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The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
is a 2014 American historical drama film directed by Morten Tyldum and written by Graham Moore, loosely based on the biography Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges (which was previously adapted as the stage play and BBC
BBC
drama Breaking the Code). It stars Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
as real-life British cryptanalyst Alan Turing, who decrypted German intelligence codes for the British government during the Second World War. Keira Knightley, Matthew Goode, Rory Kinnear, Charles Dance, and Mark Strong
Mark Strong
also star. The film's screenplay topped the annual Black List for best unproduced Hollywood
Hollywood
scripts in 2011. The Weinstein Company acquired the film for $7 million in February 2014, the highest amount ever paid for U.S. distribution rights at the European Film Market. It was released theatrically in the United States on November 28, 2014. The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
was a commercial and critical success. It grossed over $233 million worldwide against a $14 million production budget, making it the highest-grossing independent film of 2014. It received eight nominations at the 87th Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (Cumberbatch), Best Supporting Actress (Knightley) and Best Adapted Screenplay, winning the latter. It also garnered five nominations in the 72nd Golden Globe Awards
72nd Golden Globe Awards
and three at the 21st Screen Actors Guild Awards, including Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. It also received nine BAFTA nominations, including Best Film and Outstanding British Film, and won the People's Choice Award at the 39th Toronto International Film Festival. The film was criticised by some for its inaccurate portrayal of historical events and Turing's character and relationships. However, the LGBT
LGBT
civil rights advocacy and political lobbying organization the Human Rights Campaign
Human Rights Campaign
honoured The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
for bringing Turing's legacy to a wider audience.

Contents

1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production 4 Music 5 Release

5.1 Marketing 5.2 Theatrical release 5.3 Home media

6 Reception

6.1 Box office 6.2 Critical response 6.3 The Turing family

7 Social action 8 Controversy 9 Historical accuracy

9.1 Historical events 9.2 Turing's personality and personal life 9.3 Personalities and actions of other characters

10 Accolades 11 References 12 External links

Plot[edit] In 1952, two policemen, Nock and Staehl, investigate the mathematician Alan Turing
Alan Turing
after an apparent break-in at his home. During his interrogation by Nock, Turing tells of his time working at Bletchley Park. In 1927, the young Turing is unhappy and bullied at boarding school. He develops a friendship with Christopher Morcom, who sparks his interest in cryptography, and Turing develops romantic feelings for him. Before Turing can confess his love, Christopher dies unexpectedly from tuberculosis. When Britain declares war on Germany in 1939, Turing travels to Bletchley Park, where, under the direction of Commander Alastair Denniston, he joins the cryptography team of Hugh Alexander, John Cairncross, Peter Hilton, Keith Furman and Charles Richards. The team are trying to decrypt the Enigma machine, which the Nazis use to send coded messages. Turing is difficult to work with, and considers his colleagues inferior; he works alone to design a machine to decipher Enigma. After Denniston refuses to fund construction of the machine, Turing writes to Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who puts Turing in charge of the team and funds the machine. Turing fires Furman and Richards and places a difficult crossword in newspapers to find replacements. Joan Clarke, a Cambridge graduate, surpasses Turing’s test but her parents will not allow her to work with the male cryptographers. Turing arranges for her to live and work with the female clerks who intercept the messages, and shares his plans with her. With Clarke's help, Turing is able to warm up to his male colleagues who begin to regard him with more respect. Turing’s machine, which he names Christopher, is constructed, but cannot determine the Enigma settings before the Germans reset the Enigma encryption each day. Denniston orders it destroyed and Turing fired, but the other cryptographers threaten to leave if Turing goes. After Clarke plans to leave on the wishes of her parents, Turing proposes marriage, which she accepts. During their reception, Turing confirms his homosexuality to Cairncross, who warns him to keep it secret. After overhearing a conversation with a female clerk about messages she receives, Turing has an epiphany, realising he can program the machine to decode words he already knows exist in certain messages. After he recalibrates the machine, it quickly decodes a message and the cryptographers celebrate; however, Turing realises they cannot act on every decoded message or the Germans will realise Enigma has been broken. Turing discovers that Cairncross is a Soviet spy. When Turing confronts him, Cairncross argues that the Soviets are allies working for the same goals, and threatens to retaliate by disclosing Turing’s homosexuality if his role as an agent is revealed. When the MI6 agent Stewart Menzies appears to threaten Clarke, Turing reveals that Cairncross is a spy. Menzies reveals he knew this already, and planted Cairncross among them in order to leak messages to the Soviets for British benefit. Fearing for her safety, Turing tells Clarke to leave Bletchley Park, revealing that he is gay and lying about never having cared for her. Heartbroken, Clarke states she always suspected Turing was gay but insists they would have been happy together anyway. After the war, Menzies tells the cryptographers to destroy their work and that they can never see one another again or share what they have done. In the 1950s Turing is convicted of indecency and, in lieu of a jail sentence, undergoes chemical castration so he can continue his work. Clarke visits him in his home and witnesses his physical and mental deterioration. She comforts him by saying that his work saved millions of lives. Cast[edit]

Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
as Alan Turing Keira Knightley
Keira Knightley
as Joan Clarke[6] Matthew Goode
Matthew Goode
as Hugh Alexander[7] Rory Kinnear
Rory Kinnear
as Detective Nock[8] Allen Leech
Allen Leech
as John Cairncross[9] Matthew Beard as Peter Hilton[10] Charles Dance
Charles Dance
as Cdr. Alastair Denniston Mark Strong
Mark Strong
as Maj. Gen. Stewart Menzies[11] James Northcote as Jack Good Steven Waddington as Supt Smith Tom Goodman-Hill as Sgt. Staehl Alex Lawther as young Alan Turing Jack Bannon as Christopher Morcom Tuppence Middleton
Tuppence Middleton
as Helen Stewart David Charkham as Joan's Father, William Kemp Lowther Clarke Victoria Wicks as Joan's Mother, Dorothy Clarke Dominic Charman as Sherborne Student 1 James G. Nunn as Sherborne Student 2 Charlie Manton as Sherborne Student 3

Production[edit] Before Cumberbatch joined the project, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
bought the screenplay for a reported seven-figure sum because of Leonardo DiCaprio's interest in playing Turing.[12][13][14][15][16] In the end, DiCaprio did not come on board and the rights of the script reverted to the screenwriter. Black Bear Pictures subsequently committed to finance the film for $14 million.[4][17][18] Various directors were attached during development including Ron Howard
Ron Howard
and David Yates.[19] In December 2012, it was announced that Headhunters director Morten Tyldum would helm the project, making the film his English-language directorial debut.[20][21]

Bletchley Park, "the home of the codebreakers" where parts of the film were shot

Principal photography
Principal photography
began on 15 September 2013 in Britain. Filming locations included Turing's former school, Sherborne, Bletchley Park, where Turing and his colleagues worked during the war, and Central Saint Martins campus on Southampton Row
Southampton Row
in London.[22] Other locations included towns in England such as Nettlebed
Nettlebed
( Joyce Grove in Oxfordshire) and Chesham
Chesham
(Buckinghamshire). Scenes were also filmed at Bicester Airfield
Bicester Airfield
and outside the Law Society building in Chancery Lane, and at West London Film Studios. Principal photography
Principal photography
finished on 11 November 2013.[23] The bombe seen in the film is based on a replica of Turing's original machine, which is housed in the museum at Bletchley Park. However, production designer Maria Djurkovic admitted that her team made the machine more cinematic by making it larger and having more of its internal mechanisms visible.[24] The film's title refers to Turing's proposed test of the same name, which he discussed in his 1950 paper on artificial intelligence entitled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence".[25] The Weinstein Company acquired the film for $7 million in February 2014, the highest amount ever paid for US distribution rights at the European Film Market.[26] The film is also a recipient of Tribeca Film Festival's Sloan Filmmaker Fund, which grants filmmakers funding and guidance with regard to innovative films that are concerned with science, mathematics, and technology.[27] Music[edit]

The Imitation Game

Film score by Alexandre Desplat

Released 24 November 2014 (2014-11-24)

Genre Soundtrack

Length 51:08

Label Sony Music Entertainment

Desplat composed the film's score in under three weeks

In June 2014, it was announced that Alexandre Desplat
Alexandre Desplat
would provide the original score of the film.[28] Desplat composed and orchestrated the score in under three weeks.[29] It was recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road Studios
Abbey Road Studios
in London.[30] Desplat uses continuous piano arpeggios to represent both Turing's thinking mind and the workings of a mechanical machine.[30] He said of the complexity of the continuity and structure of the score:

[W]hen the camera at the end of the film has those beautiful shots of the young boy, the young Alan, and he's meeting with the professor who's telling him his friend Christopher is dead, and the camera is pushing in on him, I play Christopher's theme that we heard very early on in the film. There's a simple continuity there. It's the accumulation of these moments that I can slowly but surely play that make it even stronger.[30]

The score received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score, losing to the score of The Grand Budapest Hotel, also composed by Desplat. Release[edit] Marketing[edit] Following the Royal Pardon granted by the British government to Turing on 24 December 2013, the filmmakers released the first official promotional photograph of Cumberbatch in character beside Turing's bombe.[31][32] In the week of the anniversary of Turing's death in June 2014, Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
released two new stills which marked the first look at the characters played by Keira Knightley, Matthew Goode, Matthew Beard, and Allen Leech.[33] On what would have been Turing's 102nd birthday on 23 June, Empire released two photographs featuring Mark Strong
Mark Strong
and Charles Dance
Charles Dance
in character. Promotional stills were taken by photographer Jack English, who also photographed Cumberbatch for Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy.[34] Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press
and Vintage Books both released film tie-in editions of Andrew Hodges's biography Alan Turing: The Enigma in September 2014.[35] The first UK and US trailers were released on 22 July 2014.[36] The international teaser poster was released on 18 September 2014 with the tagline "The true enigma was the man who cracked the code".[37] In November 2014, the Weinstein Company co-hosted a private screening of the film with Digital Sky Technologies
Digital Sky Technologies
billionaire Yuri Milner
Yuri Milner
and Facebook
Facebook
CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Attendees of the screening at Los Altos Hills, California included Silicon Valley's top executives, such as Facebook
Facebook
COO Sheryl Sandberg, Linkedin's Reid Hoffman, Google co-founder Sergey Brin, Airbnb's Nathan Blecharczyk, and Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes. Director Tyldum, screenwriter Moore, and actress Knightley were also in attendance.[38] In addition, Cumberbatch and Zuckerberg presented the Mathematics Prizes at the Breakthrough Awards on 10 November 2014 in honour of Turing.[39] The bombe re-created by the filmmakers has been on display in a special The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
exhibition at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
since 10 November 2014. The year-long exhibit features clothes worn by the actors and props used in the film.[40]

Former Yahoo!
Yahoo!
president and CEO Marissa Mayer
Marissa Mayer
(left) and 22nd United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(right) both publicly expressed support and appreciation for Turing and the film.[41]

The official film website at theimitationgamemovie.com allows visitors to unlock exclusive content by solving crossword puzzles conceived by Turing.[42] Google, which sponsored the New York Premiere of the film, launched a competition called "The Code-Cracking Challenge" on 23 November 2014. It is a skill contest where entrants must crack a code provided by Google. The prize/s will be awarded to entrant/s who crack the code and submit their entry the fastest.[43] In November 2014, ahead of the film's US release, The New York Times reprinted the original 1942 crossword puzzle from The Daily Telegraph used in recruiting codebreakers at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
during the Second World War. Entrants who solved the puzzle could mail in their results for a chance to win a trip for two to London and a tour of Bletchley Park.[44] TWC launched a print and online campaign on 2 January 2015 featuring testimonials from leaders in the fields of technology, military, academia, and LGBTQ groups (all influenced by Turing's life and accomplishments) to promote the film and Turing's legacy. Yahoo!
Yahoo!
CEO Marissa Mayer, Netflix
Netflix
CEO Reed Hastings, Google
Google
Executive Chairman Eric Schmidt, Twitter
Twitter
CEO Dick Costolo, PayPal
PayPal
co-founder Max Levchin, YouTube
YouTube
CEO Susan Wojcicki, and's Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
all gave tribute quotes. There were also testimonials from LGBT
LGBT
leaders including HRC president Chad Griffin
Chad Griffin
and GLAAD
GLAAD
CEO Sarah Kate Ellis and from military leaders including the 22nd United States Defense Secretary Robert Gates.[41][45][46][47] Theatrical release[edit] The film had its world premiere at the 41st Telluride Film Festival
Telluride Film Festival
in August 2014, and played at the 39th Toronto International Film Festival in September.[48] It had its European premiere as the opening film of the 58th BFI London Film Festival
BFI London Film Festival
in October 2014.[49][50] It had a limited theatrical release on 28 November 2014 in the United States, two weeks after its premiere in the United Kingdom on 14 November.[13] The US distributor TWC stated that the film would initially debut in four cinemas in Los Angeles and New York, expanding to six new markets on 12 December before being released nationwide on Christmas Day.[51] Home media[edit] The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
was released on 31 March 2015 in the United States in two formats: a one-disc standard DVD and a Blu-ray with a digital copy of the film.[52] Reception[edit] Box office[edit] The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
grossed $91.1 million in North America and $142.4 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $233.5 million, against a budget of $14 million.[5] It was the top-grossing independent film release of 2014.[53] The film opened number two at the UK box office behind the big-budget film Interstellar, earning $4.3 million from 459 screens. Its opening box office figure was the third highest opening weekend haul for a British film in 2014. Its opening was 107% higher than that of Argo, 81% higher than Philomena and 26% higher than The Iron Lady following its debut.[54][55] Debuting in four cinemas in Los Angeles and New York on 28 November, the film grossed $479,352 in its opening weekend with a $119,352 per-screen-average, the second highest per-screen-average of 2014 and the 7th highest of all time for a live-action film. Adjusted for inflation, it outperformed the Weinstein Company's own Oscar-winning films The King's Speech
The King's Speech
($88,863 in 2010) and The Artist ($51,220 in 2011), which were also released on Thanksgiving weekend. The film expanded into additional markets on 12 December and was released nationwide on Christmas Day.[56][57][58] Critical response[edit]

Cumberbatch at the premiere of the film at TIFF, September 2014

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 91% based on 258 reviews, with an average rating of 7.7/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "With an outstanding starring performance from Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
illuminating its fact-based story, The Imitation Game serves as an eminently well-made entry in the 'prestige biopic' genre."[59] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 73 out of 100, based on 49 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[60] The film received an average grade of "A+" from market-research firm CinemaScore, and a 90% "definite recommend" rating from its core audience, according to comScore. It was also included in both the National Board of Review
National Board of Review
and American Film Institute's "Top 10 Films of 2014".[61][62][63] The New York Observer's Rex Reed declared that "one of the most important stories of the last century is one of the greatest movies of 2014".[64] Kaleem Aftab of The Independent
The Independent
gave the film a five-star review, hailing it the "Best British Film of the Year".[65][66] Lou Lumenick of the New York Post
New York Post
described it as a "thoroughly engrossing Oscar-caliber movie", while critic James Rocchi added that the film is "strong, stirring, triumphant and tragic".[67] Empire described it as a "superb thriller" and Glamour declared it "an instant classic".[68][69] Peter Debruge of Variety added that the film is "beautifully written, elegantly mounted and poignantly performed".[70] Critic Scott Foundas stated that the "movie is undeniably strong in its sense of a bright light burned out too soon, and the often undignified fate of those who dare to chafe at society's established norms".[71] Critic Leonard Maltin
Leonard Maltin
asserted that the film has "an ideal ensemble cast with every role filled to perfection". Praise went to Knightley's supporting performance as Clarke, Goldenberg's editing, Desplat's score, Faura's cinematography and Djurkovic's production design.[72] The film was enthusiastically received at the Telluride Film Festival and won the "People's Choice Award for Best Film" at TIFF, the highest prize of the festival.

Cumberbatch signing autographs at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 2014

Cumberbatch's performance was met with widespread acclaim from critics. TIME
TIME
ranked Cumberbatch's portrayal number one in its Top 10 film performances of 2014, with the magazine's chief film critic Richard Corliss
Richard Corliss
calling Cumberbatch's characterisation "the actor's oddest, fullest, most Cumberbatchian character yet ... he doesn't play Turing so much as inhabit him, bravely and sympathetically but without mediation".[73][74] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
declared Turing "the role of Cumberbatch's career", while A.O. Scott
A.O. Scott
of The New York Times stated that it is "one of the year's finest pieces of screen acting".[75][76] Peter Travers
Peter Travers
of Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
asserted that the actor "gives an explosive, emotionally complex" portrayal. Critic Clayton Davis stated that it's a "performance for the ages ... proving he's one of the best actors working today".[77][78] Foundas of Variety wrote that Cumberbatch's acting is "masterful ... a marvel to watch", Manohla Dargis of The New York Times
The New York Times
described it as "delicately nuanced, prickly and tragic" and Owen Gleiberman of the BBC
BBC
proclaimed it an "emotionally tailored perfection".[79][80] It's "a storming performance from Cumberbatch: you'll be deciphering his work long after the credits roll" declared Dave Calhoun of Time Out.[81] In addition, Claudia Puig of USA Today
USA Today
concluded in her review, "It's Cumberbatch's nuanced, haunted performance that leaves the most powerful impression".[82] The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter's Todd McCarthy reported that the undeniable highlight of the film was Cumberbatch, "whose charisma, tellingly modulated and naturalistic array of eccentricities, talent at indicating a mind never at rest and knack for simultaneously portraying physical oddness and attractiveness combine to create an entirely credible portrait of genius at work".[83][84] Critic Roger Friedman wrote at the end of his review, "Cumberbatch may be the closest thing we have to a real descendant of Sir Laurence Olivier".[85] While praising the performances of Cumberbatch and Knightley, Catherine Shoard of The Guardian
The Guardian
stated that the film is "too formulaic, too efficient at simply whisking you through and making sure you've clocked the diversity message".[86] Tim Robey of The Telegraph described it as "a film about a human calculator which feels ... a little too calculated".[87] Some critics also raised concerns about film's alleged reluctance to highlight Turing's homosexuality.[88] British historian Alex von Tunzelmann, writing for The Guardian
The Guardian
in November 2014, pointed out many historical inaccuracies in the film, saying in conclusion: "Historically, The Imitation Game is as much of a garbled mess as a heap of unbroken code".[89] Journalist Christian Caryl
Christian Caryl
also found numerous historical inaccuracies, describing the film as constituting "a bizarre departure from the historical record" that changed Turing's rich life to be "multiplex-friendly".[90] L.V. Anderson of Slate magazine compared the film's account of Turing's life and work to the biography it was based on, writing, "I discovered that The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
takes major liberties with its source material, injecting conflict where none existed, inventing entirely fictional characters, rearranging the chronology of events, and misrepresenting the very nature of Turing's work at Bletchley Park".[91] Andrew Grant of Science News
Science News
wrote, "... like so many other Hollywood
Hollywood
biopics, it takes some major artistic license – which is disappointing, because Turing's actual story is so compelling."[92] Computing historian Thomas Haigh, writing in the journal Communications of the ACM, said that "the film is a bad guide to reality but a useful summary of everything that the popular imagination gets wrong about Bletchley Park", that it "combines the traditional focus of popular science writing on the lone genius who changes the world with the modern movie superhero narrative of a freak who must overcome his own flaws before he can save the world", and that, together with the likes of A Beautiful Mind and The Theory of Everything, is part of a trend of "glossy scientific biopic[s]" that emphasize those famous scientists who were surrounded by tragedy rather than those who found contented lives, which in turn affects the way "[s]ome kinds of people, and work, have become famous and others have not."[93] The Turing family[edit] Despite earlier reservations, Turing's niece Inagh Payne told Allan Beswick of BBC
BBC
Radio Manchester that the film "really did honour my uncle" after she watched the film at the London Film Festival
London Film Festival
in October 2014. In the same interview, Turing's nephew Dermont Turing stated that Cumberbatch is "perfect casting. I couldn't think of anyone better". James Turing, a great-nephew of the code-breaker, said Cumberbatch "knows things that I never knew before. The amount of knowledge he has about Alan is amazing".[94] Social action[edit] In January 2015, Cumberbatch, comedian-actor Stephen Fry, producer Harvey Weinstein, and Turing's great niece Rachel Barnes launched a campaign to pardon the 49,000 gay men convicted under the same law that led to Turing's chemical castration. An open letter published in The Guardian
The Guardian
urged the British government and the Royal family, particularly Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
and the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, to aid the campaign.[95] The Human Rights Campaign's Chad Griffin
Chad Griffin
also offered his endorsement, saying: "Over 49,000 other gay men and women were persecuted in England under the same law. Turing was pardoned by Queen Elizabeth II in 2013. The others were not. Honor this movie. Honor this man. And honor the movement to bring justice to the other 49,000."[96] Aiding the cause are campaigner Peter Tatchell, Attitude magazine, and other high-profile figures in the gay community.[97] In February 2015, Matt Damon, Michael Douglas, Jessica Alba, Bryan Cranston, and Anna Wintour
Anna Wintour
among others joined the petition at Pardon49k.org demanding pardons for victims of anti-gay laws.[98][99] Historians, including Justin Bengry of Birkbeck University of London and Matt Houlbrook of the University of Birmingham, argued that such a pardon would be "bad history" despite its political appeal, because of the broad variety of cases in which the historical laws were applied (including cases of rape) and the distortion of history resulting from an attempt to clean up the wrongdoings of the past post facto. Bengry also cites the existing ability of those convicted under repealed anti-homosexuality laws to have their convictions declared spent.[100] Controversy[edit]

Knightley portrayed code breaker Joan Clarke

During production, there was criticism regarding the film's purported downplaying of Turing's homosexuality,[101] particularly condemning the portrayal of his relationship with close friend and one-time fiancée Joan Clarke. Hodges, author of the book upon which the film was based, described the script as having "built up the relationship with Joan much more than it actually was".[102] Turing's niece Payne thought that Knightley was inappropriately cast, as she described the real Clarke as "rather plain", and said: "I think they might be trying to romanticise it. It makes me a bit mad. You want the film to show it as it was, not a lot of nonsense."[103] Speaking to Empire, director Tyldum expressed his decision to take on the project: "It is such a complex story. It was the gay rights element, but also how his (Turing's) ideas were kept secret and how incredibly important his work was during the war, that he was never given credit for it".[34] In an interview for GQ UK, Matthew Goode, who plays fellow cryptographer Hugh Alexander in the film, stated that the script focuses on "Turing's life and how as a nation we celebrated him as being a hero by chemically castrating him because he was gay".[104] The producers of the film stated: "There is not – and never has been – a version of our script where Alan Turing
Alan Turing
is anything other than homosexual, nor have we included fictitious sex scenes."[105] In a January 2015 interview with The Huffington Post, its screenwriter Graham Moore said in response to complaints about the film's historical accuracy:

When you use the language of "fact checking" to talk about a film, I think you're sort of fundamentally misunderstanding how art works. You don't fact check Monet's Water Lilies. That's not what water lilies look like, that's what the sensation of experiencing water lilies feel like. That's the goal of the piece.[106]

In the same interview, Tyldum stated:

A lot of historical films sometimes feel like people reading a page to you onscreen, like just reciting "and then he did that, and then he did that, and then he did this other thing" – it's like a "Greatest Hits" compilation. We wanted the movie to be emotional and passionate. Our goal was to give you "What does Alan Turing feel like?" What does his story feel like? What'd it feel like to be Alan Turing? Can we create the experience of sort of "Alan Turing-ness" for an audience based on his life?[106]

For the most part, Hodges has not commented on the historical accuracy of the film, alluding to contractual obligations involving the film rights to his biography.[107] Historical accuracy[edit] The film has received criticism from historians and academics regarding inaccuracies in the events and people it portrays. Historical events[edit]

Naming the Enigma-breaking machine "Christopher" after Turing's childhood friend and suggesting that Turing was the only cryptographer working on it, with others either not helping or outright opposed.

In actuality, this electromechanical machine was called "Victory" and it was a collaborative, not individual, effort. It was a British Bombe machine, which was partly inspired by a design by the Polish cryptanalyst Marian Rejewski. Rejewski designed a machine in 1938, called bomba kryptologiczna, which had broken an earlier version of Germany's Enigma machines by the Polish Cipher Bureau before the second World War.[108] A new machine with a different strategy was designed by Turing (with a major contribution from mathematician Gordon Welchman, who goes unmentioned in the film and whose contribution was instead attributed to Hugh Alexander) in 1940.

Suggesting that only this one machine was built, with Turing playing a large role in its construction.

More than 200 British Bombes were built under the supervision of chief engineer Harold Keen
Harold Keen
of the British Tabulating Machine Company. None of them were built at Bletchley Park.[93]

Turing's rebuilt bombe machine, called Christopher in the film, on display at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
Museum

Suggesting that the work at Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
was the effort of a small group of cryptographers who were stymied for the first few years of the war until a sudden breakthrough that allowed them to break Enigma.

Since 1932 Polish cryptanalysts Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki
Jerzy Różycki
and Henryk Zygalski
Henryk Zygalski
from Polish Cipher Bureau were breaking German Enigma messages. Their effort allowed Poles to build replicas of German machines in Warsaw
Warsaw
for the Polish secret service. Just before war, in 1939, Polish secret service revealed their work to French and English allies on a secret meeting on 26 and 27 July 1939,[109] in Pyry near Warsaw. Thousands of men and women were working on the project by the time the war ended in 1945. The computing advances did not obviate the need for human labor, as the many teams of largely female operators certainly knew. Throughout the war, there were breakthroughs and setbacks when the design or use of the German Enigma machines was changed and the Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
code breakers had to adapt.[90][93]

Moreover, the breakthrough depicted in the film provides the impression that first the Bombe
Bombe
was developed, then only became effective after it was later realised that deciphering could be made easier by looking for known or speculated items contained in an intercepted message, a practice known in cryptanalysis as employing a crib. However, in reality, the opposite is true; the use of cribs was the central attack model upon which the Bombe's principal design was based, rather than being an afterthought to the design.

Suggesting that Enigma was the only German cipher broken at Bletchley Park.

The breaking of the Lorenz cipher, codenamed "Tunny", was arguably just as important as the breaking of Enigma in terms of contributing to the value of Ultra intelligence, and the code-breaking effort was in many ways more difficult. Neither the Tunny effort nor its main contributors, mathematician W. T. "Bill" Tutte and electrical engineer Tommy Flowers, are mentioned in the film. The Colossus computer
Colossus computer
they built goes unmentioned by name in the film, although there is an implicit suggestion that Turing was responsible for it, which he was not.[93]

Showing a scene where the Hut 8
Hut 8
team decides not to use broken codes to stop a German raid on a convoy that the brother of one of the code breakers (Peter Hilton) is serving on, to hide the fact they have broken the code.

In reality, Hilton had no such brother, and decisions about when and whether to use data from Ultra intelligence were made at much higher administrative levels.[91]

Showing Turing writing a letter to Churchill to gain control over Enigma breaking and obtain funding for the decryption machine.

Turing was actually not alone in making a different request with a number of colleagues, including Hugh Alexander, writing a letter to Churchill (who had earlier visited there) in an effort to get more administrative resources sent to Bletchley Park, which Churchill immediately did.[91]

The depiction of the recruitment of Joan Clarke
Joan Clarke
as a result of an examination after solving a crossword puzzle in a newspaper.

In reality, Joan Clarke
Joan Clarke
was recruited by her former academic supervisor, Gordon Welchman, to the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS).[91]

Turing's personality and personal life[edit]

Exaggerating Turing's social difficulties to the point of depicting him having Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome
or otherwise being on the autism spectrum.

While a few writers and researchers have tried to assign such a retrospective diagnosis to Turing,[110] and it is true that he had his share of eccentricities, the Asperger's-like traits portrayed in the film – social awkwardness, difficulty working cooperatively with others, and tendency to take things too literally – bear little relationship to the actual adult Turing, who, despite enjoying working alone, was sociable and had friends, was also viewed as having a sense of humour, and had good working relationships with colleagues.[90][111][112][93]

Scenes about Turing's childhood friend, including the manner in which Turing learned of Morcom's illness and death.[89][91] Portraying Turing's arrest as happening in 1951 and having a detective suspect him of being a Soviet spy until Turing tells his code-breaking story in an interview with the detective, who then discovers Turing is gay.

Turing's arrest was in 1952. The detective in the film and the interview as portrayed are fictional. Turing was investigated for his homosexuality after a robbery at his house and was never investigated for espionage.[89]

Suggesting that the chemical castration that Turing was forced to undergo made him unable to think clearly or do any work.

Despite physical weakness and changes in Turing's body including gynaecomastia, at that time he was doing innovative work on mathematical biology, inspired by the very changes his body was undergoing due to chemical castration.[90][91]

Clarke visiting Turing in his home while he is serving probation.

There is no record of Clarke ever visiting Turing's residence during his probation, although Turing did stay in touch with her after the war and informed her of his upcoming trial for indecency.[91]

Stating outright that Turing committed suicide after a year of hormone treatment.

In reality, the nature of Turing's death is a matter of considerable debate. The chemical castration period ended fourteen months before his death. The official inquest into his death ruled that he had committed suicide by consuming a cyanide-laced apple. Turing biographer Andrew Hodges believes the death was indeed a suicide, re-enacting the poisoned apple from Snow White, Turing's favourite fairy tale, with some deliberate ambiguity included to permit Turing's mother to interpret it as an accident. However, Jack Copeland, an editor of volumes of Turing's work and Director of the Turing Archive for the History of Computing, has suggested that Turing's death may have been accidental, caused by the cyanide fumes produced by an experiment in his spare room, and that the investigation was poorly conducted.[91][113]

Personalities and actions of other characters[edit]

Depicting Commander Denniston as a rigid officer, bound by military thinking and eager to shut down the decryption machine when it fails to deliver results.

Denniston's grandchildren stated that the film takes an "unwarranted sideswipe" at their grandfather's memory, showing him to be a "baddy" and a "hectoring character" who hinders the work of Turing. They said their grandfather had a completely different temperament from the one portrayed in the film and was entirely supportive of the work done by cryptographers under his command.[91][114] There is no record of the film's depicted interactions between Turing and Denniston. Indeed, before the war, Denniston recruited lecturers at Oxford and Cambridge, and Turing, Welchman, and others began working part-time for him then.[115]:9 Turing was always respected and considered one of the best code-breakers at Bletchley Park[91] and in short order took on the role of a leader there.[93]

Showing Turing interacting with Stewart Menzies, head of the British Secret Intelligence Service.

There are no records showing they interacted at all during Turing's time at Bletchley Park.[91]

Including an espionage subplot involving Turing working with John Cairncross.

Turing and Cairncross worked in different areas of Bletchley Park
Bletchley Park
and there is no evidence they ever met.[90][91] Alex Von Tunzelmann was angered by this subplot (which suggests that Turing was for a while blackmailed into not revealing Cairncross as a spy lest his homosexuality be revealed), writing that "creative licence is one thing, but slandering a great man's reputation – while buying into the nasty 1950s prejudice that gay men automatically constituted a security risk – is quite another."[89]

Accolades[edit] Main article: List of accolades received by The Imitation Game The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
has been nominated for, and has received, numerous awards, with Cumberbatch's portrayal of Turing particularly praised.[116][117][118][119] The film and its cast and crew were also honoured by Human Rights Campaign, the largest LGBT
LGBT
civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organisation in the United States. "We are proud to honor the stars and filmmakers of The Imitation Game for bringing the captivating yet tragic story of Alan Turing to the big screen", HRC president Chad Griffin
Chad Griffin
said in a statement.[120] References[edit]

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Alan Turing
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External links[edit]

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v t e

Films directed by Morten Tyldum

Buddy (2003) Fallen Angels (2008) Headhunters (2011) The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
(2014) Passengers (2016)

v t e

Empire Award for Best Thriller

Kiss Kiss Bang Bang
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(2006) The Departed (2007) American Gangster (2008) Quantum of Solace
Quantum of Solace
(2009) Sherlock Holmes (2010) The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011) Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (2012) Headhunters (2013) The Hunger Games: Catching Fire (2014) The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game
(2015) Spectre (2016) Jason Bourne (2017)

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GLAAD
GLAAD
Media Award for Outstanding Film – Wide Release

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