THE LION, THE WITCH AND THE WARDROBE is a fantasy novel for children
C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis , published by Geoffrey Bles in 1950 . It is the first
published and best known of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia
(1950–1956). Among all the author's books it is also the most widely
held in libraries. Although it was written as well as published first
in the series, it is volume two in recent editions, which are
sequenced by the stories' chronology (the first being The Magician\'s
Nephew ). Like the others, it was illustrated by
Pauline Baynes , and
her work has been retained in many later editions.
Most of the novel is set in Narnia , a land of talking animals and
mythical creatures that one
White Witch has ruled for 100 years of
deep winter. In the frame story , four English children are relocated
to a large, old country house following a wartime evacuation . The
youngest visits Narnia three times via the magic of a wardrobe in a
spare room. All four children are together on her third visit, which
verifies her fantastic claims and comprises the subsequent 12 of 17
chapters except for a brief conclusion. In Narnia, the siblings seem
fit to fulfill an old prophecy and so are soon adventuring both to
save Narnia and their lives. Lewis wrote the book for, and dedicated
it to, his goddaughter
Lucy Barfield . She was the daughter of Owen
Barfield , Lewis's friend, teacher, adviser, and trustee.
* 1 Plot summary
* 2 Character list
* 3 Writing
* 4 Illustrations
* 5 Reception
* 6 Allusions
* 7 Differences between editions
* 8 Adaptations
* 8.1 Television
* 8.2 Theatre
* 8.3 Audio
* 8.4 Film
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
In 1940, four siblings – Peter , Susan , Edmund , and Lucy Pevensie
– are among many children evacuated from London during World War II
to escape the Blitz . They are sent to the countryside to live with
Digory Kirke . Exploring the professor's house, Lucy finds a
wardrobe which doubles as a magic portal to a forest in a land called
Narnia. At a lamppost oddly located in the forest, she meets Tumnus, a
faun, who invites her to tea in his home. There the faun confesses
that he invited her not out of hospitality, but with the intention of
betraying her to the White Witch. The witch has ruled Narnia for
years, using magic to keep it frozen in a perpetual winter. She has
ordered all Narnians to turn in any humans ("Sons of Adam" or
"Daughters of Eve") they come across. But now that he has come to know
and like a human, Tumnus repents his original intention and escorts
Lucy back to the lamppost.
Lucy returns through the wardrobe and finds that only a few seconds
have passed in normal time during her absence. Her siblings do not
believe her story about another world inside the wardrobe, which is
now found to have a solid back panel.
During a game of hide-and-seek on some days later, Lucy again passes
into Narnia. This time her brother Edmund chances to follow her. He
meets Jadis, who calls herself Queen of Narnia. When she learns that
he is human and has two sisters and a brother, she places an
enchantment on him. She urges him to bring his siblings to her castle,
promising in return to make him her heir. When Lucy and Edmund return
together through the wardrobe, Edmund realizes that the queen he met
and the witch Lucy describes are one and the same. He denies to the
others that he has been in Narnia at all. Peter and Susan are puzzled
by Lucy's insistence, and consult the Professor, who surprises them by
taking Lucy's side in the debate of Narnia's existence.
Soon afterward, all four children enter Narnia together after hiding
in the wardrobe to avoid the professor's dour housekeeper, Mrs.
Macready. Remembering the winter cold ahead, they take coats from the
wardrobe before exploring. Lucy guides them to Tumnus's cave, but they
find it ransacked, with a notice from Jadis (the White Witch)
proclaiming his arrest for harbouring humans.
A talking beaver intercepts them, proves himself a friend, and hides
the children in his den. There, he and
Mrs. Beaver tell them of a
prophecy that Jadis's power will fail when two Sons of Adam and two
Daughters of Eve fill the four thrones at
Cair Paravel .
Aslan , the
great lion and the rightful King, has been absent for many years but
is now "on the move again" in Narnia.
Edmund steals away to Jadis's castle, which is filled with statues of
Narnian victims she has turned to stone . Jadis is furious when Edmund
appears alone and angrier still to learn that
Aslan may have returned.
She takes him on her sledge to catch the others or to reach Aslan's
court before them.
Mr Beaver realises that Edmund has betrayed them, and they
set off at once to seek
Aslan at the
Stone Table . As they travel, the
Witch's spell over Narnia begins to break:
Father Christmas (who has
not been seen in Narnia for a hundred years) arrives with magical
presents: a sword for Peter, a horn and a bow with arrows for Susan, a
knife and a bottle of healing cordial for Lucy. The snow melts, and
Aslan welcomes the children and the Beavers to his camp
near the Stone Table. Upon hearing Edmund's situation, he orders a
rescue party of loyal Narnians.
After much hardship at the hands of the Witch and her sledge driver,
Edmund is rescued from their camp and reunited with his siblings.
Jadis approaches in truce to parley with Aslan. She insists that,
according to "deep magic from the dawn of time", she holds the right
to kill Edmund following his treason.
Aslan bargains with her
privately and she renounces her claim.
Aslan secretly returns to the Stone Table, shadowed by
Susan and Lucy. Upon noticing them,
Aslan welcomes their company but
warns them not to interfere with what is about to happen. He has
traded his own life to the witch for Edmund's, and the girls watch as
Jadis oversees his shaming before her underlings. She orders Aslan
tied to the Stone Table, shaved and muzzled; and she administers the
killing blow herself.
Confident now of victory, the Witch leads her army away to battle.
Susan and Lucy remain weeping over Aslan's abandoned body. They
un-muzzle him and see mice gnaw away his bonds. The
Stone Table breaks
Aslan is restored to life. He tells Lucy and Susan that Jadis was
unaware of the "deeper magic from before the dawn of time" that will
resurrect an innocent killed in place of a traitor.
Aslan carries Lucy and Susan on his back as he hurries to Jadis's
castle. He breathes upon the stone statues in the courtyard, restoring
them to life.
Meanwhile, Peter and Edmund lead the Narnians against Jadis, and
Edmund is seriously wounded.
Aslan arrives with the former statues as
reinforcements. The Narnians rout Jadis's supporters, and
Aslan breathes life into those Jadis has turned to stone on the
battlefield, and Lucy uses her magic cordial to revive the wounded,
starting with Edmund. The Pevensie children are crowned kings and
queens of Narnia at Cair Paravel. Soon afterward,
Aslan slips away and
Fifteen years later, the four rulers chase a wish-granting white stag
through the forest whereupon they rediscover the lamppost. They soon
find their way not through branches but coats. They come back through
the wardrobe in the Professor's house and are suddenly children again,
dressed in their old clothes. Almost no time has passed in the real
world, despite their many years in Narnia.
The four children consult the Professor. He forgives them the absence
of the four coats they stole, and hints that theirs would prove not to
be the first adventure in Narnia , nor by any means the last .
THE PEVENSIE SIBLINGS
Raised in London, evacuated to the Dorset countryside, and reaching
adulthood in Narnia, they are the four main characters. In one
Father Christmas arrives to endow those present (three
Pevensies and two beavers) with a feast, weapons, and magical items.
After the restoration of Narnia, a
Tetrarchy is established with the
four siblings as the rulers.
Lucy Pevensie is the youngest Pevensie child and, in some
respects, the primary protagonist of the story. She is the first to
discover the land of Narnia when she finds her way through the magical
wardrobe in the Professor's house. When Lucy tells her three siblings,
they don't believe her: Peter and Susan think she is just playing a
game while Edmund persistently ridicules her about it. She is later
crowned Queen Lucy the Valiant.
Edmund Pevensie is the second-youngest of the Pevensie children.
He has a bad relationship with his siblings. Edmund is known to be a
liar, and often harasses children younger than him. He often singles
out Lucy as his favourite target. In Narnia he meets the White Witch,
who plies him with enchanted
Turkish delight , drink, and smooth talk.
Lured by the White Witch's promise of power and an unlimited supply of
the magical treats, Edmund betrays his siblings. He eventually regrets
his actions and repents. After he helps
Aslan and the good denizens of
Narnia defeat the White Witch, he is crowned and named King Edmund the
Just. He has no endowments, because of his betrayal.
Susan Pevensie is the second-oldest of Pevensie children. She does
not believe in Narnia until she actually goes there. Along with Lucy,
Aslan on the journey to his apparent self-sacrifice
and secretly witnesses the horrific event. Tending to his carcass, she
removes a muzzle from him to restore his dignity and oversees a horde
of mice who gnaw away his bonds. She then shares the joy of his
resurrection and the endeavor to bring reinforcements to a critical
battle. She is crowned Queen of Narnia alongside Lucy and pronounced
Queen Susan the Gentle.
Peter Pevensie is the eldest of the Pevensie siblings. He
judiciously settles disputes between his younger brother and sisters,
often rebuking Edmund for his attitude. At first, Peter disbelieves
Lucy's stories about Narnia, but changes his mind when he sees it for
himself. He is hailed as a hero for the slaying of
Maugrim and for his
command in the battle to overthrow the White Witch. He is eventually
crowned High King of Narnia and dubbed King Peter the Magnificent.
AT THE COUNTRY HOME
The house that shelters the Pevensie children is run by a Professor,
staffed by servants, and frequently toured by historians.
* The Professor is a kindly old gentleman who takes the Pevensie
children in when they are evacuated from London. He is the first to
believe that Lucy did indeed visit a land called Narnia. He tries to
convince the others logically that she didn't make it up. The book
hints that he knows more of Narnia than he lets on. He is identified
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader as Professor Kirke, and appears as a
young boy, Digory Kirke, a main character in the prequel , in which he
Aslan 's creation of Narnia. Although never explicitly
stated, there are minor parallels between himself and
Aslan on the
smaller scale of the house in Dorset; in that he is rarely seen, can
be sought for impartial wisdom, provides a sense of stability, and
sometimes cannot be found.
Mrs. Macready is the housekeeper for the Professor and takes it
upon herself to guide the tour groups. Although never explicitly
stated, there are minor parallels between herself and the White Witch
, albeit on the smaller scale; for example, she effectively rules the
country house in the absence of the Professor (terrifyingly so in the
imagination of a young girl torn from her home and mother). The
Pevensies certainly see her as an antagonist and dub her "The
Macready". She is stated to be not very fond of children, imposes
strict rules on their behavior, and disturbs their peace with the
The magical land of Narnia is populated by talking animals,
mythological species, and sentient flora.
Aslan , a lion , is the rightful King of Narnia and other magic
countries. He sacrifices himself to save Edmund, but is resurrected in
time to aid the denizens of Narnia and the Pevensie children against
White Witch and her minions. As the "son of the Emperor beyond the
sea"( an allusion to the first person of the Holy Trinity in
Christianity (the Father)
Aslan is the all powerful creator of Narnia.
He is the deity that links all created worlds together and is thus all
knowing, all present, and all powerful.
White Witch is the land's self-proclaimed queen and the
primary antagonist of the story. She tyrannizes Narnia through her
magically imposed rule. Her spell on Narnia has made winter persist
for a hundred years with no end in sight. When provoked, she turns
creatures to stone with her wand. She fears the fulfillment of a
prophecy that "two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve" (meaning
humans; two male, two female) will claim the right to rule and
supplant her. She is usually referred to simply as "the White Witch"
but her actual name, "Jadis," appears in one proclamation in this
book. Lewis later wrote a prequel to include her back-story and
account for her presence in the Narnian world.
* Tumnus , a faun , is the first individual Lucy meets in Narnia.
Tumnus befriends Lucy, despite the White Witch's standing order to
turn in any human found in Narnia. He initially plans to obey the
order but, after getting to like Lucy, he cannot bear to alert the
Witch's forces. He instead escorts her back towards the safety of her
own country. His good deed is later given away by Edmund who
innocently tells the
White Witch that Lucy mentioned meeting a faun.
The witch orders Tumnus arrested and turns him to stone, but he is
later restored to life by Aslan.
* Mr. and
Mrs. Beaver , two beavers , are friends of Tumnus. They
play host to Peter, Susan, and Lucy and lead them to Aslan.
* A Dwarf serves the White Witch. He's never named in the book but
called Ginabrik in the film, where he has a more significant role.
Maugrim (Fenris Ulf in most American editions) the wolf is the
chief of the White Witch's secret police. She sends him to hunt down
the Pevensie children. He tries to kill Susan who flees and sees to
the safety of others. She sounds her horn. Peter answers the call and
Giant Rumblebuffin is a character who is turned to stone by the
Aslan restores him to life by breathing on him. Although
slightly dim-witted, he is very kind. His significant contribution is
to break down the gate of the Witch's castle to let the rescued
Narnians out, and also to crush some of her army.
Lewis described the origin of The Lion, the Witch and the
an essay titled "It All Began with a Picture":
Lion all began with a picture of a
Faun carrying an umbrella and
parcels in a snowy wood. This picture had been in my mind since I was
about sixteen. Then one day, when I was about forty, I said to myself:
'Let's try to make a story about it.'
Shortly before the Second World War many children were evacuated from
London to the English countryside to escape bomber attacks on London
by Nazi Germany. On 2 September 1939 three school girls, Margaret,
Mary and Katherine, came to live at
The Kilns in
Lewis's home three miles east of
Oxford city centre. Lewis later
suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children
and in late September he began a children's story on an odd sheet
that has survived as part of another manuscript:
This book is about four children whose names were Ann, Martin, Rose
and Peter. But it is most about Peter who was the youngest. They all
had to go away from London suddenly because of Air Raids, and because
Father, who was in the Army, had gone off to the War and Mother was
doing some kind of war work. They were sent to stay with a kind of
relation of Mother's who was a very old professor who lived all by
himself in the country.
The plot element of entering a new world through the back of a
wardrobe had certainly entered Lewis's mind by 1946, when he used it
to describe his first encounter with really good poetry:
I did not in the least feel that I was getting in more quantity or
better quality a pleasure I had already known. It was more as if a
cupboard which one had hitherto valued as a place for hanging coats
proved one day, when you opened the door, to lead to the garden of the
How much more of the story Lewis then wrote is uncertain. Roger
Lancelyn Green thinks that he might even have completed it. In
September 1947 Lewis wrote in a letter about stories for children: "I
have tried one myself but it was, by the unanimous verdict of my
friends, so bad that I destroyed it."
In August 1948, during a visit by an American writer, Chad Walsh,
Lewis talked vaguely about completing a children's book he had begun
"in the tradition of
E. Nesbit ". After this conversation not much
happened until the beginning of the next year. Then everything
changed. In his essay "It All Began With a Picture" Lewis continues:
"At first I had very little idea how the story would go. But then
Aslan came bounding into it. I think I had been having a good
many dreams of lions about that time. Apart from that, I don't know
Lion came from or why he came. But once he was there, he
pulled the whole story together, and soon he pulled the six other
Narnian stories in after him."
The major ideas of the book echo lines Lewis had written fourteen
years earlier in his alliterative poem The Planets:
... Of wrath ended
And woes mended, of winter passed
And guilt forgiven, and good fortune
Jove is master; and of jocund revel,
Laughter of ladies. The lion-hearted
... are Jove's children.
On 10 March 1949
Roger Lancelyn Green dined with Lewis at Magdalen
College . After the meal Lewis read two chapters from his new
children's story to Green. Lewis asked Green's opinion of the tale and
Green said that he thought it was good. The manuscript of The Lion,
the Witch and the
Wardrobe was complete by the end of March 1949. Lucy
Barfield received it by the end of May. When on 16 October 1950
Geoffrey Bles in London published the first edition, three new
"chronicles", Prince Caspian,
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader and The
Horse and His Boy, had also been completed.
Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, allowed him to choose the
illustrator for the novel and the Narnia series. Lewis chose Pauline
Baynes , possibly based on
J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien ’s recommendation.
Baynes had greatly impressed Tolkien with her illustrations for his
Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham (1949). However, Baynes claimed that Lewis learned
about her work after going into a bookshop and asking for a
recommendation for an illustrator who was skilled at portraying both
humans and animals. In December 1949, Bles showed Lewis the first
drawings for the novel, and Lewis sent Baynes a note congratulating
her, particularly on the level of detail. Lewis’s appreciation of
the illustrations is evident in a letter he wrote to Baynes after The
Last Battle won the Carnegie Medal for best children’s book of 1956:
"is it not rather 'our' medal? I’m sure the illustrations were taken
into account as well as the text".
The British edition of the novel had 43 illustrations; American
editions generally had fewer. The popular United States paperback
edition published by Collier between 1970 and 1994, which sold many
millions, had only 17 illustrations, many of them severely cropped
from the originals, giving many readers in that country a very
different experience when reading the novel. All the illustrations
were restored for the 1994 worldwide
HarperCollins edition, although
these lacked the clarity of early printings.
Lewis very much enjoyed writing The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
and embarked on the sequel
Prince Caspian soon after finishing the
first novel. He completed the sequel by end of 1949, less than a year
after finishing the initial book. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
had few readers during 1949 and was not published until late in 1950,
so his initial enthusiasm did not stem from favourable reception by
While Lewis is known today on the strength of the Narnia stories as a
highly successful children’s writer, the initial critical response
was muted. At the time it was fashionable for children's stories to be
realistic; fantasy and fairy tales were seen as indulgent, appropriate
only for very young readers and potentially harmful to older children,
even hindering their ability to relate to everyday life. Some
reviewers considered the tale overtly moralistic or the Christian
elements over-stated — attempts to indoctrinate children. Others
were concerned that the many violent incidents might frighten
Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, feared that the Narnia tales would
not sell, and might damage Lewis’ reputation and affect sales of his
other books. Nevertheless, the novel and its successors were highly
popular with young readers, and Lewis's publisher was soon eager to
release further Narnia stories.
In the United States a 2004 study found that The
Lion was a common
read-aloud book for seventh-graders in schools in San Diego County,
California . In 2005 it was included on TIME 's unranked list of the
100 best English-language novels published since 1923. Based on a
2007 online poll, the U.S.
National Education Association
National Education Association named it one
of "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". In 2012 it was ranked
number five among all-time children's novels in a survey published by
School Library Journal
School Library Journal , a monthly with primarily U.S. audience.
A 2012 survey by the
University of Worcester
University of Worcester determined that it was
the second most common book that UK adults had read as children, after
Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland . (Adults, perhaps limited to
parents, ranked Alice and The
Lion fifth and sixth as books the next
generation should read, or their children should read during their
TIME magazine included the novel in its "All-TIME 100 Novels" (best
English-language novels from 1923 to 2005). In 2003, the novel was
listed at number 9 on the
BBC 's survey
The Big Read . It has also
been published in 47 foreign languages.
Lewis wrote that "The Narnian books are not as much allegory as
supposal. Suppose there were a Narnian world and it, like ours, needed
redemption. What kind of incarnation and Passion might Christ be
supposed to undergo there?"
The main story is an allegory of Christ's crucifixion: Aslan
sacrifices himself for Edmund, a traitor who may deserve death, in the
same way that Christians believe Jesus sacrificed himself for sinners.
Aslan is killed on the Stone Table, symbolizing
Mosaic Law , which
breaks when he is resurrected, symbolizing the replacement of the
strict justice of
Old Testament law with redeeming grace and
forgiveness granted on the basis of substitutional atonement,
according to Christian theology. As with the Christian Passion, it is
women (Susan and Lucy) who tend Aslan's body after he dies and are the
first to see him after his resurrection. The significance of the death
contains elements of both the ransom theory of atonement and the
satisfaction theory :
Aslan suffers Edmund's penalty (satisfaction),
and buys him back from the White Witch, who was entitled to him by
reason of his treachery (ransom). In Christian belief, Christ is
associated with the Biblical "
Lion of Judah " of Revelation 5:5.
Professor Kirke is based on W.T. Kirkpatrick , who tutored a
16-year-old Lewis. "Kirk," as he was sometimes called, taught the
young Lewis much about thinking and communicating clearly, skills that
would be invaluable to him later.
Narnia is caught in endless winter that has lasted a century when the
children first enter. Norse tradition mythologises a "great winter,"
known as the
Fimbulwinter , said to precede
Ragnarök . The trapping
of Edmund by the
White Witch is reminiscent of the seduction and
imprisonment of Kay by
The Snow Queen
The Snow Queen in
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen 's
novella of that name.
The dwarves and giants are found in
Norse mythology ; fauns ,
centaurs , minotaurs and dryads derive from
Greek mythology . Father
Christmas, of course, was part of popular English folklore.
There are several parallels between the
White Witch and the immortal
white queen, Ayesha, of
H. Rider Haggard 's She , a novel greatly
admired by C.S. Lewis.
The Story of the Amulet
The Story of the Amulet written by
Edith Nesbit also contains scenes
that can be considered precursors to sequences presenting Jadis,
particularly in The Magician\'s Nephew . Nesbit's short story The
Aunt and Amabel includes the motif of a girl entering a wardrobe to
gain access to a magical place.
The freeing of Aslan's body from the stone table by field mice is
Aesop 's fable of "The
Lion and the Mouse ." In the
fable, a lion catches a mouse, but the mouse persuades the lion to
release him, promising that the favor would be rewarded. Later in the
story, he gnaws through the lion's bonds after he has been captured by
hunters. It is also reminiscent of a scene from
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe 's
The Pit and the Pendulum
The Pit and the Pendulum ," in which a prisoner is freed when
rats gnaw through his bonds. In a later book, "Prince Caspian," we
learn that as reward for their actions, mice gained the same
intelligence and speech as other Narnian animals.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EDITIONS
Due to labor union rules, the text of The Lion, the Witch and the
Wardrobe was reset for the publication of the first American edition
of by Macmillan US in 1950. Lewis took that opportunity to make the
following changes to the original British edition published by
Geoffrey Bles earlier that same year:
* In chapter one of the American edition, the animals that Edmund
and Susan express interest in are snakes and foxes rather than the
foxes and rabbits of the British edition.
* In chapter six of the American edition, the name of the White
Witch's chief of police is changed to "Fenris Ulf " from "
Maugrim " in
* In chapter thirteen of the American edition, "the trunk of the
World Ash Tree " takes the place of "the fire-stones of the Secret
HarperCollins took over publication of the series in 1994, they
began using the original British edition for all subsequent English
editions worldwide. The current US edition published by Scholastic
has 36,135 words.
The story has been adapted three times for television. The first
adaptation was a ten-part serial produced by ABC Weekend Television
for ITV and broadcast in 1967. In 1979, an animated TV-movie ,
Bill Meléndez , was broadcast and won
Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program . A third
television adaptation was produced in 1988 by the
BBC using a
combination of live actors, animatronic puppets and animation. Only
this last one was the first of a series of 3 Narnia adaptations. The
programme was nominated for an Emmy and won a BAFTA . It was followed
by three further Narnia adaptations.
Stage adaptations include a 1984 version staged at London's
Westminster Theatre, produced by Vanessa Ford Productions. The play,
adapted by Glyn Robbins, was directed by Richard Williams and designed
by Marty Flood. Jules Tasca, Ted Drachman, and Thomas Tierney
collaborated on a musical adaptation published in 1986.
In 1997, Trumpets Inc., a Filipino Christian theatre and musical
production company, produced a musical rendition that Douglas Gresham,
Lewis's stepson (and co-producer of the
Walden Media film
adaptations), has openly declared that he feels is the closest to
Lewis's intention. It starred among others popular young Filipino
singer Sam Concepcion as Edmund Pevensie. The book and lyrics were
written by Jaime del Mundo and Luna Inocian, while music was composed
by Lito Villareal.
In 1998, the Royal Shakespeare Company did an adaptation by Adrian
Mitchell, for which the acting edition has been published. The
Stratford Festival in Canada mounted a new production of Mitchell's
work in June 2016.
In 2003, there was an Australian commercial stage production which
toured the country by Malcolm C. Cooke Productions, using both
life-size puppets and human actors. It was directed by notable film
director Nadia Tass, and starred Amanda Muggleton, Dennis Olsen,
Meaghan Davies and Yolande Brown.
In 2011, a two-actor stage adaptation by Le Clanché du Rand opened
Off-Broadway in New York City at St. Luke\'s Theatre . The production
was directed by Julia Beardsley O'Brien and starred Erin Layton and
Andrew Fortman. As of 2014, the production is currently running with
a replacement cast of Abigail Taylor-Sansom and Rockford Sansom.
Multiple audio editions have been released, both straightforward
readings and dramatizations.
Michael Hordern read abridged versions of the classic tale
(and the others in the series). In 2000, an unabridged audio book was
released, narrated by Michael York . (All the books were released in
audio form, read by different actors.)
BBC Radio 4 mounted a full dramatization. In 1998, Focus on
the Family Radio Theatre also adapted this story. Both the original
BBC version and the
Focus on the Family version have been broadcast on
BBC radio. Both are the first in a series of adaptations of all seven
of the Narnia books. The
BBC series uses the title Tales of Narnia,
Focus on the Family version uses the more familiar
Chronicles moniker. The
Focus on the Family version is also longer,
with a full orchestra score, narration, a larger cast of actors, and
Douglas Gresham , C.S. Lewis' stepson.
In 2005, the story was adapted for a theatrical film , co-produced by
Walt Disney and
Walden Media . It has so far been followed by two more
films: The Chronicles of Narnia:
Prince Caspian and The Chronicles of
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader . The latter was co-produced by
Twentieth-Century Fox and Walden Media.
* Children\'s literature portal
* Narnia portal
* Novels portal
* ^ A B C "The lion, the witch and the wardrobe; a story for
children" (first edition). Library of Congress Catalog Record.
"The lion, the witch and the wardrobe; a story for children" (first
U.S. edition). LCC record. Retrieved 2012-12-09. * ^ "Lewis, C. S.
WorldCat . Retrieved 2012-12-09
* ^ A B "Bibliography: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe". ISFDB
. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
* ^ Schakel 2002 p. 75
* ^ for she is mentioned by name in the notice left by Maugrim
after the arrest of Tumnus in chapter 6, "Into the Forest."
* ^ Lewis (1960). "It All Began with a Picture". Radio Times. 15
July 1960. In Hooper (1982), p. 53.
* ^ Ford, p. 106.
* ^ "Of Other Worlds", by C. S. Lewis". Huntington. Retrieved
2014-12-24. Archived 4 September 2014 at the
Wayback Machine .
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Second World War. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7486-1650-3 .
* ^ Green, Roger Lancelyn , and
Walter Hooper (2002). C. S. Lewis:
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* ^ Lewis (1966), "Different Tastes in Literature". In Hooper
(1982), p. 121.
* ^ Lewis (2004 ). Collected Letters: Volume 2 (1931-1949). p. 802.
ISBN 0-06-072764-0 . Letter to E. L. Baxter dated 10 September 1947.
* ^ Walsh, Chad (1974). C. S. Lewis: Apostle to the Skeptics.
Norwood Editions. p. 10. ISBN 0-88305-779-4 .
* ^ Lewis (1960). In Hooper (1982), pp. xix, 53.
* ^ Lewis (1935), "The Alliterative Metre". In Hooper, ed. (1969),
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9780521074414 , p. 25. The connection argued in Michael Ward (2008),
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* ^ Hooper, Walter. "
Lucy Barfield (1935–2003)". SEVEN: An
Anglo-American Literary Review. Volume 20, 2003, p. 5. ISSN 0271-3012
. "The dedication ... was probably taken from Lewis's letter to Lucy
of May 1949".
* ^ Schakel 2002, pp. 30–31.
* ^ Schakel 2002, p. 132.
* ^ Veith, pp. 11–12.
* ^ Veith, p. 12.
* ^ Veith, p. 13.
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(2004). "Interactive Read-Alouds: Is There a Common Set of
Implementation Practices?" (PDF).
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National Education Association (2007). "Teachers\' Top 100
Books for Children". Retrieved 2012-08-22.
* ^ Bird, Elizabeth (7 July 2012). "Top 100 Chapter Book Poll
Results". A Fuse #8 Production. Blog. School Library Journal
(blog.schoollibraryjournal.com). Retrieved 2012-08-22.
* ^ "Top ten books parents think children should read". The
Telegraph . 19 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
* ^ "
BBC - The Big Read". BBC. April 2003. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
* ^ GoodKnight, Glen H. "Translations of The Chronicles of Narnia
by C.S. Lewis" (index). Narnia Editions & Translations
(inklingsfocus.com). Updated 3 August 2010. Confirmed 2012-12-10.
* ^ James E. Higgins. "A Letter from C. S. Lewis". The Horn Book
Magazine . October 1966. Archived 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2015-10-17.
* ^ Lindskoog, Kathryn . Journey into Narnia. Pasadena, CA: Hope
Publ House. ISBN 9780932727893 . pp. 44–46.
* ^ Gormley, Beatrice . C. S. Lewis: The Man Behind Narnia.
Eerdmans . ISBN 9780802853011 . p. 122. (Second edition of C. S.
Lewis: Christian and Storyteller. Eerdmans. 1997. ISBN 9780802851215
* ^ Lewis, C. S. (2007). The Collected Letters of C.S. Lewis,
Volume 3: Narnia, Cambridge, and Joy, 1950 - 1963. Zondervan. p. 497.
ISBN 0060819227 .
* ^ Lindsley, Art. "C. S. Lewis: His Life and Works". C. S. Lewis
Institute. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
* ^ "No sex in Narnia? How Hans Christian Andersen\'s "Snow Queen"
problematizes C. S. Lewis\'s The Chronicles of Narnia". Free Online
Library (thefreelibrary.com). Retrieved 2010-12-21.
* ^ Wilson, Tracy V. "Howstuffworks "The World of Narnia"".
Howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
* ^ "
C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis And The Scholarship Of Imagination In E. Nesbit
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Questia Online Library". Questia.com. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
* ^ "What
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1 December 2014.
* ^ Project Gutenberg.
* ^ Prince Caspian, Chapter 15.
* ^ A B Brown, Devin (2013). Inside Narnia: A Guide to Exploring
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.
Abingdon Press . ISBN 0801065992
* ^ Schakel, Peter (2005). The Way Into Narnia: A Reader's Guide.
Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802829849 . p. 122.
* ^ Bell, James; Dunlop, Cheryl (2007). The Complete Idiot's Guide
to the World of Narnia. Alpha. ISBN 1592576176 .
* ^ Hardy, Elizabeth (2013). Milton, Spenser and The Chronicles of
Narnia: Literary Sources for the C.S. Abingdon Press. ISBN
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* ^ Ford, p. 213.
* ^ Ford, p. 459.
* ^ Ford, p. 33.
* ^ "Scholastic Catalog - Book Information". Retrieved 2014-06-23.
* ^ The Lion, the Witch and the
* ^ Hooper, Walter (1998). C. S. Lewis: A Complete Guide to His
Life & Works. HarperCollins. pp. 787, 960.
WorldCat libraries have catalogued the related works in
different ways including "The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe: a
musical based on C.S. Lewis' classic story" (book, 1986,
); "The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe: a musical based on C.S.
Lewis' classic story" (musical score, 1986,
OCLC 16713815 ); "Narnia: