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The German Ideology
The German Ideology
(German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
around April or early May 1846. Marx and Engels did not find a publisher, but the work was later retrieved and published for the first time in 1932 by David Riazanov through the Marx-Engels Institute
Marx-Engels Institute
in Moscow. The multi-part book consists of many satirically written polemics against Bruno Bauer, other Young Hegelians, and Max Stirner's The Ego and Its Own (1844). Part I, however, is a work of exposition giving the appearance of being the work for which the "Theses on Feuerbach" served as an outline. The work is a restatement of the theory of history Marx was beginning to call the "materialist conception of history". Since its first publication, Marxist scholars have found the work particularly valuable since it is perhaps the most comprehensive statement of Marx's theory of history
Marx's theory of history
stated at such length and detail.

Contents

1 Text 2 General outline 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Text[edit]

The first page of the manuscript (written by Marx)

The text itself was written by Marx and Engels in Brussels in 1845 and 1846 but it was not published until 1932. The Preface and some of the alterations and additions are in Marx's hand. The bulk of the manuscript is in Engels' hand, except for Chapter V of Volume II and some passages of Chapter III of Volume I which are in Joseph Weydemeyer's hand. Chapter V in Volume II was written by Moses Hess and edited by Marx and Engels. The text in German runs to around 700 pages.[1] General outline[edit] Marx and Engels argue that humans distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence; what individuals are coincides with their production in both how and what they produce. The nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production.[2] How far the productive forces of a nation are developed is shown by the degree to which the division of labor has been carried. Also, there is a direct link between division of labor and forms of ownership. The ruling class, in ruling the material force of society, is simultaneously the ruling intellectual force of society. They regulate the production and distribution of ideas of their age. As the ruling class changes with time, so too do the ideals and the new ruling class must instill upon its society its own ideas which will become universal. The ruling ideas are thought to be the universal interest. However, it is an illusion that the ideas of the ruling class are the communal interests.[3] This system will forever remain in place so long as society is organized around the need for a ruling class.[4] To illustrate this theoretical framework, Marx draws on his formulation of base and superstructure. Historical development is the reflection of changes in the economic and material relations of the base. When the base changes, a revolutionary class becomes the new ruling class that forms the superstructure. During revolution, the revolutionary class makes certain that its ideas appeal to humanity in general so that after a successful revolution these ideas appear natural and universal. These ideas, which the super-structural elements of society propagate, then become the governing ideology of the historical period. Furthermore, the governing ideology mystifies the economic relations of society and therefore places the proletariat in a state of false consciousness that serves to reproduce the working class.[5] Morality, religion, metaphysics, all the rest of ideology and their corresponding forms of consciousness no longer retain the semblance of independence; they have no history and no development; but men, developing their material production and their material intercourse, alter, along with their real existence, their thinking and the product of their collective thinking. This approach allows us to cease understanding history as a collection of dead facts or an imagined activity of subjects. See also[edit]

German Idealism The Indian Ideology
The Indian Ideology
and The Californian Ideology, whose titles were inspired by The German Ideology Lumpenproletariat Marxist philosophy Sociology of knowledge Young Hegelians Young Marx

References[edit]

^ Hamilton, Christopher (2003). Understanding Philosophy for AS Level. Nelson Thornes. ^ Marx, Karl. Simon, Lawrence, ed. The German Ideology. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. p. 107.  ^ Marx, Karl. Simon, Lawrence, ed. The German Ideology. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. p. 120.  ^ Karl Marx. "The German Ideology". Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. 653-658. Print. ^ Marx, Karl. “The German Ideology”. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Eds. Julie Riv-kin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 653-8.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The German Ideology

The German Ideology
The German Ideology
(Marxists.org)

v t e

Works by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels

Marx

Capital

Capital, Volume I
Capital, Volume I
(1867) Capital, Volume II
Capital, Volume II
(1885, posthumous) Capital, Volume III
Capital, Volume III
(1894, posthumous)

Other works

Scorpion and Felix
Scorpion and Felix
(1837) Oulanem (1839) The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature (1841) "The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law" (1842) Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
(1843) "On the Jewish Question" (1843) "Notes on James Mill" (1844) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
(1844, published 1927) "Theses on Feuerbach" (1845, published 1888) The Poverty of Philosophy
The Poverty of Philosophy
(1847) "Wage Labour and Capital" (1847) The Class Struggles in France, 1848–1850 (1850) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
(1852) Grundrisse
Grundrisse
(1857, published 1939) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
(1859) Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
(three volumes, 1862) "Value, Price and Profit" (1865) "The Belgian Massacres" (1869) "The Civil War in France" (1871) Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1968)

Marx and Engels

The German Ideology
The German Ideology
(1845, published 1932) The Holy Family (1845) The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(1848) The Civil War in the United States (1861) Marx/Engels Collected Works
Marx/Engels Collected Works
(1975 - 2004) Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe
(1975 - today)

Engels

The Condition of the Working Class in England
The Condition of the Working Class in England
(1845) Principles of Communism
Principles of Communism
(1847) The Peasant War in Germany (1850) "The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man" (1876) Anti-Dühring
Anti-Dühring
(1878) Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880) Dialectics of Nature
Dialectics of Nature
(1883) The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
(1886) Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany
(1896, posthumous)

See also

Marx's notebooks on the history of technology Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

Authority control

.