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_THE INDEPENDENT_ is a British online newspaper . Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London , it was controlled by Tony O\'Reilly 's Independent News "> created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. _The Independent_ attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", and challenging both _ The Guardian _ for centre-left readers and _The Times _ as the newspaper of record, _The Independent_ reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.

Competing in a moribund market, _The Independent_ sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When _The Independent_ launched _The Independent on Sunday_ in 1990, sales were less than anticipated, partly due to the launch of the _ Sunday Correspondent _ four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990. Some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff.

SINCE 1990

In the 1990s, _The Independent_ was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, and started an advertising campaign accusing _The Times_ and _The Daily Telegraph_ of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black . It featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words 'The Rupert Murdoch' or 'The Conrad Black', with 'The Independent' below the main title.

Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O\'Reilly 's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers (MGN) had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994. In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News white-space:nowrap;"> of the company for £30 million, and assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of _The Independent_, and Rosie Boycott became editor of _ The Independent on Sunday_. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, partly as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, _My Trade_.

Boycott left in April 1998 to join the _ Daily Express _, and Marr left in May 1998, later becoming the BBC 's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent heavily to increase circulation, and the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level which had been achieved in 1989, or restore profitability. Job cuts and financial controls reduced the morale of journalists and the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and formerly a key figure at _The Sunday Times_, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant that by 2006, circulation was at a nine-year high.

In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers . The two newspaper groups' editorial, management and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology, switchboard and payroll.

On 25 March 2010, Independent News ">'s columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, which Hari later admitted to, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst , editor of _The Independent_, told the Leveson inquiry that the scandal had "severely damaged" the newspaper's reputation. He nevertheless told the inquiry that Hari would return as a columnist in "four to five weeks". Hari later announced that he would not return to _The Independent_. Jonathan Foreman contrasted _The Independent_'s reaction to the scandal unfavourably with the reaction of American newspapers to similar incidents such as the Jayson Blair case, which led to resignations of editors, "deep soul-searching", and "new standards of exactitude being imposed". The historian Guy Walters suggested that Hari's fabrications had been an open secret amongst the newspaper's staff and that their internal inquiry was a "facesaving exercise".

CONTENT

FORMAT AND DESIGN

_ The Independent_'s front page, 15 February 2014

_The Independent_ began publishing as a broadsheet , in a series of celebrated designs. The final version was designed by Carroll, Dempsey and Thirkell following a commission by Nicholas Garland who, along with Alexander Chancellor , was unhappy with designs produced by Raymond Hawkey and Michael McGuiness – on seeing the proposed designs, Chancellor had said "I thought we were joining a serious paper". The first edition was designed and implemented by Michael Crozier, who was Executive Editor, Design and Picture, from pre-launch in 1986 to 1994.

From September 2003, the paper was produced in both broadsheet and tabloid-sized versions, with the same content in each. The tabloid edition was termed "compact" to distance itself from the more sensationalist reporting style usually associated with "tabloid" newspapers in the UK. After launching in the London area and then in North West England , the smaller format appeared gradually throughout the UK. Soon afterwards, Rupert Murdoch's _Times_ followed suit, introducing its own tabloid-sized version. Prior to these changes, _The Independent_ had a daily circulation of around 217,500, the lowest of any major national British daily, a figure that climbed by 15% as of March 2004 (to 250,000). Throughout much of 2006, circulation stagnated at a quarter of a million. On 14 May 2004, _The Independent_ produced its last weekday broadsheet, having stopped producing a Saturday broadsheet edition in January. _The Independent on Sunday_ published its last simultaneous broadsheet on 9 October 2005, and has since followed a compact design.

On 12 April 2005, _The Independent_ redesigned its layout to a more European feel, similar to France's _ Libération _. The redesign was carried out by a Barcelona-based design studio. The weekday second section was subsumed within the main paper, double-page feature articles became common in the main news sections, and there were revisions to the front and back covers. A new second section, "Extra", was introduced on 25 April 2006. It is similar to _The Guardian_'s "G2" and _The Times_'s "Times2", containing features, reportage and games, including sudoku . In June 2007, _The Independent on Sunday_ consolidated its content into a news section which included sports and business, and a magazine focusing on life and culture. On 23 September 2008, the main newspaper became full-colour, and "Extra" was replaced by an "Independent Life Supplement" focusing on different themes each day.

Three weeks after the acquisition of the paper by Alexander Lebedev and Evgeny Lebedev in 2010, the paper was relaunched with another redesign on 20 April. The new format featured smaller headlines and a new pullout "Viewspaper" section, which contained the paper's comment and feature articles. From 26 October 2010, the same day as its sister paper, _i_, was launched, _The Independent_ was printed on slightly thicker paper than before and ceased to be full-colour throughout, with many photographs and pictures (though none of those used in adverts) being printed in black and white only. On 11 October 2011, _The Independent_ unveiled yet another new look, featuring a red, sans-serif masthead. In November 2013, the whole newspaper was overhauled again, including new custom fonts and a vertical masthead in black.

FRONT PAGES

Following the 2003 switch in format, _The Independent_ became known for its unorthodox and campaigning front pages, which frequently relied on images, graphics or lists rather than traditional headlines and written news content. For example, following the Kashmir earthquake in 2005, it used its front page to urge its readers to donate to its appeal fund, and following the publication of the Hutton Report into the death of British government scientist David Kelly , its front page simply carried the word "Whitewash ?". In 2003, the paper's editor, Simon Kelner, was named "Editor of the Year" at the _ What the Papers Say _ awards, partly in recognition of, according to the judges, his "often arresting and imaginative front-page designs". In 2008, however, as he was stepping down as editor, he stated that it was possible to "overdo the formula" and that the style of the paper's front pages perhaps needed "reinvention".

Under the subsequent editorship of Chris Blackhurst , the campaigning, poster-style front pages were scaled back in favour of more conventional news stories.

SECTIONS

The weekday, Saturday and Sunday editions of _The Independent_ all included supplements and pull-out subsections:

Daily (Monday to Friday) _The Independent_:

* "Monday Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports of the previous weekend's sporting events.

Saturday's _The Independent_:

* "Saturday Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports looking ahead to the weekend's sporting events. * "Radar": A compact, primarily listings magazine , including television schedules, film and DVD reviews and events listings for the coming week. It also includes a round-up of the "50 best" items in a particular category. For example, over the Christmas period there are weekly supplements of "Gifts for him" and "Gifts for her". * "Traveller": Contains travel articles and advertisements. * " The Independent Magazine": A features magazine including sections on food, interiors and fashion.

_ The Independent on Sunday_:

* "Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports of Saturday's sporting events. * "The New Review": A features magazine. * "Arts -webkit-column-width: 11em; column-width: 11em;">

* Yasmin Alibhai-Brown * Bruce Anderson * Paul Arden * Archie Bland * Thom Brooks * Andrew Brown (writer) * Cooper Brown * Michael Brown * Simon Calder * Alexa Chung * Rob Cowan * Sloane Crosley * Tracey Emin * Nigel Farage * Mitch Feierstein * Helen Fielding * Robert Fisk * Chris Gulker * Howard Jacobson * Alex James * Peter Jenkins * Owen Jones (writer) * Andrew Keen * Dominic Lawson * John Lichfield * Philip Llewellin * Andy McSmith * Donald MacIntyre * Serena Mackesy * Tracey MacLeod * Rhodri Marsden * Jan McGirk * Deborah Orr * Christina Patterson * Peter Popham * Simon Read * Steve Richards * Sherif Saleh * Alexei Sayle * Will Self * Mark Steel * Catherine Townsend * Paul Vallely * Brian Viner * Lynne Walker * Andreas Whittam Smith * Claudia Winkleman

Predominantly _ The Independent on Sunday_: This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

* Janet Street-Porter — Editor-At-Large * Kate Bassett — Theatre * Patrick Cockburn , John Rentoul , Joan Smith , Paul Vallely and Alan Watkins — "Comment the daily paper ceasing print publication six days later.

THE _I_

Main article: i (newspaper)

In October 2010, the _i_, a compact sister newspaper, was launched. The _i_ is a separate newspaper but uses some of the same material. It was later sold to regional newspaper company Johnston Press , becoming that publisher's flagship national newspaper. The _i_'s online presence, _i100_, was restyled as _indy100_ and retained by Independent News & Media.

_THE (RED) INDEPENDENT_

_The Independent_ supported U2 lead singer Bono 's Product RED brand by creating _The (RED) Independent_, an occasional edition that gave half the day's proceeds to the charity. The first edition was in May 2006. Edited by Bono, it drew high sales.

A September 2006 edition of _The (RED) Independent_, designed by fashion designer Giorgio Armani , drew controversy due to its cover shot, showing model Kate Moss in blackface for an article about AIDS in Africa.

AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS

_The Independent_ was awarded "National Newspaper of the Year" for 2003 and the _Independent on Sunday_ was awarded "Front Page of the Year" for 2014's "Here is the news, not the propaganda", printed on 5 October 2014.

_Independent_ journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including:

* "Business Hamish McRae, 2005; Stephen Foley, 2008 * "Cartoonist of the Year": Dave Brown, 2012 * "Columnist of the Year": Robert Chalmers (_Independent on Sunday_), 2004; Mark Steel, 2014 * "Foreign Reporter of the Year": Patrick Cockburn, 2014 * "Interviewer of the Year": Mathew Norman, 2007; Deborah Ross, 2011 * "Political Journalist of the Year": Francis Elliott (_Independent on Sunday_), 2005 * "Specialist Journalist of the Year": Michael McCarthy, 2000; Jeremy Laurance, 2011 * "Sports Journalist of the Year": James Lawton, 2010 * "Young Journalist of the Year": Johann Hari, 2002; Ed Caesar, 2006

In January 2013, _The Independent_ was nominated for the Responsible Media of the Year award at the British Muslim Awards .

SEE ALSO

* _Independent_ Foreign Fiction Prize * Brett Straub incident

REFERENCES

* ^ National press ABCs: Cut-price Star closes on Mirror, bulks grow Times, Indy bows out at 39,000 sales _Press Gazette_ 18 March 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Independent to cease as print edition". BBC News. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Independent titles sold to Lebedev family company". _The Independent_. London. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010. * ^ "\'The Independent\' launches tabloid version to give readers a choice". _The Independent_. London. 27 September 2003. * ^ "Indy\'s Independence Whacked - Guy Fawkes\' blog". Order-order.com. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wilby, Peter (14 April 2008). "It is. Is he?". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 27 March 2010. * ^ ABC circulation figures _Press Gazette_ * ^ Dennis Griffiths (ed.) _The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992_, London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992, p. 330 * ^ Glover, Stephen (6 October 2006). "The Independent: Reflections on the last 20 years". _The Independent_. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ Lewis, Justin; Williams, Andrew; Franklin, Bob; Thomas, James; Mosdell, Nick. "The Quality and Independence of British Journalism: Tracking the Changes Over 20 Years" (PDF). Cardiff: Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies, Cardiff University. p. 61. * ^ "My Trade: A short history of British journalism by Andrew Marr". _The Independent_. London. 12 September 2004. * ^ Lelic, Sarah (19 September 2006). "INM eyes Independent profit". mad.co.uk. * ^ Sweney, Mark (28 November 2008). "Independent titles to relocate to Associated Newspapers HQ". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 28 November 2008. * ^ Bintliff, Esther; Fenton, Ben (25 March 2010). "Lebedev scoops up The Independent for £1". _Financial Times_. London. Retrieved 20 September 2011. * ^ Ponsford, Dominic (9 April 2010) " Roger Alton steps down as Independent editor", _ Press Gazette _ (London). * ^ Hari, Johann (15 September 2011). "A personal apology". _The Independent_. * ^ "Johann Hari: George Orwell prize \'stripping\' announcement delays amid plagiarism row". _Telegraph.co.uk_. * ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (10 January 2012). "Independent editor: Johann Hari scandal \'severely damaged\' paper". _The Guardian_. * ^ "Journalist Johann Hari rejects Independent return". _BBC News_. 21 January 2012. * ^ Foreman, Jonathan. "Dirty Hari - Commentary Magazine". _Commentary Magazine_. * ^ Walters, Guy. "An Open Letter to Andreas Whittam Smith". _www.newstatesman.com_. * ^ Carney, Beth (1 December 2004). "British papers shrink to conquer". _Business Week_. Retrieved 2 May 2009. * ^ " The Independent announces launch of compact version in North-west". _The Independent_. UK. 3 November 2003. Retrieved 2 May 2009. * ^ Billings, Claire (5 December 2003). "Times tabloid pushes up sales". Brand Republic. Retrieved 2 May 2009. * ^ Brook, Stephen (12 April 2005). "Independent redesign takes it forward". _The Guardian_. UK. Retrieved 2 May 2009. * ^ Dominic Ponsford. "News magazine look for relaunched Independent on Sunday". Press Gazette. * ^ Luft, Oliver (23 September 2008). "Independent goes full colour". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 27 March 2010. * ^ Ponsford, Dominic (20 April 2010). "Independent relaunch". _Press Gazette_. Retrieved 20 April 2010. * ^ Whitehead, Jennifer (12 October 2005). "Independent breaks front page mould again". _ PRWeek _. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ Burrell, Ian (18 December 2003). "Independent editor wins top award". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ Brook, Stephen (5 June 2008). "Kelner says it\'s time to rethink "viewspaper" front pages". _The Guardian_. UK. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ " The Independent on Sunday\'s Pink List 2013". Retrieved 24 November 2014. * ^ Guest, Katy (5 October 2014). "The Rainbow List 2014: Why we changed the name from the Pink List". _ The Independent on Sunday_. Retrieved 25 November 2014. * ^ "Welcome to The Independent\'s new website". _The Independent_ (web only). 23 January 2008. * ^ "Independent unveils revamped website". _Journalism.co.uk_. 23 January 2008. * ^ Fitzsimmons, Caitlin (15 January 2009). "Independent in al-Jazeera video tie-up". _guardian.co.uk (web only)_. London. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ "Why The Independent launched the new user-focused i100". _journalism.co.uk_. * ^ "Editorial: a liberal gamble too far". _The Independent_. London. 27 January 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "This historic opportunity must not be missed". _The Independent_. London. 5 May 2010. * ^ Owen, Jonathan (18 March 2007). "Were we out of our minds? No, but then came skunk". _ The Independent on Sunday_. London. Retrieved 2 May 2009. * ^ Grice, Andrew (2 August 2007). "Darfur: The evidence of war crimes". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ Whittam Smith, Andreas (11 December 2000). "Debate the monarchy\'s future, but it will change nothing". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 1 May 2009. * ^ Morgan, Piers (2 April 2007). "What happened when the Guardian editor met Piers Morgan". _The Independent_. London. * ^ "Blair on the media". _ BBC News_. 12 June 2007. * ^ Grice, Andrew (13 June 2007). "Blair\'s attack provokes anger among newspaper editors and broadcasters". _The Independent_ (London). Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ Kelner, Simon (13 June 2007). "Would you be saying this, Mr Blair, if we supported your war in Iraq?". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ "If newspapers had a vote, this one would put its cross beside... (leader)". _The Independent_. London. 1 May 2008. p. 28. So consonant are her priorities with those of this paper that, if we could vote for mayor today, we would place our first-preference cross against her name. This would underscore the importance of the environment to both London and to the rest of the nation. Then, and with rather heavy heart, it would be illogical to do anything other than make Ken Livingstone our second choice. * ^ "Ipsos MORI". * ^ Ipsos MORI (24 May 2010). "Voting by Newspaper Readership 1992-2010". _ Ipsos MORI General Election aggregates_. Ipsos MORI. Retrieved 21 September 2011. * ^ "General Election 2015: Every vote matters - as a responsibility of". _The Independent_. 2 May 2015. * ^ "Editorial: In defence of liberal democracy". _The Independent_. 4 May 2015. * ^ "A new editor for The Independent". _The Independent_. London. 2 July 2011. * ^ William Turvill " Amol Rajan is made editor of The Independent as Chris Blackhurst becomes group content director", _Press Gazette_, 17 June 2013 * ^ Contact Us - The Independent. Retrieved 26 January 2017. * ^ Morris, Nigel (23 November 2007). "Prisoners Abroad charity wins Longford prize". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 1 May 2009.

* ^ Angela Haggerty "Appointment of Lisa Markwell as editor of Independent on Sunday announced by owner via Twitter", _The Drum_, 26 April 2013 * ^ Brook, Stephen (25 March 2010). "Lebedev buys Independent newspapers". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 27 March 2010. * ^ Vallely, Paul (15 May 2006). "A red revolution on the high street". _The Independent_. London. * ^ "They found what they were looking for". _NewsDesigner.com_. 23 May 2006. * ^ Pool, Hannah (22 September 2006). "Return to the dark ages". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Press Awards: Winners for 2014". Retrieved 2 April 2016. * ^ "Press Awards Winners 2000-08". 16 March 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2016. * ^ "Winners honoured at British Muslim Awards". _Asian Image_. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2015.

EXTERNAL

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