_THE INDEPENDENT_ is a British online newspaper . Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London , it was controlled by Tony O\'Reilly 's Independent News "> created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. _The Independent_ attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", and challenging both _ The Guardian _ for centre-left readers and _The Times _ as the newspaper of record, _The Independent_ reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, _The Independent_ sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When _The Independent_ launched _The Independent on Sunday_ in 1990, sales were less than anticipated, partly due to the launch of the _ Sunday Correspondent _ four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990. Some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff.
In the 1990s, _The Independent_ was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, and started an advertising campaign accusing _The Times_ and _The Daily Telegraph_ of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black . It featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words 'The Rupert Murdoch' or 'The Conrad Black', with 'The Independent' below the main title.
Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O\'Reilly 's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers (MGN) had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994. In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News white-space:nowrap;"> of the company for £30 million, and assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of _The Independent_, and Rosie Boycott became editor of _ The Independent on Sunday_. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, partly as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, _My Trade_.
Boycott left in April 1998 to join the _ Daily Express _, and Marr left in May 1998, later becoming the BBC 's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent heavily to increase circulation, and the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level which had been achieved in 1989, or restore profitability. Job cuts and financial controls reduced the morale of journalists and the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and formerly a key figure at _The Sunday Times_, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant that by 2006, circulation was at a nine-year high.
In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers . The two newspaper groups' editorial, management and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology, switchboard and payroll.
On 25 March 2010, Independent News ">'s columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, which Hari later admitted to, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst , editor of _The Independent_, told the Leveson inquiry that the scandal had "severely damaged" the newspaper's reputation. He nevertheless told the inquiry that Hari would return as a columnist in "four to five weeks". Hari later announced that he would not return to _The Independent_. Jonathan Foreman contrasted _The Independent_'s reaction to the scandal unfavourably with the reaction of American newspapers to similar incidents such as the Jayson Blair case, which led to resignations of editors, "deep soul-searching", and "new standards of exactitude being imposed". The historian Guy Walters suggested that Hari's fabrications had been an open secret amongst the newspaper's staff and that their internal inquiry was a "facesaving exercise".
FORMAT AND DESIGN
_ The Independent_'s front page, 15 February 2014
_The Independent_ began publishing as a broadsheet , in a series of celebrated designs. The final version was designed by Carroll, Dempsey and Thirkell following a commission by Nicholas Garland who, along with Alexander Chancellor , was unhappy with designs produced by Raymond Hawkey and Michael McGuiness – on seeing the proposed designs, Chancellor had said "I thought we were joining a serious paper". The first edition was designed and implemented by Michael Crozier, who was Executive Editor, Design and Picture, from pre-launch in 1986 to 1994.
From September 2003, the paper was produced in both broadsheet and tabloid-sized versions, with the same content in each. The tabloid edition was termed "compact" to distance itself from the more sensationalist reporting style usually associated with "tabloid" newspapers in the UK. After launching in the London area and then in North West England , the smaller format appeared gradually throughout the UK. Soon afterwards, Rupert Murdoch's _Times_ followed suit, introducing its own tabloid-sized version. Prior to these changes, _The Independent_ had a daily circulation of around 217,500, the lowest of any major national British daily, a figure that climbed by 15% as of March 2004 (to 250,000). Throughout much of 2006, circulation stagnated at a quarter of a million. On 14 May 2004, _The Independent_ produced its last weekday broadsheet, having stopped producing a Saturday broadsheet edition in January. _The Independent on Sunday_ published its last simultaneous broadsheet on 9 October 2005, and has since followed a compact design.
On 12 April 2005, _The Independent_ redesigned its layout to a more European feel, similar to France's _ Libération _. The redesign was carried out by a Barcelona-based design studio. The weekday second section was subsumed within the main paper, double-page feature articles became common in the main news sections, and there were revisions to the front and back covers. A new second section, "Extra", was introduced on 25 April 2006. It is similar to _The Guardian_'s "G2" and _The Times_'s "Times2", containing features, reportage and games, including sudoku . In June 2007, _The Independent on Sunday_ consolidated its content into a news section which included sports and business, and a magazine focusing on life and culture. On 23 September 2008, the main newspaper became full-colour, and "Extra" was replaced by an "Independent Life Supplement" focusing on different themes each day.
Three weeks after the acquisition of the paper by Alexander Lebedev and Evgeny Lebedev in 2010, the paper was relaunched with another redesign on 20 April. The new format featured smaller headlines and a new pullout "Viewspaper" section, which contained the paper's comment and feature articles. From 26 October 2010, the same day as its sister paper, _i_, was launched, _The Independent_ was printed on slightly thicker paper than before and ceased to be full-colour throughout, with many photographs and pictures (though none of those used in adverts) being printed in black and white only. On 11 October 2011, _The Independent_ unveiled yet another new look, featuring a red, sans-serif masthead. In November 2013, the whole newspaper was overhauled again, including new custom fonts and a vertical masthead in black.
Following the 2003 switch in format, _The Independent_ became known for its unorthodox and campaigning front pages, which frequently relied on images, graphics or lists rather than traditional headlines and written news content. For example, following the Kashmir earthquake in 2005, it used its front page to urge its readers to donate to its appeal fund, and following the publication of the Hutton Report into the death of British government scientist David Kelly , its front page simply carried the word "Whitewash ?". In 2003, the paper's editor, Simon Kelner, was named "Editor of the Year" at the _ What the Papers Say _ awards, partly in recognition of, according to the judges, his "often arresting and imaginative front-page designs". In 2008, however, as he was stepping down as editor, he stated that it was possible to "overdo the formula" and that the style of the paper's front pages perhaps needed "reinvention".
Under the subsequent editorship of Chris Blackhurst , the campaigning, poster-style front pages were scaled back in favour of more conventional news stories.
The weekday, Saturday and Sunday editions of _The Independent_ all included supplements and pull-out subsections:
Daily (Monday to Friday) _The Independent_:
* "Monday Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports of the previous weekend's sporting events.
Saturday's _The Independent_:
* "Saturday Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports looking ahead to the weekend's sporting events. * "Radar": A compact, primarily listings magazine , including television schedules, film and DVD reviews and events listings for the coming week. It also includes a round-up of the "50 best" items in a particular category. For example, over the Christmas period there are weekly supplements of "Gifts for him" and "Gifts for her". * "Traveller": Contains travel articles and advertisements. * " The Independent Magazine": A features magazine including sections on food, interiors and fashion.
_ The Independent on Sunday_:
* "Sport": A weekly pull-out containing reports of Saturday's sporting events. * "The New Review": A features magazine. * "Arts -webkit-column-width: 11em; column-width: 11em;">
* Yasmin Alibhai-Brown * Bruce Anderson * Paul Arden * Archie Bland * Thom Brooks * Andrew Brown (writer) * Cooper Brown * Michael Brown * Simon Calder * Alexa Chung * Rob Cowan * Sloane Crosley * Tracey Emin * Nigel Farage * Mitch Feierstein * Helen Fielding * Robert Fisk * Chris Gulker * Howard Jacobson * Alex James * Peter Jenkins * Owen Jones (writer) * Andrew Keen * Dominic Lawson * John Lichfield * Philip Llewellin * Andy McSmith * Donald MacIntyre * Serena Mackesy * Tracey MacLeod * Rhodri Marsden * Jan McGirk * Deborah Orr * Christina Patterson * Peter Popham * Simon Read * Steve Richards * Sherif Saleh * Alexei Sayle * Will Self * Mark Steel * Catherine Townsend * Paul Vallely * Brian Viner * Lynne Walker * Andreas Whittam Smith * Claudia Winkleman
Predominantly _ The Independent on Sunday_: This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
* Janet Street-Porter — Editor-At-Large * Kate Bassett — Theatre * Patrick Cockburn , John Rentoul , Joan Smith , Paul Vallely and Alan Watkins — "Comment the daily paper ceasing print publication six days later.
Main article: i (newspaper)
In October 2010, the _i_, a compact sister newspaper, was launched. The _i_ is a separate newspaper but uses some of the same material. It was later sold to regional newspaper company Johnston Press , becoming that publisher's flagship national newspaper. The _i_'s online presence, _i100_, was restyled as _indy100_ and retained by Independent News & Media.
_THE (RED) INDEPENDENT_
_The Independent_ supported U2 lead singer Bono 's Product RED brand by creating _The (RED) Independent_, an occasional edition that gave half the day's proceeds to the charity. The first edition was in May 2006. Edited by Bono, it drew high sales.
A September 2006 edition of _The (RED) Independent_, designed by fashion designer Giorgio Armani , drew controversy due to its cover shot, showing model Kate Moss in blackface for an article about AIDS in Africa.
AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS
_The Independent_ was awarded "National Newspaper of the Year" for 2003 and the _Independent on Sunday_ was awarded "Front Page of the Year" for 2014's "Here is the news, not the propaganda", printed on 5 October 2014.
_Independent_ journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including:
* "Business Hamish McRae, 2005; Stephen Foley, 2008 * "Cartoonist of the Year": Dave Brown, 2012 * "Columnist of the Year": Robert Chalmers (_Independent on Sunday_), 2004; Mark Steel, 2014 * "Foreign Reporter of the Year": Patrick Cockburn, 2014 * "Interviewer of the Year": Mathew Norman, 2007; Deborah Ross, 2011 * "Political Journalist of the Year": Francis Elliott (_Independent on Sunday_), 2005 * "Specialist Journalist of the Year": Michael McCarthy, 2000; Jeremy Laurance, 2011 * "Sports Journalist of the Year": James Lawton, 2010 * "Young Journalist of the Year": Johann Hari, 2002; Ed Caesar, 2006
In January 2013, _The Independent_ was nominated for the Responsible Media of the Year award at the British Muslim Awards .
* _Independent_ Foreign Fiction Prize * Brett Straub incident
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