THE HOBBIT, OR THERE AND BACK AGAIN is a children\'s fantasy novel by
J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien . It was published on 21 September
1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal
and awarded a prize from the
New York Herald Tribune
New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile
fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in
Hobbit is set in a time "between the Dawn of Færie and the
Dominion of Men ", and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo
Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by
Smaug the dragon .
Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into
more sinister territory.
The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters
introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's
geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom
by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of
his nature and applying his wits and common sense. The story reaches
its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies , where many of the
characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in
Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story,
along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view
Tolkien\'s own experiences during
World War I
World War I as instrumental in
shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic
philology and interest in fairy tales are often noted as influences.
The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial
success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work
progressed on the successor
The Lord of the Rings , he made
retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but
significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further
editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting
Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.
The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses
many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video
games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition
on their own merits.
* 1 Characters
* 2 Plot
* 3 Concept and creation
* 3.1 Background
* 3.2 Influences
* 3.3 Publication
* 3.3.1 Revisions
* 3.3.2 Posthumous editions
* 3.4 Illustration and design
* 4 Genre
* 5 Style
* 6 Critical analysis
* 6.1 Themes
* 6.2 Interpretation
* 7 Reception
* 8 Legacy
The Lord of the Rings
* 8.2 In education
* 8.3 Adaptations
* 8.4 Collectors\' market
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links
Main article: List of The
Bilbo Baggins , the titular protagonist, is a respectable, reserved
hobbit . During his adventure, Bilbo often refers to the contents of
his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic
ring , he is more baggage than help.
Gandalf , an itinerant wizard ,
introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves . During the journey
the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear
again at key moments in the story.
Thorin Oakenshield , the proud,
pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed
dwarvish kingdom under the
Lonely Mountain , makes many mistakes in
his leadership, relying on
Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of
trouble, but he proves himself a mighty warrior.
Smaug is a dragon who
long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and
sleeps upon the vast treasure.
The plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance,
such as the twelve other dwarves of the company ; two types of elves :
both puckish and more serious warrior types ; Men ; man-eating trolls
; boulder-throwing giants; evil cave-dwelling goblins ;
forest-dwelling giant spiders who can speak; immense and heroic eagles
who also speak; evil wolves, or wargs , who are allied with the
Elrond the sage;
Gollum , a strange creature inhabiting an
Beorn , a man who can assume bear form; and Bard the
Bowman , a grim but honourable archer of Lake-town .
Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of
dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the
Lonely Mountain and its vast
treasure from the dragon Smaug. When the music ends,
Gandalf unveils a
map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the
dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves
ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, indignant, joins despite himself.
The group travels into the wild, where
Gandalf saves the company from
trolls and leads them to
Rivendell , where
Elrond reveals more secrets
from the map. Passing over the
Misty Mountains , they are caught by
goblins and driven deep underground. Although
Gandalf rescues them,
Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblins. Lost in
the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and then
encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles. As a reward
for solving all riddles
Gollum will show him the path out of the
tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help
of the ring, which confers invisibility , Bilbo escapes and rejoins
the dwarves, improving his reputation with them. The goblins and Wargs
give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the
The company enters the black forest of
Mirkwood without Gandalf. In
Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and then
from the dungeons of the Wood-elves . Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the
travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who
hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. The
expedition travels to the
Lonely Mountain and finds the secret door;
Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair, stealing a great cup and learning of a
weakness in Smaug's armour. The enraged dragon, deducing that
Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A
thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and
reports it to Lake-town defender Bard . His arrow finds the chink and
slays the dragon.
When the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the
Arkenstone , an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, and hides it away. The
Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation
for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, and settlement
of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his
kin from the Iron Hills, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to
Arkenstone to head off a war, but Thorin is intransigent.
He banishes Bilbo, and battle seems inevitable.
Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and
Wargs. The dwarves, men and elves band together, but only with the
timely arrival of the eagles and
Beorn do they win the climactic
Battle of Five Armies
Battle of Five Armies . Thorin is fatally wounded and reconciles with
Bilbo before he dies. Bilbo accepts only a small portion of his share
of the treasure, having no want or need for more, but still returns
home a very wealthy hobbit.
CONCEPT AND CREATION
In the early 1930s
Tolkien was pursuing an academic career at Oxford
Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon , with a fellowship
at Pembroke College . Several of his poems had been published in
magazines and small collections, including
Goblin Feet and The Cat
and the Fiddle: A Nursery Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous Secret
Unlocked , a reworking of the nursery rhyme
Hey Diddle Diddle
Hey Diddle Diddle . His
creative endeavours at this time also included letters from Father
Christmas to his children—illustrated manuscripts that featured
warring gnomes and goblins , and a helpful polar bear —alongside the
creation of elven languages and an attendant mythology , which he had
been creating since 1917. These works all saw posthumous publication.
In a 1955 letter to
W. H. Auden ,
Tolkien recollects that he began
work on The
Hobbit one day early in the 1930s, when he was marking
School Certificate papers. He found a blank page. Suddenly inspired,
he wrote the words, "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit." By
late 1932 he had finished the story and then lent the manuscript to
several friends, including
C. S. Lewis and a student of Tolkien's
named Elaine Griffiths. In 1936, when Griffiths was visited in Oxford
by Susan Dagnall, a staff member of the publisher George Allen & Unwin
, she is reported to have either lent Dagnall the book or suggested
she borrow it from Tolkien. In any event, Dagnall was impressed by
it, and showed the book to Stanley Unwin , who then asked his
10-year-old son Rayner to review it. Rayner's favourable comments
settled Allen his works further helped
Tolkien form his whole thinking
on the role of fantasy within his Christian faith. Verne's runic
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Tolkien scholar Mark T. Hooker has catalogued a lengthy series of
parallels between The
Jules Verne 's Journey to the Center
of the Earth . These include, among other things, a hidden runic
message and a celestial alignment that direct the adventurers to the
goals of their quests.
Tolkien's works show much influence from
Norse mythology , reflecting
his lifelong passion for those stories and his academic interest in
Germanic philology . The
Hobbit is no exception to this; the work
shows influences from northern European literature, myths and
languages, especially from the
Poetic Edda and the
Prose Edda .
Examples include the names of characters, such as Fili, Kili, Oin,
Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur , Dori, Nori, Dwalin, Balin , Dain, Nain,
Thorin Oakenshield and
Gandalf (deriving from the
Old Norse names
Fíli, Kíli, Oin, Glói, Bivör, Bávörr, Bömburr, Dori, Nóri,
Dvalinn, Bláin, Dain, Nain, Þorin Eikinskialdi and Gandálfr). But
while their names are from Old Norse, the characters of the dwarves
are more directly taken from fairy tales such as
Snow White and
Snow-White and Rose-Red as collected by the
Brothers Grimm . The
latter tale may also have influenced the character of Beorn.
Tolkien's use of descriptive names such as
Misty Mountains and Bag
End echoes the names used in
Old Norse sagas . The names of the
dwarf-friendly ravens, such as Roäc, are derived from
Old Norse words
for "raven" and "rook", but their peaceful characters are unlike the
typical carrion birds from
Old Norse and Old English literature.
Tolkien is not simply skimming historical sources for effect: the
juxtaposition of old and new styles of expression is seen by Shippey
as one of the major themes explored in The Hobbit. Maps figure in
both saga literature and The Hobbit. Several of the author's
Anglo-Saxon runes , an English adaptation of
the Germanic runic alphabets .
Old English literature
Old English literature , and specifically from
shape the ancient world Bilbo stepped into. Tolkien, a scholar of
Beowulf, counted the epic among his "most valued sources" for The
Tolkien was one of the first critics to treat
Beowulf as a
literary work with value beyond the merely historical, and his 1936
lecture Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics is still required in
some Old English courses.
Tolkien borrowed several elements from
Beowulf, including a monstrous, intelligent dragon. Certain
descriptions in The
Hobbit seem to have been lifted straight out of
Beowulf with some minor rewording, such as when the dragon stretches
its neck out to sniff for intruders. Likewise, Tolkien's descriptions
of the lair as accessed through a secret passage mirror those in
Beowulf. Other specific plot elements and features in The
show similarities to
Beowulf include the title thief, as Bilbo is
Gollum and later by Smaug, and Smaug's personality, which
leads to the destruction of Lake-town.
Tolkien refines parts of
Beowulf's plot that he appears to have found less than satisfactorily
described, such as details about the cup-thief and the dragon's
intellect and personality.
Another influence from Old English sources is the appearance of named
blades of renown, adorned in runes. In using his elf-blade Bilbo
finally takes his first independent heroic action. By his naming the
blade "Sting " we see Bilbo's acceptance of the kinds of cultural and
linguistic practices found in Beowulf, signifying his entrance into
the ancient world in which he found himself. This progression
culminates in Bilbo stealing a cup from the dragon's hoard, rousing
him to wrath – an incident directly mirroring
Beowulf and an action
entirely determined by traditional narrative patterns. As Tolkien
wrote, "The episode of the theft arose naturally (and almost
inevitably) from the circumstances. It is difficult to think of any
other way of conducting the story at this point. I fancy the author of
Beowulf would say much the same."
The name of the wizard
Radagast is widely recognized to be taken from
the name of the Slavic deity Rodegast .
The representation of the dwarves in The
Hobbit was influenced by his
own selective reading of medieval texts regarding the Jewish people
and their history. The dwarves' characteristics of being dispossessed
of their ancient homeland at the Lonely Mountain, and living among
other groups whilst retaining their own culture are all derived from
the medieval image of Jews, whilst their warlike nature stems from
accounts in the
Hebrew Bible . The Dwarvish calendar invented for The
Hobbit reflects the Jewish calendar in beginning in late autumn. And
Tolkien denied allegory, the dwarves taking Bilbo out of his
complacent existence has been seen as an eloquent metaphor for the
"impoverishment of Western society without Jews."
See also: English-language editions of The
Hobbit Dustcover of
the first edition of The Hobbit, taken from a design by the author
George Allen & Unwin Ltd. of London published the first edition of
Hobbit on 21 September 1937 with a print run of 1,500 copies,
which sold out by December because of enthusiastic reviews. This
first printing was illustrated in black and white by Tolkien, who
designed the dust jacket as well.
Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New
York reset type for an American edition, to be released early in 1938,
in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. Allen &
Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their
second printing, released at the end of 1937. Despite the book's
popularity, paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not
ending until 1949 meant that the Allen ">'s publisher, Stanley Unwin,
Tolkien for a sequel. In response
Tolkien provided drafts for
The Silmarillion , but the editors rejected them, believing that the
public wanted "more about hobbits".
Tolkien subsequently began work
on The New Hobbit, which would eventually become The Lord of the Rings
, a course that would not only change the context of the original
story, but lead to substantial changes to the character of Gollum.
In the first edition of The Hobbit,
Gollum willingly bets his magic
ring on the outcome of the riddle-game, and he and Bilbo part
amicably. In the second edition edits, to reflect the new concept of
the ring and its corrupting abilities,
aggressive towards Bilbo and distraught at losing the ring. The
encounter ends with Gollum's curse, "Thief! Thief, Thief, Baggins! We
hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!" This presages Gollum's
portrayal in The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien sent this revised version of the chapter "Riddles in the
Dark" to Unwin as an example of the kinds of changes needed to bring
the book into conformity with The Lord of the Rings, but he heard
nothing back for years. When he was sent galley proofs of a new
Tolkien was surprised to find the sample text had been
incorporated. In The Lord of the Rings, the original version of the
riddle game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo under the harmful
influence of the Ring, whereas the revised version contains the "true"
account. The revised text became the second edition, published in
1951 in both the UK and the US.
Tolkien began a new version in 1960, attempting to adjust the tone of
Hobbit to its sequel. He abandoned the new revision at chapter
three after he received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit",
implying it had lost much of its light-hearted tone and quick pace.
After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings
Ace Books in 1965,
Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine asked
Tolkien to refresh the text of The
Hobbit to renew the US copyright.
This text became the 1966 third edition.
Tolkien took the opportunity
to align the narrative even more closely to
The Lord of the Rings and
to cosmological developments from his still unpublished Quenta
Silmarillion as it stood at that time. These small edits included,
for example, changing the phrase "elves that are now called Gnomes"
from the first and second editions on page 63, to "
High Elves of the
West, my kin" in the third edition.
Tolkien had used "gnome " in his
earlier writing to refer to the second kindred of the High Elves
Noldor (or "Deep Elves")—thinking "gnome", derived from the
Greek gnosis (knowledge), was a good name for the wisest of the elves.
However, because of its common denotation of a garden gnome , derived
from the 16th-century
Tolkien abandoned the term.
Since the author's death, two editions of The
Hobbit have been
published with commentary on the creation, emendation and development
of the text. In The Annotated
Hobbit Douglas Anderson provides the
entire text of the published book, alongside commentary and
illustrations. Later editions added the text of The
Quest of Erebor .
Anderson's commentary shows many of the sources
together in preparing the text, and chronicles in detail the changes
Tolkien made to the various published editions. Alongside the
annotations, the text is illustrated by pictures from many of the
translated editions, including images by
Tove Jansson . The edition
also presents a number of little-known texts such as the 1923 version
of Tolkien's poem "Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden".
With The History of The
Hobbit , published in two parts in 2007, John
D. Rateliff provides the full text of the earliest and intermediary
drafts of the book, alongside commentary that shows relationships to
Tolkien's scholarly and creative works, both contemporary and later.
Rateliff moreover provides the abandoned 1960s retelling and
previously unpublished illustrations by Tolkien. The book keeps
Rateliff's commentary separate from Tolkien's text, allowing the
reader to read the original drafts as self-contained stories.
ILLUSTRATION AND DESIGN
Tolkien's correspondence and publisher's records show that he was
involved in the design and illustration of the entire book. All
elements were the subject of considerable correspondence and fussing
over by Tolkien. Rayner Unwin, in his publishing memoir, comments: "In
Tolkien wrote 26 letters to George Allen "> Runes and
the English letter values assigned to them by Tolkien, used in
several of his original illustrations and designs for The Hobbit.
Even the maps, of which
Tolkien originally proposed five, were
considered and debated. He wished
Thror 's map to be tipped in (that
is, glued in after the book has been bound) at first mention in the
text, and with the moon-letters (almost identical to Anglo-Saxon runes
) on the reverse so they could be seen when held up to the light. In
the end the cost, as well as the shading of the maps, which would be
difficult to reproduce, resulted in the final design of two maps as
endpapers, Thror's map, and the Map of
Wilderland , both printed in
black and red on the paper's cream background.
Allen & Unwin
Allen & Unwin planned to illustrate the book only with the
endpaper maps, but Tolkien's first tendered sketches so charmed the
publisher's staff that they opted to include them without raising the
book's price despite the extra cost. Thus encouraged,
a second batch of illustrations. The publisher accepted all of these
as well, giving the first edition ten black-and-white illustrations
plus the two endpaper maps. The illustrated scenes were: The Hill:
Hobbiton -across-the-Water, The Trolls , The Mountain Path, The Misty
Mountains looking West from the Eyrie towards
Mirkwood , The Elvenking 's Gate, Lake Town , The Front Gate ,
and The Hall at Bag-End . All but one of the illustrations were a full
page, and one, the
Mirkwood illustration, required a separate plate.
Satisfied with his skills, the publishers asked
Tolkien to design a
dust jacket. This project, too, became the subject of many iterations
and much correspondence, with
Tolkien always writing disparagingly of
his own ability to draw. The runic inscription around the edges of the
illustration are a phonetic transliteration of English, giving the
title of the book and details of the author and publisher. The
original jacket design contained several shades of various colours,
Tolkien redrew it several times using fewer colours each time. His
final design consisted of four colours. The publishers, mindful of the
cost, removed the red from the sun to end up with only black, blue,
and green ink on white stock.
The publisher's production staff designed a binding, but Tolkien
objected to several elements. Through several iterations, the final
design ended up as mostly the author's. The spine shows runes: two "þ
" (Thráin and Thrór) runes and one "d " (door). The front and back
covers were mirror images of each other, with an elongated dragon
characteristic of Tolkien's style stamped along the lower edge, and
with a sketch of the
Misty Mountains stamped along the upper edge.
Once illustrations were approved for the book,
colour plates as well. The publisher would not relent on this, so
Tolkien pinned his hopes on the American edition to be published about
six months later.
Houghton Mifflin rewarded these hopes with the
replacement of the frontispiece (The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water)
in colour and the addition of new colour plates:
Rivendell , Bilbo
Woke Up with the Early Sun in His Eyes, Bilbo comes to the Huts of the
Raft-elves and a Conversation with
Smaug , which features a dwarvish
curse written in Tolkien's invented script
Tengwar , and signed with
two "þ" ("Th") runes. The additional illustrations proved so
appealing that George Allen Bilbo hosts a party that sets the novel's
main plot into motion;
Gandalf sends the protagonist into a quest
Elrond offers a haven and advice; the adventurers escape
dangerous creatures underground (
Goblin Town /Moria ); they engage
another group of elves (The Elvenking\'s realm /
Lothlórien ); they
traverse a desolate region (Desolation of Smaug/the
Dead Marshes );
they are received and nourished by a small settlement of men
Ithilien ); they fight in a massive battle (The Battle of
Five Armies /
Battle of Pelennor Fields ); their journey climaxes
within an infamous mountain peak (
Lonely Mountain /
Mount Doom ); a
descendant of kings is restored to his ancestral throne (Bard /Aragorn
); and the questing party returns home to find it in a deteriorated
condition (having possessions auctioned off/the scouring of the Shire
The Lord of the Rings contains several more supporting scenes, and
has a more sophisticated plot structure, following the paths of
Tolkien wrote the later story in much less
humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and
philosophical themes. The differences between the two stories can
cause difficulties when readers, expecting them to be similar, find
that they are not. Many of the thematic and stylistic differences
Tolkien wrote The
Hobbit as a story for children, and
The Lord of the Rings for the same audience, who had subsequently
grown up since its publication. Further, Tolkien's concept of
Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve throughout
his life and writings.
The style and themes of the book have been seen to help stretch young
readers' literacy skills, preparing them to approach the works of
Dickens and Shakespeare . By contrast, offering advanced younger
readers modern teenage-oriented fiction may not exercise their reading
skills, while the material may contain themes more suited to
adolescents. As one of several books that have been recommended for
11- to 14-year-old boys to encourage literacy in that demographic, The
Hobbit is promoted as "the original and still the best fantasy ever
Several teaching guides and books of study notes have been published
to help teachers and students gain the most from the book. The Hobbit
introduces literary concepts, notably allegory , to young readers, as
the work has been seen to have allegorical aspects reflecting the life
and times of the author. Meanwhile, the author himself rejected an
allegorical reading of his work. This tension can help introduce
readers to readerly and writerly interpretations, to tenets of New
Criticism , and critical tools from Freudian analysis, such as
sublimation , in approaching literary works.
Another approach to critique taken in the classroom has been to
propose the insignificance of female characters in the story as
sexist. While Bilbo may be seen as a literary symbol of small folk of
any gender, a gender-conscious approach can help students establish
notions of a "socially symbolic text" where meaning is generated by
tendentious readings of a given work. By this interpretation, it is
ironic that the first authorized adaptation was a stage production in
a girls' school.
Main article: Adaptations of The
Gollum as depicted in
the 1989 comic-book adaptation by
The first authorized adaptation of The
Hobbit appeared in March 1953,
a stage production by St. Margaret\'s School, Edinburgh . The Hobbit
has since been adapted for other media many times.
The first motion picture adaptation of The Hobbit, a 12-minute film
of cartoon stills, was commissioned from
Gene Deitch by William L.
Snyder in 1966, as related by Deitch himself. This film was publicly
screened in New York City. In 1969 (over 30 years after first
Tolkien sold the film and merchandising rights to The
United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum
payment of £10,000 plus a 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to
Allen border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Early American editions of The
* English-language editions of The
Quest of Erebor ", Tolkien's retconned backstory for the
novel published in
* Translations of The
Middle-earth in film
* ^ Eaton, Anne T. (13 March 1938). "A Delightfully Imaginative
Journey". The New York Times.
* ^ Langford, David (2001). "Lord of the Royalties".
SFX magazine .
Retrieved 29 September 2007.
* ^ A B Matthews, Dorothy (1975). "The Psychological Journey of
Bilbo Baggins". A
Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. pp. 27–40.
ISBN 978-0-87548-303-0 .
* ^ Martin, Ann (2006). Red Riding Hood and the Wolf in Bed:
University of Toronto Press . p. 38. ISBN
0-8020-9086-9 . ... —prefigure the bourgeois preoccupations of J. R.
Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit.
* ^ Beetz, Kirk H., ed. (1996). Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular
Fiction Analysis. 8 volume set. Beacham Publishers. p. 1924. ISBN
0-933833-42-3 . At the beginning of The
Bilbo Baggins seems
little more than a conservative but good-natured innocent.
* ^ Bolman, Lee G.; Deal, Terrence E. (2006). The Wizard and the
Warrior: Leading with Passion and Power. John Wiley
stories and wisdom in his itinerant travels throughout the
* ^ Helms, Randel (1981).
Tolkien and the Silmarils (1st ed.).
Houghton Mifflin . p. 86. ISBN 0-395-29469-X . As apt a
Thorin Oakenshield as of the dwarf-lord of Nogrod; but
yet when we see Thorin in person, ... there is a notable addition, a
comic pomposity altogether suitable to what
Tolkien intends in The
* ^ A B Pienciak, Anne (1986). "The Characters". J. R. R.
Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. Barron\'s Educational Series
. pp. 14–30. ISBN 0-8120-3523-2 .
* ^ A B
Tolkien 2003 , p. 120
* ^ Stevens, David; Stevens, Carol (2008). "The Hobbit". In Bloom,
Harold . J. R. R. Tolkien. Chelsea House. pp. 17–26. ISBN
* ^ Oxford Poetry (1915) Blackwells
* ^ Yorkshire Poetry, Leeds, vol. 2, no. 19, October–November
* ^ Rateliff 2007 , pp. xxx–xxxi
* ^ Carpenter 1977 , p. 181
* ^ A B Carpenter 1981 , p. 294
* ^ Carpenter 1977 , p. 184
* ^ Carpenter 1977 , p. 192
* ^ Carpenter 1981 , p. 7
* ^ Rateliff 2007 , p. vol.2 p.485
* ^ Carpenter 1981 , p. 391, quoted by Lobdell 2004 , p. 6
Tolkien 1988 , p. 150
* ^ Lobdell 2004 , pp. 6–7
Tolkien 2003 , pp. 108
* ^ Drout 2007 , pp. 399–400
* ^ Hooker, Mark (2014). The Tolkienaeum: Essays on J.R.R. Tolkien
and his Legendarium. Llyfrawr. pp. 1–12. ISBN 978-1499759105 .
* ^ Lazo, Andrew (2008). "Gathered Round Northern Fires". In
Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader. University
Press of Kentucky . pp. 191–226. ISBN 0-8131-2301-1 .
* ^ A B C D E Sullivan, C. W.; C. W. Sullivan (1996). "High
Fantasy". In Hunt, Peter. International Companion Encyclopedia of
Children's Literature. Taylor & Francis. pp. 309–310. ISBN
* ^ Drout 2007 , pp. 469–479
* ^ Rateliff 2007 , p. vol.2 p.866–871
Tolkien 2003 , pp. 78
* ^ A B Solopova 2009 , pp. 21–22
* ^ A B Fisher, Jason (March 2008). "The History of the Hobbit
(review)". Mythlore (101/102).
* ^ St. Clair 2000 , p. 39. "Unlike the raven servants of the god
of war, Roac is against war with the men of Dale and the Elves.
Further, the birds carry the good news of Smaug's fall over the
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