Domestication of the horse
Nordic Bronze Age
Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Peoples and societies
Religion and mythology
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the
Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the
Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World is a 2007 book by David W.
Anthony, in which the author describes his "Revised Steppe Theory." He
explores the origins and spread of the
Indo-European languages from
the Pontic-Caspian steppes throughout Western Europe, and Central and
South Asia. He shows how the domesticated horse and the invention of
the wheel mobilized the steppe herding societies in the Eurasian
Grass-Steppe, and combined with the introduction of bronze technology
and new social structures of patron-client relationships gave an
advantage to the Indo-European societies. The book won the Society for
American Archaeology's 2010 Book Award.[web 1]
2.1 Part One: Language and Archaeology
2.1.1 Chapter One: The promise and Politics of the Mother Language
2.1.2 Chaper Three: Language and Time 1. The Last Speakers of
2.1.3 Chapter Four: Language and Time 2: Wool, Wheels and
2.1.4 Chapter Six: The Archaeology of Language
2.2 Part Two: The Opening of the Eurasian Steppes
2.2.1 Chapter Eight: First Farmers and Herders: The Pontic-Caspian
2.2.2 Chapter Nine: Cows, Copper and Chiefs
2.2.3 Chapter Ten: The Domestication of the Horse and the Origins of
Riding: The Tale of the Teeth
2.2.4 Chapter Eleven: The End of Old Europe and the Rise of the Steppe
2.2.5 Chapter Twelve: Seeds of Change on the Steppe Borders. Maikop
Chiefs and Tripolye Towns
2.2.6 Chapter Thirteen: Wagon Dwellers of the Steppes. The Speakers of
2.2.7 Chapter Fourteen: The Western Indo-European Languages
2.2.8 Chapter Fifteen:
Chariot Warriors of the Northern Steppes
2.2.9 Chapter Sixteen: The Opening of the Eurasian Steppes
7.1 Printed sources
8 External links
Anthony gives a broad overview of the linguistic and archaeological
evidence for the early origins and spread of the Indo-European
languages, describing a revised version of Marija Gimbutas’s Kurgan
hypothesis. Anthony describes the development of local cultures at the
northern Black Sea coast, from hunter-gatherers to herders, under
influence of the Balkan cultures which introduced cattle, horses and
bronze technology. When the climate changed between 3500 and 3000 BCE,
with the steppes becoming drier and cooler, these inventions led to a
new way of life, in which mobile herders moved into the steppes,
developing a new kind of social organisation with patron-client and
host-guest relationships. This new social organisation, with its
related Indo-European languages, spread throughout Europe, Central
Asia and South Asia, due to the possibilities it provided to include
new members within its social structures.
Part One covers theoretical considerations on language and
archaeology. It gives an introductory overview of Indo-European
linguistics (ch.1); investigates the reconstruction of
Proto-Indo-European (ch.2); the dating of Proto-Indo-European (ch.3);
the specific vocabulary for wool and wheels (ch.4); the location of
Proto-Indo-European homeland (ch.5); and the correlation of these
linguistic discoveries with archaeological evidence and the role of
elite recruitment in language shift (ch.6).
Part Two covers the development of the Steppe cultures, and the
subsequent migrations out of the Pontic-Caspian region into Europe,
Central Asia and South Asia. The splitting off of the major branches
of Indo-European (except perhaps Greek) can be correlated with
archaeological cultures showing steppe influences, in a way that makes
sense chronologically and geographically in light of linguistic
reconstructions. Anthony gives an introduction to Part Two (ch.7);
describes the interaction between Balkan farmers and herders and
steppe foragers at the
Dniestr river (present West Ukraine), and the
introduction of cattle(ch.8); the spread of cattle-herding during the
Copper Age, and the accompanying social division between high and low
status (ch.9); the domestication of the horse (ch.10); the end of the
Balkan cultures and the early migrations of Steppe people into the
Danube valley (ch.11); the development of the steppe cultures during
the eneolithic, including the interaction with the Mesopotamian world
after the collapse of the Balkan cultures, and the role of
Proto-Indo-European as a regional language (ch.12); the Yamna culture
as the culmination of these developments at the Pontic-Caspian steppes
(ch.13); the migration of Yamna people into the
Danube Valley and the
origins of the western
Indo-European languages at the
(Celtic, Italic), the
Dniestr (Germanic) and the
Slavic)(ch.14); migrations eastward which gave rise to the Sintashta
culture and Proto-Indo-Iranian (ch.15); migrations of the Indo-Aryans
southward through the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological complex into
Anatolia and India (ch.16); and concluding thoughts (ch.17).
Part One: Language and Archaeology
Chapter One: The promise and Politics of the Mother Language
Anthony introduces the similarities between a broad range of
languages, and their common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European, proposing
Proto-Indo-European homeland was located in the steppes
north of the Black and Caspian Seas in what is today southern Ukraine
and Russia." Anthony gives a short overview of the history of the
linguistical study of PIE, and then presents six major problems
which hinder a "broadly acceptable union between archaeological and
Chaper Three: Language and Time 1. The Last Speakers of
Using a mathematical analysis borrowed from evolutionary biology, Don
Ringe and Tandy Warnow propose the following evolutionary tree of
Pre-Anatolian (before 3500 BCE)
Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (before 2500 BCE)
Pre-Armenian and Pre-Greek (after 2500 BCE)
[Pre-Germanic];[note 1] proto-Germanic c. 500 BCE
Proto-Indo-Iranian (2000 BCE)
Chapter Four: Language and Time 2: Wool, Wheels and
Anthony proposes that the
Proto-Indo-European language emerged after
ca. 3500 BCE. He bases this especially on his analysis of
Indo-European terms for wool textiles and wheeled vehicles,
Neither woven wool textiles nor wheeled vehicles existed before about
4000 BCE. It is possible that neither existed before about 3500 BCE.
Yet Proto-Indo-European speakers spoke regularly about wheeled
vehicles and some sort of wool textile. This vocabulary suggests that
Proto-Indo-European was spoken after 4000–3500 BCE.
Chapter Six: The Archaeology of Language
Anthony, following the methodology of Ringe and Warnow, proposes the
Pre-Anatolian (4200 BCE)
Pre-Tocharian (3700 BCE)
Pre-Germanic (3300 BCE)
Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (3000 BCE)
Pre-Armenian (2800 BCE)
Pre-Balto-Slavic (2800 BCE)
Pre-Greek (2500 BCE)
Proto-Indo-Iranian (2200 BCE); split between Iranian and Old Indic
A key insight is that early expansions of the area in which
Indo-European was spoken were often due to "recruitment", rather than
due only to military invasions. With the
Yamna culture as a nucleus
candidate, the original recruitment would be to a way of life in which
intensive use of horses allowed herd animals to be pastured in areas
of the Ukrainian / South Russian steppe outside of river valleys.
Part Two: The Opening of the Eurasian Steppes
Chapter Eight: First Farmers and Herders: The Pontic-Caspian
According to Anthony, the development of the Proto-Indo-European
cultures started with the introduction of cattle at the Pontic-Caspian
steppes, which until ca. 5200-5000 BCE were populated by
hunter-gatherers. The first cattle herders arrived from the Danube
Valley at ca. 5800-5700 BCE, descendants from the first European
farmers. They formed the Criş culture (5800-5300 BCE), creating a
cultural frontier at the Prut-
Bug-Dniester culture ( 6300–5500 BCE) was a local
forager culture, from where cattle breeding spread to the steppe
Dniepr Rapids area was the next part of the
Pontic-Caspian steppes to shift to cattle-herding. It was the most
densely populated area of the Pontic-Caspian steppes at the time, and
had been inhabited by various hunter-gatherer populations since the
end of the Ice Age. From ca.5800-5200 it was inhabited by the first
phase of the Dnieper-Donets culture, a hunter-gatherer culture
contemporaneous with the Bug-
Chapter Nine: Cows, Copper and Chiefs
At ca. 5200-5000 BCE the non-Indo-European Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
(5200-3500 BCE) appears east of the Carpathian mountains,  moving
the cultural frontier to the Southern Bug valley, while the
foragers at the
Dniepr Rapids shifted to cattle herding, marking the
shift to Dniepr-Donets II (5200/5000-4400-4200 BCE). The
Dniepr-Donets culture kept cattle not only for ritual sacrifices, but
also for their daily diet. The
Khvalynsk culture (4700-3800
BCE), located at the middle Volga, which was connected with the
Danube Valley by trade networks, also had cattle and sheep, but
they were "more important in ritual sacrifices than in the diet."
According to Anthony, "the set of cults that spread with the first
domesticated animals was at the root of the Proto-Indo-European
conception of the universe," in which cattle had an essential
Samara culture (early 5th millennium BCE),[note 2] north
of the Khvalynsk culture, interacted with the Khvalynsk culture.
The steppe cultures were markedly different, both economically as
probably also linguistic, from the
Danube Valley and Balkan
cultures at their west, despite trade between them, the foragers
of the northern forest zone, and from the cultures east of the
Chapter Ten: The Domestication of the Horse and the Origins of Riding:
The Tale of the Teeth
The domestication of the horse had a wide-ranging effect on the steppe
cultures, and Anthony has done field-work on this topic. Bit wear
is a sign of horse riding, and the dating of horse teeth that had
signs of bit wear gives clues for the dating of the appearance of
horse riding. The presence of domesticated horses in the steppe
cultures was an important clue for
Marija Gimbutas in the development
Kurgan hypothesis. According to Anthony, horseback riding
may have appeared as early as 4200 BCE, and horse artifacts show
up in greater amounts after 3500 BCE. Horseback riding greatly
increased the mobility of herders, allowing for greater herds, but
also leading to increased warfare because of the need for additional
Chapter Eleven: The End of Old Europe and the Rise of the Steppe
Sredny Stog culture
Sredny Stog culture (4400-3300 BCE) appears at the same
location as the Dniepr-Donets culture, but shows influences from
people who came from the
Volga river region. The Sredni Stog
culture was "the archaeological foundation for the Indo-European
steppe pastoralists of Marija Gimbutas," and this period "was the
critical era when innovative Proto-Indo-European dialects began to
spread across the steppes."
Around 4200-4100 BCE a climate change occurred, manifesting in colder
winters. Between 4200-3900 BCE many tell settlements in the lower
Danube Valley were burned and abandoned, while the
Cucuteni-Tripolye culture showed an increase in fortifications,
meanwhile moving eastwards towards the Dniepr.
Steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the
Danube valley about 4200-4000 BCE, either causing or taking
advantage of the collapse of Old Europe. According to Anthony,
their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European
dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian."
According to Anthony their descendants later moved into Anatalia, at
an unknown time, but maybe as early as 3,000 BCE. According to
Anthony these herders, forming the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka
complex,[note 3] probably were a chiefly elite from the Sredni Stog
culture at the
Chapter Twelve: Seeds of Change on the Steppe Borders. Maikop Chiefs
and Tripolye Towns
The collapse of Old Europe lead to a decrease in copper grave gifts in
the North Pontic steppes. Between 3800-3300 substantial contact took
place between the steppe cultures and Mesopotamia, via the Maikop
culture (3700-3000 BCE) in the northern Caucasus. On the west,
Tripolye pottery begins to resemble Sredni Stog pottery, showing a
process of assimilation between the
Tripolye culture and the steppe
cultures, and a gradual breakdown of the cultural border between the
Between 3800 and 3300 BCE five eneolithic steppe cultures can be
discerned, and Proto-Indo-European dialects may have served as a
regional language during this time.
Mikhaylovka culture (3600—3000 BCE), on the Black Sea coast between
Dniestr and the Dniepr. Mikhailovka I people looked less like
the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka people, and may have intermarried more with
Tripolye culture people or people from the
Mikhailovka II upper level (3300-3000 BCE) imported pottery from the
Repin culture (see below), and is regarded as early western Yamna.
In the steppes northwest of the Black Sea the Mikhailovka culture was
replaced by the
Usatovo culture after 3300 BCE. The Mikhailovka
culture at the Crimea developed into the Kemi Oba culture.
Post-Mariupol culture (early phase 3800-3300 BCE, late phase 3300-2800
BCE): around the Dnieper Rapids, near the Donets River.
According to Ina Potekhina, these people looked most like the
Sredny Stog culture
Sredny Stog culture (Dniepr-Donets-Don), c. 4000–3500
Repin culture (Don) and late
Khvalynsk culture (lower Volga): the
Repin culture developed due to contact with the late
Maikop-Novosvobodyana culture (lower Don), which penetrated deeply
into the lower
Volga steppe. Anthony also believes that Repin was
highly significant to the establishment of the
Afanasevo culture in
eastern Siberia, c. 3700–3300 BCE.
Chapter Thirteen: Wagon Dwellers of the Steppes. The Speakers of
Location of early Yamna culture
The Yamna horizon (3300-2500 BCE) originated in the Don-Volga
area, where it was preceded by the middle
Khvalynsk culture (4700-3800 BCE) and the Don-based Repin culture
(ca.3950-3300 BCE), and late pottery from these two cultures can
barely be distinguished from early Yamna pottery. The Afanasevo
culture, at the western Altai Mountains, at the far eastern end of the
steppes, was an offshoot from the Repin culture.
The Yamna horizon was an adaptation to a climate change which occurred
between 3500 and 3000 BCE, in which the steppes became drier and
cooler. Herds needed to be moved frequently to feed them sufficiently,
and the use of wagons and horse-back riding made this possible,
leading to "a new, more mobile form of pastoralism." It was
accompanied by new social rules and institutions, to regulate the
local migrations in the steppes, creating a new social awareness of a
distinct culture, and of "cultural Others" who did not participate in
these new institutions.
The early Yamnaya horizon spread quickly across the Pontic-Caspian
steppes between ca. 3400 and 3200 BCE. According to Anthony, "the
spread of the Yamnaya horizon was the material expression of the
spread of late Proto-Indo-European across the Pontic-Caspian
steppes." Anthony further notes that "the Yamnaya horizon is the
visible archaeological expression of a social adjustment to high
mobility - the invention of the political infrastructure to manage
larger herds from mobile homes based in the steppes."
The Yamna horizon is reflected in the disappearance of long-term
settlements between the Don and the Ural, and the brief periods of
usage of kurgan cemeteries, which begin to appear deep into the
steppes between the major river valleys.
The eastern part (Volga-Ural-North Caucasian) of the Yamna horizon was
more mobile than the western part (South Bug-lower Don), which was
more farming-oriented. The eastern part more male-oriented, while
the western part was more female-inclusive. Th eastern part also
had a higher number of males buried in kurgans, and its deities were
Chapter Fourteen: The Western Indo-European Languages
Course of the Danube, marked in red
According to Anthony, Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic may have
Danube Valley and the Dniestr-
Usatovo culture developed in south-eastern Central Europe at
around 3300–3200 BCE at the
Dniestr river. Although closely
related to the Tripolye culture, it is contemporary with the Yamna
culture, and resembles it in significant ways. According to
Anthony, it may have originated with "steppe clans related to the
Yamnaya horizon who were able to impose a patron-client relationship
on Tripolye farming villages." According to Anthony, the
Pre-Germanic dialects may have developed in this culture between the
Dniestr (west Ukraine) and the
Vistula (Poland) at c. 3100–2800 BCE,
and spread with the Corded Ware culture.
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent
3rd-millennium cultures (
Baden culture and Globular Amphora
Between 3100–2800/2600 BCE, when the Yamna horizon spread fast
across the Pontic Steppe, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European
speakers from the Yamna-culture took place into the
moving along Usatovo territory toward specific destinations, reaching
as far as Hungary, where as many as 3,000 kurgans may have been
raised. Bell Beaker sites at Budapest, dated c. 2800–2600 BCE,
may have aided in spreading Yamna dialects into Austria and southern
Germany at their west, where
Proto-Celtic may have developed.
Pre-Italic may have developed in Hungary, and spread toward Italy via
Urnfield culture and Villanovan culture. According to Anthony,
Slavic and Baltic developed at the middle
Ukraine) at c. 2800 BCE, spreading north from there.
Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture in Middle Europe probably played an essential
role in the origin and spread of the
Indo-European languages in Europe
during the Copper and Bronze Ages. According to Anthony, the
Corded ware horizon may have introduced Germanic, Baltic and Slavic
into northern Europe.
Chariot Warriors of the Northern Steppes
The expansion eastwards of the Corded Ware culture, north of the
steppe zone, led to the Sintashta culture, east of the Ural mountains,
which is considered to be the birthplace of the Indo-Iranians.
Anthony skips over the post-Yamna cultures in the steppe zone (Late
Yamnaya, Catacomb (2800-2200 BCE), and Poltavka (2700-2100 BCE)) but
gives an extensive treatment of the intermediate Middle
(3200-2300 BCE) and of the Corded Ware cultures in the forest zone
(Fatyanova (3200-2300 BCE), Abashevo (2500-1900 BCE), Balanovo
After ca. 2500 BCE the Eurasian steppes became drier, peaking at ca.
2000 BCE, with the steppes southeast of the Ural mountains becoming
even drier than the Middle
Volga steppe. At ca. 2100 BCE Poltavka
and Abashevo herders moved into the upper Tobol and Ural river
valleys, close to marshes which were needed for the survival of their
herds. They build fortified stringholds, forming the Sintashta
culture at the souther range of the Ural mountains. Via the BMAC
they stood in contact with middle eastern cities like Ur, and the
Sintashta settlements reveal an extensive copper producing industry,
producing copper for the middle-eastern market. The Sintashta
culture was shaped by warfare, which occurred in tandem with a growing
long-distance trade. Chariots were an important weapon in the
Sintashta culture, and spread from there to the Middle East.
Anthony notes that "the details of the funeral sacrifices at Sintashta
showed startling parallels with the sacrificial funeral rituals of the
Chapter Sixteen: The Opening of the Eurasian Steppes
Steppe cultures between 2200-1800 BCE are the Multi-cordoned ware
culture (2200-1800 BCE)(Dniepr-Don-Volga), Filatovka culture, and
Potapovka; in the forest zone the Late Middle
Dniepr and the Late
Abashevo culture; east of the Urals the Sintashta and the Petrovka
culture; east of the Caspian Sea the non-IE Late Kelteminar
The Catacomb, Poltavka and Potapovka cultures were succeeded by the
Srubna culture, while the Sintashta and Petrovka cultures were
succeeded by the Andronovo culture.
Anthony's work received generally positive reviews. The New York
Times, noting the longstanding debate among scholars over the origins
of the Indo-European language group, stated "Anthony is not the first
scholar to make the case that Proto-Indo-European came from [the
steppes of southern Ukraine and Russia], but given the immense array
of evidence he presents, he may be the last one who has to."
Arthur Krim discussed the work in Geographical Review.
According to Krim, Anthony's "debate is with the archaeologist Colin
Renfrew" and his Anatolian hypothesis, which proposed that early
Proto-Indo-European developed by around 6500 BCE, originating in the
famous Neolithic site at
Çatalhöyük in Turkey. According to
Anthony offers convincing logic that the rate of linguistic change, as
preserved in the first inscribed-tablet evidence of Indo-European
branches as Hittite and the Vedic texts in India, rests on the
invention of the wagon wheel and domesticated wool sheep between 4000
and 3500 B.C.E. These linguistic roots, not the older Anatolian-Near
Eastern origins that Renfrew proposed, mark PIE after 4000 B.C.E. ...
David Anthony has produced convincingly detailed evidence that plants
the origins of Indo-European culture firmly on the Russian-Ukrainian
steppes by 3500 B.C.E.and demonstrates the spread of its
horseback-riding innovations eastward up the
Danube River in Central
Europe and westward over the Iranian plateau into the Indus Valley.
The Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association's Rocky Mountain Review
called the work "an archaeological feat" that "bridges the stubborn
gap between linguists and archaeologists". The review noted with
approval Anthony's drawing upon Soviet and Eastern European studies
that had previously been unknown to western researchers.
The most critical review was Philip Kohl's "Perils of Carts before
Horses: Linguistic Models and the Underdetermined Archaeological
Record" in American Anthropologist. Kohl argues that Anthony's
linguistic model is overly simple when regarding the development of
Indo-European languages as products of divergence, originating
from one single source; though Kohl admits that Anthony pays attention
to loanwords and the influence of neighboring cultures. Kohl is
critical that Anthony's linguistic model guides "the archaeological
interpretation rather than the reverse"; according to Kohl, "such a
procedure almost necessarily means that the archaeological record is
consistently manipulated to fit the linguistic model that it is meant
to confirm; the reasoning is circular." Kohl further notes that
Anthony's reconstruction is bold and imaginative, but also
"necessarily selective" and sometimes misleading when relying on a
rather limited number of items. According to Kohl,
...the central problem with this book is its assumption that
Indo-Europeans exclusively or nearly exclusively practiced certain
cultural features, including technologies and even religious rituals.
Was such exclusivity characteristic of the late prehistoric world or,
rather, were peoples who spoke different languages continuously
interacting with each other, adopting and transforming other
peoples’ practices and beliefs?
Kohl cautions about Anthony's proposal that horseback riding developed
very early in the
Chalcolithic in the Proto-Indo-European homeland.
According to Kohl, horseback riding was in fact almost invisible in
the Ancient Near Eastern pictorial record until practically the end of
the third millennium BCE. Finally, Kohl notes that past fantasies
about superior Aryans are dismissed by Anthony, but that his
descriptions of the influence of the Indo-European cultures on the
Eurasian world may nevertheless feed into "fantasies about peculiarly
gifted and creative Indo-Europeans–Aryans."
Nonetheless, Kohl also called the book a "magisterial synthesis of
steppe archaeology," and stated:
...the book's enduring value will be its rich and vivid synthesis of
an extremely complex corpus of archaeological data from Neolithic
times through the Bronze Age, stretching from the Balkans to Central
Asia. Anthony writes extremely well and masterfully describes material
culture remains, teasing out incredible amounts of information on the
nature and scale of subsistence activities, social structure, and even
Kohl's critique was challenged by others, who noted that Anthony's
extensive review of archaeological evidence suggested that he was not
using the linguistic model to "'confirm' the 'archaeological record'",
but instead was using it "to interact with and help to explain [the
The Society for American Archaeology's 2010 Book Award.[web 1]
^ a b David Anthony: "Germanic shows a mixture of archaic and derived
traits that make its place uncertain; it could have branched off at
about the same time as the root of Italic and Celtic [but] it also
shared many traits with Pre-Baltic and Pre-Slavic."
^ There are several datings available:
Gimbutas dated it to 5000 BC.
According to V.A.Dergachev (2007), О скипетрах, о
лошадях, о войне: Этюды в защиту
миграционной концепции М. Гимбутас,
ISBN 5-98187-173-3, dates
Samara culture at cal. C-14 5200-4500
BCE, with possible continuatation into first half of 5th millennium,
Khvalynsk culture is dated at ca. 4600-3900 BCE. These data
are based on synchronisation, not radicarbon dating or
Samara culture sites itself.
Mallory and Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, gives the
bare date "fifth millennium BC", while the Khvalynsk culture, its
reported successor, is dated at 4900-3500 BC.
^ Also called Skelya culture, Suvorovo culture, Utkonsonovka group,
and Novodanilovka culture.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 5.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 6-15.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 15-19.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 56-58.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 57.
^ Ringe 2006, p. 67.
^ Anthony 2010, p. 59.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 100.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 132.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 135.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 138.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 132, 145.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 145, 147.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 155-157.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 164.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 173.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 175.
^ a b c Anthony 2007, p. 182.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 185, 190.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 186.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 134-135.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 189.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 191.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 161-162.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 161, 191.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 193-201.
^ Anthony 1007, p. 201-213.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 214.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 221.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 222.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 244.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 244-245.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 240.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 227.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 230.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 232.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 133.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 229.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 262.
^ nthony 2007, p. 251.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 249-251.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 263.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 264.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 299.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 268-271.
^ a b c d Anthony 2007, p. 271.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 320.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 272.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 271-273.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 273-274.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 274-277.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 319.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 297.
^ Anthony 2010, p. 307-310.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 300.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 300, 317-320.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 317-320.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 275.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 274-277, 317-320.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 307-311.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 300, 336.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 321.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 301-302.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 303.
^ Anthony, 2007 & p-303-304.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 304.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 305.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 329.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 344.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 349.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 359.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 359-360.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 360, 368.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 345, 361-367.
^ Anthony 2007, p. ,361-362, 367.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 362.
^ a b c Anthony 2007, p. 367.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 368, 380.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 101.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 360.
^ a b Anthony 2007, p. 375.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 375-389.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 389.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 389-390.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 390.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 391.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 393.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 397-405.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 413.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 436.
^ Kenneally, Christine (2 March 2008). "The Horse, the Wheel, and
David W. Anthony - Book Review". The New York Times.
Retrieved 16 January 2017.
^ a b Krim 2008.
^ Lock, Suneeti Chhettri (Autumn 2010). "Review of The Horse, the
Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes
Shaped the Modern World". Rocky Mountain Review. 64 (2): 218–220.
Retrieved 16 January 2017.
^ a b c Kohl 2009.
^ Ostrowski, Don (Spring 2012). Maus, Tanya S., ed. "Review of The
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Steppes Shaped the Modern World by
David W. Anthony Academic World
History Articles and Essays Middle Ground Journal". Middle Ground
Journal. College of St. Scholastica. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How
Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World,
Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-14818-2
Anthony, David W. (2010), The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How
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Princeton University Press, ISBN 1400831105
Kohl, Philip L. (March 2009). "Perils of Carts before Horses:
Linguistic Models and the Underdetermined Archaeological Record".
American Anthropologist. 111 (1): 109–111.
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Ringe, Donald A. (2006). From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic.
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^ a b "The Horse, The
Wheel and Language".
Complete text at archive.org
New York Times review
Entry at Google Books
Entry at AbeBooks
'Horseback Riding and
Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes',
David W. Anthony, University of Pennsylvania Museu