings of the world in 100 years" —crediting a "Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
John Readcliff." Perpetuation of the myth of the authenticity of Goedsche's story, in particular the "Rabbi's speech", facilitated later accounts of the equally mythical authenticity of the Protocols.[21] Like the Protocols, many asserted that the fictional "rabbi's speech" had a ring of authenticity, regardless of its origin: "This speech was published in our time, eighteen years ago," read an 1898 report in La Croix, "and all the events occurring before our eyes were anticipated in it with truly frightening accuracy."[23] Fictional events in Joly's Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu, which appeared four years before Biarritz, may well have been the inspiration for Goedsche's fictional midnight meeting, and details of the outcome of the supposed plot. Goedsche's chapter may have been an outright plagiarism of Joly, Dumas père, or both.[24][b] Structure and content The Protocols purports to document the minutes of a late-19th-century meeting attended by world Jewish
Jewish
leaders, the "Elders of Zion", who are conspiring to take over the world.[25][26] The forgery places in the mouths of the Jewish
Jewish
leaders a variety of plans, most of which derive from older antisemitic canards.[25][26] For example, the Protocols includes plans to subvert the morals of the non-Jewish world, plans for Jewish
Jewish
bankers to control the world's economies, plans for Jewish
Jewish
control of the press, and – ultimately – plans for the destruction of civilization.[25][26] The document consists of twenty-four "protocols", which have been analyzed by Steven Jacobs and Mark Weitzman, who documented several recurrent themes that appear repeatedly in the 24 protocols,[c] as shown in the following table:[27]

Protocol Title[27] Themes[27]

1 The Basic Doctrine: "Right Lies in Might" Freedom and Liberty; Authority and power; Gold = money

2 Economic War and Disorganization Lead to International Government International Political economic conspiracy; Press/Media as tools

3 Methods of Conquest Jewish
Jewish
people, arrogant and corrupt; Chosenness/Election; Public Service

4 The Destruction of Religion by Materialism Business as Cold and Heartless; Gentiles as slaves

5 Despotism and Modern Progress Jewish
Jewish
Ethics; Jewish
Jewish
People's Relationship to Larger Society

6 The Acquisition of Land, The Encouragement of Speculation Ownership of land

7 A Prophecy of Worldwide War Internal unrest and discord (vs. Court system) leading to war vs Shalom/Peace

8 The transitional Government Criminal element

9 The All-Embracing Propaganda Law; education; Freemasonry

10 Abolition of the Constitution; Rise of the Autocracy Politics; Majority rule; Liberalism; Family

11 The Constitution of Autocracy and Universal Rule Gentiles; Jewish
Jewish
political involvement; Freemasonry

12 The Kingdom of the Press and Control Liberty; Press censorship; Publishing

13 Turning Public Thought from Essentials to Non-essentials Gentiles; Business; Chosenness/Election; Press and censorship; Liberalism

14 The Destruction of Religion as a Prelude to the Rise of the Jewish
Jewish
God Judaism; God; Gentiles; Liberty; Pornography

15 Utilization of Masonry: Heartless Suppression of Enemies Gentiles; Freemasonry; Sages of Israel; Political power and authority; King of Israel

16 The Nullification of Education Education

17 The Fate of Lawyers and the Clergy Lawyers; Clergy; Christianity and non- Jewish
Jewish
Authorship

18 The Organization of Disorder Evil; Speech;

19 Mutual Understanding Between Ruler and People Gossip; Martyrdom

20 The Financial Program and Construction Taxes and Taxation; Loans; Bonds; Usury; Moneylending

21 Domestic Loans and Government Credit Stock Markets and Stock Exchanges

22 The Beneficence of Jewish
Jewish
Rule Gold = Money; Chosenness/Election

23 The Inculcation of Obedience Obedience to Authority; Slavery; Chosenness/Election

24 The Jewish
Jewish
Ruler Kingship; Document
Document
as Fiction

History Publication history See also: List of editions of Protocols of the Elders of Zion The Protocols appeared in print in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
as early as 1903, published as a series of articles in Znamya, a Black Hundreds newspaper owned by Pavel Krushevan. It appeared again in 1905 as the final chapter (Chapter XII) of the second edition of Velikoe v malom i antikhrist ("The Great in the Small & Antichrist"), a book by Sergei Nilus. In 1906, it appeared in pamphlet form edited by Georgy Butmi de Katzman.[28] These first three (and subsequently more) Russian language
Russian language
imprints were published and circulated in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
during the 1903–6 period as a tool for scapegoating Jews, blamed by the monarchists for the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
and the Revolution of 1905. Common to all three texts is the idea that Jews aim for world domination. Since The Protocols are presented as merely a document, the front matter and back matter are needed to explain its alleged origin. The diverse imprints, however, are mutually inconsistent. The general claim is that the document was stolen from a secret Jewish
Jewish
organization. Since the alleged original stolen manuscript does not exist, one is forced to restore a purported original edition. This has been done by the Italian scholar, Cesare G. De Michelis in 1998, in a work which was translated into English and published in 2004, where he treats his subject as Apocrypha.[28][29] As fiction in the genre of literature, the tract was further analyzed by Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
in his novel Foucault's Pendulum
Foucault's Pendulum
in 1988 (English translation in 1989), in 1994 in chapter 6, "Fictional Protocols", of his Six Walks in the Fictional Woods
Six Walks in the Fictional Woods
and in his 2010 novel The Prague Cemetery. As the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
unfolded, causing White movement-affiliated Russians to flee to the West, this text was carried along and assumed a new purpose. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure;[29] it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution. It became a tool, a political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the "plan" embodied in The Protocols. The purpose was to discredit the October Revolution, prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union, and bring about the downfall of Vladimir Lenin's regime.[28][29] First Russian language
Russian language
editions Conspiracy references According to Daniel Pipes,

The great importance of The Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another."[30] The book's vagueness—almost no names, dates, or issues are specified—has been one key to this wide-ranging success. The purportedly Jewish
Jewish
authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction—that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny—made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left, Christian and Muslim, American and Japanese.[14]

Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success."[31] The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories[citation needed], and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature, such as Jim Marrs' Rule by Secrecy, which identifies the work as a Czarist forgery. Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati,[32] Freemasons, the Priory of Sion, or even, in the opinion of David Icke, "extra-dimensional entities."[citation needed] Emergence in Russia

The front piece of a 1912 edition utilizing occult symbols.

The chapter "In the Jewish
Jewish
Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz, with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872.[8] However, in 1921, Princess Catherine Radziwill
Catherine Radziwill
gave a private lecture in New York in which she claimed that the Protocols were a forgery compiled in 1904–5 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski
Matvei Golovinski
and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris.[33] In 1944, German writer Konrad Heiden
Konrad Heiden
identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols.[32] Radziwill's account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine, who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express.[34] Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia
Russia
was really a Jewish
Jewish
plot to control the world.[35] Stephen Eric Bronner writes that groups opposed to progress, parliamentarianism, urbanization, and capitalism, and an active Jewish
Jewish
role in these modern institutions, were particularly drawn to the antisemitism of the document.[36] Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular, The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings, including the Protocols.[35] Golovinski's role in the writing of the Protocols is disputed by Michael Hagemeister, Richard Levy and Cesare De Michelis, who each write that the account which involves him is historically unverifiable and to a large extent provably wrong.[37][38][39] In his book The Non-Existent Manuscript, Italian scholar Cesare G. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press in April 1902, by the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
newspaper Novoye Vremya (Новое Время – The New Times). The article was written by famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к ближним") and was titled "Plots against Humanity". The author described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka, as it is known now) who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts, Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.[40] Krushevan and Nilus editions The Protocols were published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 (O.S.) 1903, in Znamya, a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper, under Pavel Krushevan. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
four months earlier.[41] In 1905, Sergei Nilus
Sergei Nilus
published the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII, the final chapter (pp 305–417), of the second edition (or third, according to some sources) of his book, Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.[28] When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews, Nilus changed his story, saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902–3 meetings of the Elders, but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901:

In 1901, I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish
Jewish
Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France—the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy.[42]

Stolypin's fraud investigation, 1905 A subsequent secret investigation ordered by Pyotr Stolypin, the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers, came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898.[43] When Nicholas II
Nicholas II
learned of the results of this investigation, he requested, "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means."[44] Despite the order, or because of the "good cause", numerous reprints proliferated.[41] The Protocols in the West

A 1934 edition by the Patriotic Publishing Company of Chicago.

In the United States, The Protocols are to be understood in the context of the First Red Scare
First Red Scare
(1917–20). The text was purportedly brought to the United States by a Russian army officer in 1917; it was translated into English by Natalie de Bogory
Natalie de Bogory
(personal assistant of Harris A. Houghton, an officer of the Department of War) in June 1918,[45] and Russian expatriate Boris Brasol
Boris Brasol
soon circulated it in American government circles, specifically diplomatic and military, in typescript form,[46] a copy of which is archived by the Hoover Institute.[47] It also appeared in 1919 in the Public Ledger as a pair of serialized newspaper articles. But all references to "Jews" were replaced with references to Bolsheviki
Bolsheviki
as an exposé by the journalist and subsequently highly respected Columbia University
Columbia University
School of Journalism dean Carl W. Ackerman.[48] [47] In 1923, there appeared an anonymously edited pamphlet by the Britons Publishing Society, a successor to The Britons, an entity created and headed by Henry Hamilton Beamish. This imprint was allegedly a translation by Victor E. Marsden, who died in October 1920.[47] Most versions substantially involve "protocols", or minutes of a speech given in secret involving Jews who are organized as Elders, or Sages, of Zion,[49] and underlies 24 protocols that are supposedly followed by the Jewish
Jewish
people. The Protocols has been proven to be a literary forgery and hoax as well as a clear case of plagiarism.[19][50][51][52][53] English language imprints On October 27 and 28, 1919, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish
Jewish
authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
manifesto.[54] The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time, Carl W. Ackerman, who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On May 8, 1920, an article[55] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy". In the leader (editorial) titled "The Jewish
Jewish
Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Wickham Steed wrote about The Protocols:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".[56]

Steed retracted his endorsement of The Protocols after they were exposed as a forgery.[57] United States

Title page of 1920 edition from Boston.

In the US, Henry Ford
Henry Ford
sponsored the printing of 500,000 copies,[58] and, from 1920 to 1922, published a series of antisemitic articles titled "The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem", in The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper he owned. The articles were later collected into multi-volume book series of the same name.[59] In 1921, Ford cited evidence of a Jewish
Jewish
threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time."[60] Robert A. Rosenbaum wrote that "In 1927, bowing to legal and economic pressure, Ford issued a retraction and apology—while disclaiming personal responsibility—for the anti-Semitic articles and closed the Dearborn Independent in 1927.[61] He was also an admirer of Nazi Germany.[62] In 1934, an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pp 136–41). The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300-page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 book on the coming of the anti-Christ. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet. The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Chaim Weizmann's October 6, 1920, remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion:

It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe.[63]

The Times
The Times
exposes a forgery, 1921

The Times
The Times
exposed the Protocols as a forgery on August 16–18, 1921

In 1920–1921, the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Jacques Crétineau-Joly by Lucien Wolf
Lucien Wolf
(an English Jewish
Jewish
journalist), and published in London
London
in August 1921. But a dramatic exposé occurred in the series of articles in The Times
The Times
by its Constantinople
Constantinople
reporter, Philip Graves, who discovered the plagiarism from the work of Maurice Joly.[19] According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles, who was in Constantinople
Constantinople
developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures, discovered "the source" of the documentation and ultimately provided him to The Times. Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source, a Russian émigré who refused to be identified, with the understanding the loan would not be repaid.[64] Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history at Sheffield University, identified the émigré as Michael Raslovleff, a self-identified antisemite, who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been."[65] In the first article of Graves' series, titled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times
The Times
wrote, "our Constantinople
Constantinople
Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made."[19] In the same year, an entire book[66] documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites. Dulles, a successful lawyer and career diplomat, attempted to persuade the US State Department
US State Department
to publicly denounce the forgery, but without success.[67] Arab
Arab
world A translation made by an Arab
Arab
Christian appeared in Cairo
Cairo
in 1927 or 1928, this time as a book. The first translation by an Arab
Arab
Muslim
Muslim
was also published in Cairo, but only in 1951.[68] Switzerland The Berne
Berne
Trial, 1934–35 Main article: Berne
Berne
Trial The selling of the Protocols (edited by German antisemite Theodor Fritsch) by the National Front during a political manifestation in the Casino of Berne
Berne
on June 13, 1933,[d] led to the Berne Trial
Berne Trial
in the Amtsgericht (district court) of Berne, the capital of Switzerland, on October 29, 1934. The plaintiffs (the Swiss Jewish
Jewish
Association and the Jewish
Jewish
Community of Berne) were represented by Hans Matti and Georges Brunschvig, helped by Emil Raas. Working on behalf of the defense was German antisemitic propagandist Ulrich Fleischhauer. On May 19, 1935, two defendants (Theodore Fischer and Silvio Schnell) were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral, obscene or brutalizing" texts[69] while three other defendants were acquitted. The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion,

I hope the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense.[41]

Vladimir Burtsev, a Russian émigré, anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
and anti-Fascist who exposed numerous Okhrana
Okhrana
agents provocateurs in the early 1900s, served as a witness at the Berne
Berne
Trial. In 1938 in Paris he published a book, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery, based on his testimony. On November 1, 1937, the defendants appealed the verdict to the Obergericht (Cantonal Supreme Court) of Berne. A panel of three judges acquitted them, holding that the Protocols, while false, did not violate the statute at issue because they were "political publications" and not "immoral (obscene) publications (Schundliteratur)" in the strict sense of the law.[69] The presiding judge's opinion stated, though, that the forgery of the Protocols was not questionable and expressed regret that the law did not provide adequate protection for Jews from this sort of literature. The court refused to impose the fees of defense of the acquitted defendants to the plaintiffs, and the acquitted Theodor Fischer had to pay 100 Fr. to the total state costs of the trial (Fr. 28'000) that were eventually paid by the Canton of Berne.[70] This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is contrary to the facts. A view favorable to the pro-Nazi defendants is reported in an appendix to Leslie Fry's Waters Flowing Eastward.[71] A more scholarly work on the trial is in a 139-page monograph by Urs Lüthi.[72] The Basel
Basel
Trial A similar trial in Switzerland
Switzerland
took place at Basel. The Swiss Frontists Alfred Zander and Eduard Rüegsegger distributed the Protocols (edited by the German Gottfried zur Beek) in Switzerland. Jules Dreyfus-Brodsky and Marcus Cohen sued them for insult to Jewish honor. At the same time, chief rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis of Stockholm (who also witnessed at the Berne
Berne
Trial) sued Alfred Zander who contended that Ehrenpreis himself had said that the Protocols were authentic (referring to the foreword of the edition of the Protocols by the German antisemite Theodor Fritsch). On June 5, 1936 these proceedings ended with a settlement.[e] Germany According to historian Norman Cohn,[74] the assassins of German Jewish politician Walter Rathenau
Walter Rathenau
(1867–1922) were convinced that Rathenau was a literal "Elder of Zion". It seems likely Hitler first became aware of the Protocols after hearing about it from ethnic German white émigrés, such as Alfred Rosenberg and Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter.[75] Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf:

... [The Protocols] are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans [ ] every week ... [which is] the best proof that they are authentic ... the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish
Jewish
people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims.[76]

The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews":

Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab
Arab
lands, the US, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.[77]

Hitler endorsed the Protocols in his speeches from August 1921 on, and it was studied in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power. "Distillations of the text appeared in German classrooms, indoctrinated the Hitler Youth, and invaded the USSR along with German soldiers."[1] Nazi Propaganda
Propaganda
Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published."[78] In contrast to Hitler, Nazi leader Erich von dem Bach-Zelewsky admitted:

I am the only living witness but I must say the truth. Contrary to the opinion of the National Socialists, that the Jews were a highly organized group, the appalling fact was that they had no organization whatsoever. The mass of the Jewish
Jewish
people were taken complete by surprise. They did not know at all what to do; they had no directives or slogans as to how they should act. This is the greatest lie of anti-Semitism because it gives the lie to that old slogan that the Jews are conspiring to dominate the world and that they are so highly organized. In reality, they had no organization of their own at all, not even an information service. If they had had some sort of organization, these people could have been saved by the millions, but instead, they were taken completely by surprise. Never before has a people gone as unsuspectingly to its disaster. Nothing was prepared. Absolutely nothing.[79][80]

Richard S. Levy criticizes the claim that the Protocols had a large effect on Hitler's thinking, writing that it is based mostly on suspect testimony and lacks hard evidence.[39] Publication of the Protocols was stopped in Germany in 1939 for unknown reasons.[81] An edition that was ready for printing was blocked by censorship laws.[82] German language publications Having fled Ukraine in 1918–19, Piotr Shabelsky-Bork brought the Protocols to Ludwig Muller Von Hausen who then published them in German.[83] Under the pseudonym Gottfried Zur Beek he produced the first and "by far the most important"[84] German translation. It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract[85] dated 1919. After The Times
The Times
discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller. "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs, and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests".[78] Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition[86] "gave a forgery a huge boost".[78] Italy Fascist politician Giovanni Preziosi published the first Italian edition of the Protocols in 1921.[87][page needed] The book however had little impact until the mid-1930s. A new 1937 edition had a much higher impact, and three further editions in the following months sold 60,000 copies total.[87][page needed] The fifth edition had an introduction by Julius Evola, which argued around the issue of forgery, stating: "The problem of the authenticity of this document is secondary and has to be replaced by the much more serious and essential problem of its truthfulness".[87][page needed] Modern era See also: Contemporary imprints of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and New World Order (conspiracy theory)
New World Order (conspiracy theory)
§ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion The Protocols continue to be widely available around the world, particularly on the Internet, as well as in print in Japan, the Middle East, Asia, and South America.[88] Governments or political leaders in most parts of the world have not referred to the Protocols since World War II. The exception to this is the Middle East, where a large number of Arab
Arab
and Muslim
Muslim
regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic, including endorsements from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
and Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
of Egypt, the elder President Arif of Iraq,[89] King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi
of Libya.[68][90] The 1988 charter of Hamas, a Palestinian Islamist group, states that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Zion
embodies the plan of the Zionists.[91] Recent endorsements in the 21st century have been made by the Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Jerusalem, Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri, the education ministry of Saudi Arabia,[90] member of the Greek Parliament Ilias Kasidiaris,[92] and Young Earth creationist and tax evader Kent Hovind.[93] See also

Judaism
Judaism
portal Russia
Russia
portal

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Pertinent concepts

Black propaganda Blood libel Disinformation Hate speech World government

Individuals

Martin Heidegger and Nazism

Related or similar texts

A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century Alta Vendita Tanaka Memorial Protocols of Zion Hamas
Hamas
Covenant The Prague Cemetery Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East Warrant for Genocide

Notes

^ The text contains 44 instances of the word "I" (9.6%), and 412 instances of the word "we" (90.4%).[13] ^ This complex relationship was originally exposed by Graves 1921. The exposé has since been elaborated in many sources. ^ Jacobs analyses the Marsden English translation. Some other less common imprints have more or fewer than 24 protocols ^ The main speaker was the former chief of the Swiss General Staff Emil Sonderegger. ^ Zander had to withdraw his contention and the stock of the incriminated Protocols were destroyed by order of the court. Zander had to pay the fees of this Basel
Basel
Trial.[73]

References

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Bibliography

Ben-Itto, Hadassa (2005), The Lie That Wouldn't Die: One Hundred Years of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, London; Portland, OR: Vallentine Mitchell, ISBN 978-0-85303-602-9 

Bernstein, Herman (1921): The History of a Lie at Project Gutenberg

Bernstein, Herman (1921), The history of a lie, 'The protocols of the wise men of Zion' (page images) (study), Archive, retrieved 2009-02-01 .

Bronner, Stephen Eric (2003), A Rumor About the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516956-5 . Carroll, Robert Todd (2006), "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", The Skeptic's Dictionary . Chanes, Jerome A (2004), Antisemitism: a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO . Cohn, Norman (1967), Warrant for Genocide, The myth of the Jewish world conspiracy and the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion', Eyre & Spottiswoode, ISBN 1-897959-25-7 . David (June 30, 2000), "What's the story with the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion'?", The Straight Dope . Graves, Philip (August 16–18, 1921), "The Truth about the Protocols: A Literary Forgery", The Times, London . Graves, Philip (September 4, 1921b), "' Jewish
Jewish
World Plot': An Exposure. The Source of 'The Protocols of Zion'. Truth at Last" (PDF), The New York Times, Front p, Sec 7 .

Graves, Philip (1921c), "The truth about 'The Protocols': a literary forgery", The Times
The Times
(articles collection), London, archived from the original (pamphlet) on May 10, 2013 .

Hagemeister, Michael (2006), Brinks, Jan Herman; Rock, Stella; Timms, Edward, eds., Nationalist Myths and Modern Media. Contested Identities in the Age of Globalization, London/New York, pp. 243–55 . Jacobs, Steven Leonard; Weitzman, Mark (2003), Dismantling the Big Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, ISBN 0-88125-785-0 . Kellogg, Michael (2005), The Russian Roots of Nazism
Nazism
White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945, Cambridge . Lüthi, Urs (1992), Der Mythos von der Weltverschwörung: die Hetze der Schweizer Frontisten gegen Juden und Freimaurer, am Beispiel des Berner Prozesses um die "Protokolle der Weisen von Zion" (in German), Basel/Frankfurt am Main: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, ISBN 978-3-7190-1197-0, OCLC 30002662 . Michelis, Cesare G. de (2004). The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the Protocols of the Sages of Zion. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1727-7.  Pipes, Daniel (1997), Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From, The Free Press, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83131-7 . Singerman, Robert (1980), "The American Career of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion", American Jewish
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History, 71 .

Further reading

A Hoax of Hate, The Anti-Defamation League, 2002 . Eisner, Will, The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, ISBN 0-393-06045-4 . Fox, Frank (1997), "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Zion
and the Shadowy world of Elie de Cyon", East European Jewish
Jewish
Affairs, 27 (1): 3–22, doi:10.1080/13501679708577838 . Goldberg, Isaac (1936), The so-called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion": a Definitive Exposure of One of the Most Malicious Lies in History, Girard, KS: E. Haldeman-Julius . Hagemeister, Michael, "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Between History and Fiction", New German Critique, 35 (1103), retrieved 2009-09-15  Kiš, Danilo (1989), "The Book of Kings and Fools", The Encyclopedia of the Dead, Faber & Faber . Landes, Richard; Katz, Steven, eds. (2012), Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion', New York: New York University Press . Shibuya, Eric (2007), "The Struggle with Right-Wing Extremist Groups in the United States", in Forest, James, Countering terrorism and insurgency in the 21st century, 3, Greenwood . Timmerman, Kenneth R (2003), Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America, Crown Forum, ISBN 1-4000-4901-6 . Webman, Esther, ed. (2011), The Global Impact of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. A century-old myth, London
London
and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-59892-3 . Wolf, Lucien (1921), The Myth of the Jewish
Jewish
Menace in World Affairs or, The Truth About the Forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion, New York: Macmillan . Matussek, Carmen
Carmen
(2013), Carmen
Carmen
Matussek: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Zion
in the Arab
Arab
world, World Jewish
Jewish
Congress website .

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Public Statement (PDF), The American Jewish
Jewish
Committee , 4pp. A disclaimer published as a result of a conference held in New York City on November 30, 1920. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Between History and Fiction, By Michael Hagemeister Protocols of the Elders of Zion; a fabricated "historic" document (PDF) (report), United States Holocaust Museum: Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 88th Congress, 2d Session, August 6, 1964, archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008 . The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library . Antisemitic
Antisemitic
Propaganda: "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, September 2004 . "A Dangerous Lie", Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, April 2006 . Dickerson, D (ed.), Protocols (Index of several resources), Institute for Global Communications . Dickerson, D (ed.), The protocols of the learned Elders of Zion
Zion
(PDF), Marsden, transl., IGC . Eco, Umberto (August 17, 2002), "The poisonous Protocols", The Guardian, retrieved August 17, 2016  Eshed, Eli (2005), The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, graphic novel by Will Eisner
Will Eisner
(review), IL: Notes . Rothstein, Edward (April 21, 2006), "The Antisemitic
Antisemitic
Hoax That Refuses to Die", The New York Times
New York Times
(exhibition review) . Weiss, Anthony (March 4, 2009), "Elders of Zion
Zion
to Retire", The Jewish Daily Forward ( Purim
Purim
spoof article) . Wiesel, Elie (August 13, 2006), Nobel Peace Prize winner (audio) (talk) . History of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, BCY, CA: Freemasonry . "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", Encyclopaedia Britannica .

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Antisemitism

Core topics

Xenophobia History Timeline Geography Religious antisemitism Canards Persecution of Jews New antisemitism

3D Test

Racial antisemitism Secondary antisemitism

Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and

Christianity Islam the Nation of Islam International Brigades Universities

Related topics

Anti-Zionism The International Jew Jewish
Jewish
Bolshevism Ku Klux Klan Nazi propaganda Philo-Semitism The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Self-hating Jew

Religious antisemitism

Anti-Judaism Martin Luther Spanish Inquisition Portuguese Inquisition Blood curse Blood libel Host desecration Judensau Pogrom

Antisemitic
Antisemitic
laws, policies and government actions

Ghetto benches Hep-Hep riots Pogroms in the Russian Empire May Laws 1968 Polish political crisis Leo Frank
Leo Frank
trial (USA) Dreyfus Affair (France) Farhud
Farhud
(Iraq) General Order No. 11 (USA, 1862) Historical revisionism (negationism) Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Holocaust Racial policy of Nazi Germany Holocaust denial The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory

Antisemitic
Antisemitic
websites

Bible Believers The Daily Stormer Institute for Historical Review Jew Watch Metapedia Podblanc Radio Islam Redwatch The Right Stuff Stormfront

Organizations working against antisemitism

Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
(ADL) Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project (BAHOHP) Community Security Trust Middle East Media Research Institute
Middle East Media Research Institute
(MEMRI) Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
(SWC) Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center
(SPLC) Stephen Roth Institute Yad Vashem

Locations

Arab
Arab
world Europe Austria Canada France Greece Hungary Italy Japan Norway Pakistan Russia

Imperial Soviet

Spain Sweden Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Venezuela

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Conspiracy theories

List of conspiracy theories

Core topics

Cabals Civil Criminal Deception Espionage Fiction Political Secrecy Secret societies Urban legend

Psychology

Attitude polarization Cognitive dissonance Communal reinforcement Confirmation bias Locus of control Mass hysteria Paranoia Psychological projection

Deaths and disappearances

Assassinations and avoidable accidents

Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
(1400) Princes in the Tower
Princes in the Tower
(1483) Kaspar Hauser
Kaspar Hauser
(1833) Abraham Lincoln (1865) Franz Ferdinand (1914) Lord Kitchener (1916) Michael Collins (1922) Sergey Kirov (1934) Władysław Sikorski (1943) Subhas Chandra Bose (1945) Dag Hammarskjöld (1961) Patrice Lumumba (1961) Marilyn Monroe (1962) John F. Kennedy (1963) Lee Harvey Oswald (1963) Dorothy Kilgallen (1965) Martin Luther King Jr. (1968) Robert F. Kennedy (1968) Juscelino Kubitschek (1976) Pope John Paul I (1978) Airey Neave (1979) Francisco de Sá Carneiro
Francisco de Sá Carneiro
and Adelino Amaro da Costa
Adelino Amaro da Costa
(1980) Olof Palme (1986) Zia-ul-Haq (1988) Vince Foster (1993) Yitzhak Rabin (1995) Diana, Princess of Wales (1997) Nepalese royal family (2001)

False flag attacks

USS Maine (1898) RMS Lusitania (1915) Reichstag fire
Reichstag fire
(1933) Pearl Harbor (1941) Operation "Gladio" USS Liberty (1967) Widerøe Flight 933
Widerøe Flight 933
(1982) KAL Flight 007 (1983) Mozambican presidential jet (1986) Pan Am Flight 103 (1988) Oklahoma City bombing (1995) 9/11 attacks (2001)

Advance knowledge (2001) WTC collapse (2001)

Madrid train bombing (2004) London
London
bombings (2005) Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (2014)

Other

RMS Titanic (1912) Phar Lap (1932) Adolf Hitler's death (1945) Yemenite Children (1948–54) Cairo
Cairo
Fire (1952) Dyatlov Pass incident
Dyatlov Pass incident
(1959) Lost Cosmonauts
Lost Cosmonauts
(1950s / 1960s) Elvis Presley's death (1977) Jonestown (1978) Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse
(blood libel) MS Estonia (1994) Kurt Cobain (1994) Hello Garci scandal Osama bin Laden (2011) Lahad Datu, Malaysia standoff (2013) Zamboanga City crisis (2013) Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (2014)

New World Order

Topics

Bilderberg Group Black helicopters Bohemian Grove Council on Foreign Relations Denver International Airport Eurabia Illuminati Judeo-Masonic plot Jews The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Freemasons North American Union Catholics Jesuits Vatican ODESSA Rothschild family Skull and Bones The Fellowship Trilateral Commission

By region

Conspiracy theories in the Arab
Arab
world

Israeli animal theories Temple Mount

Conspiracy theories in Turkey

UFOs

General

Alien abduction Area 51 Bermuda Triangle Black Knight satellite Cryptoterrestrial hypothesis Extraterrestrial hypothesis Interdimensional hypothesis Dulce Base Estimate of the Situation (1948) Majestic 12 Men in black Nazi UFOs Project Serpo Reptilians

Incidents

Tunguska (1908) Ghost rockets
Ghost rockets
(1946) Maury Island (1947) Roswell (1947) Mantell (1948) Kecksburg (1965) Rendlesham Forest (1980) Cash-Landrum (1980) Varginha (1996) Phoenix Lights
Phoenix Lights
(1997) Chicago (2006)

United States government

Apollo Moon landings Barack Obama's citizenship / religion / parentage Belgrade Chinese embassy bombing (1999) Black genocide CIA-Kennedy assassination link Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden Dulles' Plan FEMA concentration camps HAARP Jade Helm 15 (2015) Montauk Project October Surprise (1980) Pizzagate (2016) Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Experiment (1943) Project Azorian
Project Azorian
(1974) QAnon (2017) Sandy Hook shooting (2012) Seth Rich (2017) Sovereign citizen / Redemption movement Vast right-wing conspiracy Vietnam War POW / MIA issue TWA Flight 800 (1996)

Health, energy, environment

Chemtrails Free energy suppression Global warming HIV/AIDS origins HIV/AIDS denialism SARS (2003) Vaccine controversies Water fluoridation

Other

2012 phenomenon Agenda 21 (1992) Cancellation of the Avro Arrow (1959) Bible conspiracy theory Clockwork Orange (1970s) Conspiracy Encyclopedia "Death" of Paul McCartney (1969) Homintern Homosexual recruitment Knights Templar Lilla Saltsjöbadsavtalet
Lilla Saltsjöbadsavtalet
(1987) Love Jihad Mexican Reconquista New Coke (1985) Phantom time / New Chronology Red mercury Soft coup Vela Incident
Vela Incident
(1979) War against Islam

See also

Denial of mass killings (list) Genocide denial

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 301270043 LCCN: n50075009 GND: 4176015-3 SUDOC: 030782643 BNF:

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