parouse.com
 Parouse.com



The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum as its sister papers The Guardian and The Guardian Weekly, whose parent company Guardian Media Group Limited acquired it in 1993, it takes a social liberal or social democratic line on most issues. First published in 1791, it is the world's oldest Sunday newspaper.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Nineteenth century 1.3 Twentieth century 1.4 Twenty-first century

2 Supplements and features 3 The Newsroom 4 Bans 5 Editors 6 Photographers 7 Awards 8 Conventions sponsored 9 Bibliography 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] The first issue, published on 4 December 1791 by W.S. Bourne, was the world's first Sunday newspaper. Believing that the paper would be a means of wealth, Bourne instead soon found himself facing debts of nearly £1,600. Though early editions purported editorial independence, Bourne attempted to cut his losses and sell the title to the government. When this failed, Bourne's brother (a wealthy businessman) made an offer to the government, which also refused to buy the paper but agreed to subsidise it in return for influence over its editorial content. As a result, the paper soon took a strong line against radicals such as Thomas Paine, Francis Burdett and Joseph Priestley. Nineteenth century[edit] In 1807, the brothers decided to relinquish editorial control, naming Lewis Doxat as the new editor. Seven years later, the brothers sold The Observer to William Innell Clement, a newspaper proprietor who owned a number of publications. The paper continued to receive government subsidies during this period; in 1819, of the approximately 23,000 copies of the paper distributed weekly, approximately 10,000 were given away as "specimen copies", distributed by postmen who were paid to deliver them to "lawyers, doctors, and gentlemen of the town."[5] Yet the paper began to demonstrate a more independent editorial stance, criticising the authorities' handling of the events surrounding the Peterloo Massacre and defying an 1820 court order against publishing details of the trial of the Cato Street Conspirators, who were alleged to have plotted to murder members of the Cabinet. The woodcut pictures published of the stable and hayloft where the conspirators were arrested reflected a new stage of illustrated journalism that the newspaper pioneered during this time. Clement maintained ownership of The Observer until his death in 1852. During that time, the paper supported parliamentary reform, but opposed a broader franchise and the Chartist leadership. After Doxat retired in 1857, Clement's heirs sold the paper to Joseph Snowe, who also took over the editor's chair. Under Snowe, the paper adopted a more liberal political stance, supporting the North during the American Civil War and endorsing universal manhood suffrage in 1866.[6] These positions contributed to a decline in circulation during this time. In 1870, wealthy businessman Julius Beer bought the paper and appointed Edward Dicey as editor, whose efforts succeeded in reviving circulation. Though Beer's son Frederick became the owner upon Julius's death in 1880, he had little interest in the newspaper and was content to leave Dicey as editor until 1889. Henry Duff Traill took over the editorship after Dicey's departure, only to be replaced in 1891 by Frederick's wife, Rachel Beer, of the Sassoon family. Though circulation declined during her tenure, she remained as editor for thirteen years, combining it in 1893 with the editorship of The Sunday Times, a newspaper that she had also bought.[7] Twentieth century[edit] Upon Frederick's death in 1901, the paper was purchased by the newspaper magnate Lord Northcliffe. After maintaining the existing editorial leadership for a couple of years, in 1908 Northcliffe named James Louis Garvin as editor. Garvin quickly turned the paper into an organ of political influence, boosting circulation from 5,000 to 40,000 within a year of his arrival as a result. Yet the revival in the paper's fortunes masked growing political disagreements between Garvin and Northcliffe. These disagreements ultimately led Northcliffe to sell the paper to William Waldorf Astor in 1911, who transferred ownership to his son Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor four years later. During this period, the Astors were content to leave the control of the paper in Garvin's hands. Under his editorship circulation reached 200,000 during the interwar years, a figure which Garvin fought to maintain even during the depths of the Great Depression. Politically the paper pursued an independent Conservative stance, which eventually brought Garvin into conflict with Waldorf's more liberal son David Astor. Their conflict contributed to Garvin's departure as editor in 1942, after which the paper took the unusual step of declaring itself non-partisan. Ownership passed to Waldorf's sons in 1948, with David taking over as editor. He remained in the position for 27 years, during which time he turned it into a trust-owned newspaper employing, among others, George Orwell, Paul Jennings and C. A. Lejeune. Under Astor's editorship The Observer became the first national newspaper to oppose the government's 1956 invasion of Suez, a move which cost it many readers. In 1977, the Astors sold the ailing newspaper to US oil giant Atlantic Richfield (now called ARCO) who sold it to Lonrho plc in 1981. It became part of the Guardian Media Group in June 1993, after a rival bid to acquire it by The Independent was rejected.[8] In 1990, Farzad Bazoft, a journalist for The Observer, was executed in Iraq on charges of spying. In 2003, The Observer interviewed the Iraqi colonel who had arrested and interrogated Bazoft and who was convinced that Bazoft was not a spy.[9] Twenty-first century[edit] In 2003 the editorial supported the Iraq war stating "Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers. But if we want a lasting peace it may be the only option."[10] On 27 February 2005, The Observer Blog[11] was launched, making The Observer the first newspaper to purposely document its own internal decisions, as well as the first newspaper to release podcasts. The paper's regular columnists include Andrew Rawnsley and Nick Cohen. In addition to the weekly Observer Magazine which is still present every Sunday, for several years each issue of The Observer came with a different free monthly magazine. These magazines had the titles Observer Sport Monthly, Observer Music Monthly, Observer Woman and Observer Food Monthly. Content from The Observer is included in The Guardian Weekly for an international readership. The Observer followed its daily partner The Guardian and converted to 'Berliner' format on Sunday 8 January 2006.[12][13] The Observer was awarded the National Newspaper of the Year at the British Press Awards 2007.[14] Editor Roger Alton stepped down at the end of 2007 and was replaced by his deputy, John Mulholland.[15] In early 2010, the paper was restyled. An article on the paper's website previewing the new version stated that "The News section, which will incorporate Business and personal finance, will be home to a new section, Seven Days, offering a complete round-up of the previous week's main news from Britain and around the world, and will also focus on more analysis and comment."[16] Supplements and features[edit] After the paper was rejuvenated in early 2010, the main paper came with only a small number of supplements – Sport, The Observer Magazine, The New Review and The New York Times International Weekly, an 8-page supplement of articles selected from The New York Times, has been distributed with the paper since 2007. Every four weeks the paper includes The Observer Food Monthly magazine, and in September 2013 it launched Observer Tech Monthly,[17] a science and technology section which won the Grand Prix at the 2014 Newspaper Awards.[18] Previously, the main paper had come with a larger range of supplements including Sport, Business & Media, Review, Escape (a travel supplement), The Observer Magazine and various special interest monthlies, such as Observer Food Monthly, Observer Women monthly which was launched in 2006,[19] Observer Sport Monthly and The Observer Film Magazine. The Newsroom[edit] The Observer and its sister newspaper The Guardian operate a visitor centre in London called The Newsroom. It contains their archives, including bound copies of old editions, a photographic library and other items such as diaries, letters and notebooks. This material may be consulted by members of the public. The Newsroom also mounts temporary exhibitions and runs an educational program for schools. In November 2007, The Observer and The Guardian made their archives available over the Internet.[20] The current extent of the archives available are 1791 to 2000 for The Observer and 1821 to 2000 for The Guardian. These archives will eventually go up to 2003. Bans[edit] The paper was banned in Egypt in February 2008 after reprinting cartoons allegedly insulting Mohammed.[21] Editors[edit]

W. S. Bourne & W. H. Bourne (1791–1807) Lewis Doxat (1807–57) Joseph Snowe (1857–70) Edward Dicey (1870–89) Henry Duff Traill (1889–91) Rachel Beer (1891–1904) Austin Harrison (1904–08) James Louis Garvin (1908–42) Ivor Brown (1942–48) David Astor (1948–75) Donald Trelford (1975–93) Jonathan Fenby (1993–95) Andrew Jaspan (1995–96) Will Hutton (1996–98) Roger Alton (1998–2007) John Mulholland (2008–18) Paul Webster[22] (2018-

Photographers[edit]

Jane Bown (resident from 1949 until her death in 2014) Antonio Olmos (freelance) Harry Borden (feelance) Michael Peto (freelance) Neil Libbert (freelance) Colin Jones (freelance) Dean Chalkley (freelance) Don McCullin (freelance) Philip Jones Griffiths (freelance) Giles Duley (freelance)

Awards[edit] The Observer was named the British Press Awards National Newspaper of the Year for 2006.[23] Its supplements have three times won "Regular Supplement of the Year" (Sport Monthly, 2001; Food Monthly, 2006, 2012).[23] Observer journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including[23]

"Interviewer of the Year" (Lynn Barber, 2001; Sean O'Hagan, 2002; Rachel Cooke, 2005; Chrissy Iley (freelance for Observer and Sunday Times magazine), 2007) "Critic of the Year" (Jay Rayner, 2005; Philip French, 2008; Rowan Moore, 2013) "Food & Drink Writer of the Year" (John Carlin, 2003) "Travel Writer of the Year" (Tim Moore, 2004)

Conventions sponsored[edit] In May 2017 The Observer helped sponsor The Convention on Brexit. Bibliography[edit]

Richard Cockett, David Astor and The Observer, André Deutsch, London, 1990, 294 pp. with index. ISBN 0-233-98735-5. Has endpapers that are facsimiles of The Observer, with other black-and-white photographic plates of personnel linked to the newspaper. Jane Bown, 'A Lifetime of Looking' Faber & Faber Ltd, 2015 ISBN 1-783-35088-1. Contains the most iconic photos Jane took for the Observer from 1949 to the last photo she took a few months before she died in December 2014. Photos include The Beatles, Mick Jagger, the Queen, John Betjeman, Bjork...

See also[edit]

Anthony Howard Cambridge Apostles Observer Mace debating competition – now known as the John Smith Memorial Mace

Guardian Monthly

References[edit]

^ Graham Snowdon, "Inside the 19 January edition", The Guardian Weekly, 16 January 2018 (page visited on 19 January 2018). ^ Matt Wells (15 October 2004). "World writes to undecided voters". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 13 July 2008.  ^ "The Observer has reported in accordance with ABC's industry-agreed standards for National Newspapers". www.abc.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018.  ^ "The Observer under review". BBC News. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010.  ^ Dennis Griffiths (ed.), The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992, London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992, p. 159. ^ "Key moments in the Observer's history - a timeline". the Guardian. 7 November 2017.  ^ "Ad Info - Observer History". 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Michael Leapman, "New editor chosen for 'Observer': 'Guardian' deputy to succeed Trelford", The Independent, 14 May 1993, accessed 22 January 2018. ^ Ed Vulliamy, "Writer hanged by Iraq 'no spy'", The Guardian, 18 May 2003, accessed 4 April 2007. ^ "Iraq war: the march of time", The Guardian, 15 February 2013. ^ Observer blog, accessed 27 February 2007. ^ Claire Cozens, "Observer announces relaunch date", The Observer, 19 December 2005; accessed 27 February 2007. ^ The archive – summary of holdings, accessed 27 February 2007. ^ Ltd, Magstar. "Press Awards". www.pressawards.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016.  ^ Stephen Brook (3 January 2008). "Mulholland reshapes Observer team". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ John Mulholland, "Welcome to the new Observer", Guardian.co.uk, 21 February 2010. ^ Gavriel Hollander (27 August 2003). "Observer to launch new monthly technology supplement". Press Gazette. Retrieved 21 May 2015.  ^ "Observer wins top prize at 2014 Newspaper Awards". The Guardian. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015.  ^ "New editor at the FINANCIAL TIMES" (PDF). Press Business (1). February 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "How to access past articles from the Guardian and Observer archive". the Guardian. 15 November 2017.  ^ "Der Spiegel issue on Islam banned in Egypt". France24. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ https://www.theguardian.com/gnm-press-office/2018/jan/18/paul-webster-appointed-new-editor-of-the-observer ^ a b c Press Gazette, Roll of Honour, accessed 24 July 2011 Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Observer website Information about The Newsroom Archive and Visitor Centre DigitalArchive paid-for service History of Guardian Media Group 1990 – 1999, Guardian Media Group website; as of 2 March 2003; GMGplc.co.uk (link requires Flash to view timeline) Observer timeline History of the Observer

v t e

Guardian Media Group

Subsidiaries and divisions

Newspapers

The Guardian The Guardian Weekly The Observer

Other

GMG Property Services theguardian.com Guardian Australia

Joint ventures and shareholdings

Development Hell (29.5%) Ascential (50%) Seven Publishing (41.9%)

Other

C. P. Scott Guardian Student Media Award Scott Trust John Edward Taylor

Category

v t e

Media in the United Kingdom

UK national newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals

Newspapers (History)

Broadsheet

Financial Times The Daily Telegraph The Sunday Telegraph The Sunday Times

Compact

i The Times

Middle-market

Daily Express Daily Mail The Mail on Sunday

Tabloid

The Guardian The Observer Daily Mirror Sunday Mirror Morning Star The Sunday People Daily Star Daily Star Sunday The Sun Sunday Sport

Magazines & other periodicals

List of magazines by circulation

Radio in the UK

National stations

BBC

Analogue / digital Radio 1 Radio 2 Radio 3 Radio 4 5 Live Digital only Radio 1Xtra Radio 4 Extra 5 Live Sports Extra 6 Music Asian Network World Service BBC National DAB (multiplex)

Independent / commercial

Analogue / digital Absolute Radio Classic FM Heart Kiss Talksport Digital only Absolute 80s Absolute 90s BFBS Radio Capital Xtra Digital One (multiplex) Heart 80s Heart Extra heat The Hits Jazz FM Kerrang! Kiss Fresh Kisstory LBC Magic Planet Rock Premier Christian Radio Radio X RNIB Connect Radio Sound Digital (multiplex) Smooth Extra Talkradio UCB UK Virgin Radio UK

Regional & local stations

BBC

List of BBC Local Radio stations List of BBC Regional Radio stations

Independent / commercial

List of community radio stations List of local commercial radio stations List of semi-national / regional analogue and digital radio stations

Other stations

List of hospital radio stations Pirate radio Restricted Service Licence (RSL)

List of RSL stations

List of satellite radio stations List of student and schools radio

Other

Broadcasting House FM broadcasting The Studios, MediaCityUK Radio Academy

Radio Academy Awards

Radio Independents Group RAJAR Most listened to programmes

Television in the UK

Principal channels (List)

BBC

BBC One BBC Two BBC Four BBC News BBC Parliament CBBC CBeebies

ITV

ITV ITV2 ITV3 ITV4 CITV ITV Encore ITVBe ITV Box Office

Ch 4

Channel 4 E4 Film4 More4 4seven

Ch 5

Channel 5 5Prime 5Spike 5Star 5USA

Sky

Challenge Pick Real Lives Sky One Sky Two Sky Arts Sky Atlantic Sky Cinema Sky Living Sky News Sky Sports Sky Sports F1 Sky Sports News

UKTV

Alibi Dave Drama Eden Gold Good Food Home Really W Yesterday

Sony Pictures Television

Chart Show TV Chart Show Hits Movies4Men Pop Pop Max Starz TV Sony Channel Sony Movie Channel Scuzz Tiny Pop True Crime True Entertainment True Movies truTV The Vault

Services & platforms

All 4

Film4oD

analogue

analogue terrestrial (defunct)

BBC iPlayer

BBC Three

BBC Store TalkTalk TV Store BT TV cable digital

digital terrestrial List of channels

Freesat

Freesat+

Freeview high-definition

List of channels

ITV

ITV Hub, STV Player

local television My5 Now TV (Sky plc) Real Digital Restricted Service Licence satellite

List of channels

Sky

Freesat from Sky On Demand Sky+ Sky+ HD

TalkTalk TV Top Up TV TVPlayer Virgin Media

FilmFlex TiVo V+

YouView Zattoo

Studios

Current

BBC Elstree Centre BBC Pacific Quay The Bottle Yard Studios Broadcasting House Broadcasting House, Belfast Broadcasting House, Bristol Broadcasting House, Cardiff Elstree Studios (Shenley Road) Gas Street Studios The Leeds Studios The London Studios The Maidstone Studios Mailbox Birmingham MediaCityUK Osterley Television Centre Roath Lock Television Centre, London

Defunct

British and Dominions Imperial Studios Fountain Studios Gate Studios Granada Studios MGM-British Studios Pebble Mill Studios Teddington Studios Television Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne Television Centre, Southampton Upper Boat Studios

Other

Defunct channels Edinburgh International Television Festival History

List of years

List of channels Student television Viewing statistics

Most-watched broadcasts

Companies and organisations

Companies

Major companies

Archant Ascential Bauer Radio BBC Bloomsbury Publishing BT Group Channel Four Television Corporation Daily Mail and General Trust Dentsu Aegis Network Economist Group EMI Music Publishing Endemol Shine UK Global Group Guardian Media Group Haymarket Media Group Informa ITN ITV plc Johnston Press Mecom Group News UK Newsquest Northern & Shell Now TV (Sky plc) Pearson plc Press Holdings RELX Group Reuters Sky UK Limited Sky plc STV Group Syco TalkTalk Group TI Media Trinity Mirror UBM plc Virgin Media Wireless Group

Other resources

Arqiva List of largest UK book publishers

Government & regulatory bodies

Advertising Standards Authority BBC Trust British Board of Film Classification British Film Institute Culture, Media, and Sport Select Committee Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Independent Press Standards Organisation Ofcom Press Recognition Panel S4C Authority

Industry & trades bodies

British Academy of Film and Television Arts British Phonographic Industry Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union Clearcast Digital TV Group Digital UK Equity Federation Against Copyright Theft National Union of Journalists The Publishers Association Royal Television Society United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting

Other

BBC Academy National Film and Television School National Science and Media Museum

Regional and student media

Regional media

Media in England

Birmingham London Manchester

Media in Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Glasgow

Media in Wales

Cardiff

Student media

Student television

Category

Journalism portal United Ki