Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global
performance-management consulting company. Founded by
George Gallup in
1935, the company became known for its public opinion polls conducted
worldwide. It provides research and strategic consulting to large
organizations in many countries, focusing on "analytics and advice
to help leaders and organizations solve their most pressing
Some of Gallup's stated key practice areas are employee engagement,
customer engagement, talent management, and well-being. Gallup has 30
offices in more than 20 countries, employing about 2,000 people in
four divisions: Gallup Poll, Gallup Consulting, Gallup University, and
2 Gallup Poll
2.1 Polling in the United States
2.1.1 Gallup Daily Tracking Methodology
2.2 Gallup World Poll
2.2.1 Gallup World Poll Methodology
3 Gallup Press
4.1 Alleged violations of the
False Claims Act and the Procurement
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
George Gallup (1901-1984), founder of the company in 1935
George Gallup founded the American Institute of Public Opinion, the
precursor of the Gallup Organization, in Princeton, New Jersey, in
1935. He wished to objectively determine the opinions held by the
people. To ensure his independence and objectivity, Gallup resolved
that he would undertake no polling that was paid for or sponsored in
any way by special interest groups such as the Republican and
In 1936, Gallup successfully predicted that
Franklin Roosevelt would
Alfred Landon for the U.S. presidency; this event popularized
the company and made them a leader in American polling. In 1938,
Gallup and Gallup Vice President David Ogilvy began conducting market
research for advertising companies and the film industry. In 1958,
the modern Gallup Organization was formed when
George Gallup grouped
all of his polling operations into one organization.
In 1985, the organization started compiling video games sales charts
in the United Kingdom.
After Gallup's death in 1984, his family sold the firm to Selection
Research, Incorporated (SRI), a research firm headquartered in Omaha,
Nebraska, in 1988. SRI, founded in 1969 by the psychologist Don
Clifton, pioneered the use of talent-based structured psychological
interviews. SRI wanted the Gallup name to use on its polls, which
gave them more credibility and higher response rates. Today the poll
is used to gain visibility.
George Gallup, Jr., established the nonprofit George H. Gallup
Foundation as part of the acquisition agreement. Gallup Jr. died on
November 21, 2011.
Polling in the United States
The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts
public opinion polls. Gallup Poll results, analysis, and videos are
published daily in the form of data-driven news. Conducting polls
brings the company financial losses of about $10 million a year, but
gives Gallup company the visibility of a well-known brand, which helps
promote its corporate research.
Historically, the Gallup Poll has measured and tracked the public's
attitudes concerning political, social, and economic issues, including
sensitive or controversial subjects.
Gallup Daily Tracking Methodology
Gallup Daily tracking is made up of two surveys: the Gallup U.S. Daily
political and economic survey and the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being
Index. For both surveys, Gallup conducts 500 interviews across the
U.S. per day, 350 days out of the year, with 70% on cellphones and 30%
on landlines. Gallup Daily tracking methodology relies on
live interviewers, dual-frame random-digit-dial sampling (which
includes landline as well as cellular telephone phone sampling to
reach those in cell phone-only households), and uses a multi-call
design to reach respondents not contacted on the initial attempt.
The population of the U.S. that relied only on cell phones was 34% in
The findings from Gallup's U.S. surveys are based on the
organization's standard national telephone samples, consisting of
list-assisted random-digit-dial (RDD) telephone samples using a
proportionate, stratified sampling design. A computer randomly
generates the phone numbers Gallup calls from all working phone
exchanges (the first three numbers of your local phone number) and
not-listed phone numbers; thus, Gallup is as likely to call unlisted
phone numbers as well as listed phone numbers.
Within each contacted household reached via landline, an interview is
sought with an adult 18 years of age or older living in the household
who will have the next birthday. Gallup does not use the same
respondent selection procedure when making calls to cell phones
because they are typically associated with one individual rather than
shared among several members of a household. Gallup Daily tracking
includes Spanish-language interviews for Spanish-speaking respondents
and interviews in Alaska and Hawaii.
When respondents to be interviewed are selected at random, every adult
has an equal probability of falling into the sample. The typical
sample size for a Gallup poll, either a traditional stand-alone poll
or one night's interviewing from Gallup's Daily tracking, is 1,000
national adults with a margin of error of ±4 percentage points.
Gallup's Daily tracking process now allows Gallup analysts to
aggregate larger groups of interviews for more detailed subgroup
analysis. But the accuracy of the estimates derived only marginally
improves with larger sample sizes.
After Gallup collects and processes survey data, each respondent is
assigned a weight so that the demographic characteristics of the total
weighted sample of respondents match the latest estimates of the
demographic characteristics of the adult population available from the
Census Bureau. Gallup weights data to census estimates for
gender, race, age, educational attainment, and region.
The data are weighted daily by number of adults in the household and
the respondents' reliance on cell phones, to adjust for any
disproportion in selection probabilities. The data are then weighted
to compensate for nonrandom nonresponse, using targets from the U.S.
Census Bureau for age, region, gender, education, Hispanic ethnicity,
and race. The resulting sample represents an estimated 95% of all U.S.
From 1936 to 2008, Gallup Polls correctly predicted the winner of the
presidential election with the notable exceptions of the 1948 Thomas
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman election, where nearly all pollsters predicted a
Dewey victory (which also led to the infamous Dewey Defeats Truman
headline), and 1976, when they inaccurately projected a slim victory
Gerald Ford over Jimmy Carter. For the 2008 U.S. presidential
election, Gallup correctly predicted the winner, but was rated 17th
out of 23 polling organizations in terms of the precision of its
pre-election polls relative to the final results.
In 2012, Gallup's final election survey had
Mitt Romney at 49% and
Barack Obama at 48%, compared to the final election results showing
Obama with 51.1% to Romney's 47.2%. Poll analyst
Nate Silver found
that Gallup's results were the least accurate of the 23 major polling
firms Silver analyzed, having the highest incorrect average of being
7.2 points away from the final result. Frank Newport, the
editor-in-chief of Gallup, responded to the criticism by stating that
Gallup simply makes an estimate of the national popular vote rather
than predicting the winner and that their final poll was within the
statistical margin of error. Newport also criticized analysts such as
Silver who aggregate and analyze other people's polls, stating that
"It’s much easier, cheaper, and mostly less risky to focus on
aggregating and analyzing others’ polls."
In 2012, poll analyst Mark Blumenthal criticized Gallup for a slight
but routine under-weighting of black and Hispanic Americans that led
to an approximately 2% shift of support away from Barack Obama. At the
same time, Blumenthal commended Gallup for its "admirable commitment
to transparency" and suggested that other polling firms disclose their
raw data and methodologies.
In 2013, the accuracy of Gallup polling on religious faith was
questioned. Gallup's polling on religiosity in the U.S. has
produced results somewhat different from other studies on
religious issues, including a 2012 study by the Pew Research Center,
which found that those who lack a religious affiliation were a
fast-growing demographic group in the U.S.
Gallup World Poll
In 2005, Gallup began its World Poll, which continually surveys
citizens in 160 countries, representing more than 98% of the world's
adult population. The Gallup World Poll consists of more than 100
global questions as well as region-specific items. It includes the
following global indexes: law and order, food and shelter,
institutions and infrastructure, good jobs, wellbeing, and brain gain.
Gallup also works with organizations, cities, governments and
countries to create custom items and indexes to gather information on
specific topics of interest.[non-primary source needed]
Gallup World Poll Methodology
Gallup interviews approximately 1,000 residents per country. The
target population is the entire civilian, non-institutionalized
population, aged 15 and older. Gallup asks each respondent the survey
questions in his or her own language to produce statistically
comparable results. Gallup uses telephone surveys in countries where
telephone coverage represents at least 80% of the population. Where
telephone penetration is less than 80%, Gallup uses face-to-face
Gallup Inc.'s in-house publishing division, Gallup Press, has
published over 30 books on business and personal well being-related
themes, including a number of best sellers. Notable titles include
First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do
Differently, How Full Is Your Bucket?, written by Gallup senior
Tom Rath and his grandfather, Don Clifton, founder of SRI,
Strengths Based Leadership, and Now, Discover Your Strengths, updated
to a new version called StrengthsFinder 2.0, which was Amazon's
bestselling book of 2013. Books are distributed by Simon &
Alleged violations of the
False Claims Act and the Procurement
In July 2013, the
United States Department of Justice announced that
Gallup had agreed to pay $10.5 million to settle allegations that it
False Claims Act and the Procurement Integrity Act for
conduct involving several of its federal government contracts and
subcontracts. The settlement resolved allegations in a complaint filed
United States in November 2012. The complaint alleged that
Gallup knowingly overstated its true estimated labor hours in
proposals to the
U.S. Mint and State Department for contracts and task
orders that were to be awarded without competition. Because of
Gallup’s conduct, the complaint alleged, the two federal agencies
awarded Gallup contracts and task orders at falsely inflated prices.
The settlement also resolved allegations that Gallup engaged in
improper employment negotiations with a then-Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA) official, Timothy Cannon, in order to obtain
a FEMA subcontract at an inflated price and additional FEMA funding
after the subcontract had been awarded. The allegations against Gallup
were originally brought in a lawsuit filed under the whistleblower
provisions of the
False Claims Act by Michael Lindley, Gallup’s
former Director of Client Services. As a result of the settlement with
Gallup, Lindley will receive $1,929,363 as his share of the
government’s recovery. Under the settlement, there was no
prosecution and no determination of liability.
Gallup's most admired man and woman poll
Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century
George H. Gallup House
^ "George H. Gallup, Founder". Gallup. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
^ a b c Boudway, Ira (2012-11-08). "Right or Wrong, Gallup Always
Wins". Businessweek. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
^ Inc., Gallup,. "About Gallup".
^ "Engines of Our Ingenuity No. 1199: Gallup Poll". uh.edu. Retrieved
^ "Corporate History". Gallup. Archived from the original on
2010-01-06. Retrieved 10 Jan 2010.
^ “The Gallup Organization.” Boundless Political Science.
Boundless, 14 Nov. 2014.
^ Archive - Magazine viewer. World of Spectrum. Retrieved on
^ a b Zernike, Kate (2011-11-22). "
George Gallup Jr., of Polling
Family, Dies at 81". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
^ "Gallup's Clifton dies at age 79". Lincoln Journal Star.
George Gallup Jr., of Polling Family, Dies at 81". Washington
^ "Methodology Center". Gallup.com. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
^ "Gallup Daily Tracking Methodology". Gallup. Retrieved
^ CATHERINE RAMPELL (March 5, 2011). "Discovered: The Happiest Man in
America". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
^ Cell Phone Addiction Threatens Polling Industry Archived 2012-10-18
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Public Opinion Polls: How does Gallup Polling Work?". Gallup.com.
^ "How does Gallup Daily tracking work?". Gallup.com. Retrieved
^ "Gallup Daily Tracking Questions". Gallup.com. Retrieved
^ Poll Accuracy in the 2008 Presidential Election (summary) Costas
Panagopoulos, Ph.D. Department of Political Science, Fordham
University, Initial Report, November 5, 2008
^ Romney 49%, Obama 48% in Gallup's Final Election Survey November 5,
^ Silver, Nate (Nov 10, 2012). "Which Polls Fared Best (and Worst) in
the 2012 Presidential Race". The New York Times.
^ Gallup.Com - Polling Matters by Frank Newport: Polling, Likely
Voters, and the Law of the Commons. Pollingmatters.gallup.com
(2012-11-09). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
^ Blumenthal, Mark (June 17, 2012). "Race Matters: Why Gallup Poll
Finds Less Support For President Obama". The Huffington Post.
^ Merica, Dan (January 10, 2013). "Bucking previous trends, survey
finds growth of the religiously unaffiliated slowing". CNN. Retrieved
11 January 2013.
^ "In U.S., Rise in Religious "Nones" Slows in 2012". Gallup. January
^ Newport, Frank (December 24, 2012). "In U.S., 77% Identify as
^ "'Nones' on the Rise".
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center on Religion & Public
Life. October 9, 2012.
^ a b "How does Gallup's global polling work?". Gallup.com. Retrieved
^ "Louis Harris, Pollster at Forefront of American Trends, Dies at
95". Like Elmo Roper and George Gallup, his pioneering predecessors,
Mr. Harris plumbed attitudes with face-to-face interviews, using
carefully worded questions put by trained interviewers to subjects
selected as part of a group that was chosen as demographically
representative of the nation.
^ "Bestselling Books From the Premier Name in Analytics and Advice".
Gallup.com. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
^ "Amazon Best Sellers of 2013". Amazon.com. Retrieved
^ Our Valued Clients
^ Office of Public Affairs (15 July 2013). "The Gallup Organization
Agrees to Pay $10.5 Million to Settle Allegations That It Improperly
Inflated Contract Prices and Engaged in Prohibited Employment
Negotiations with Fema Official".
United States Department of Justice.
Retrieved 16 July 2013.
^ Kendall, Brent; Chaudhuri, Saabira (July 15, 2013). "Gallup Settles
U.S. Disputes Over Billing". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 July
^ Blake, Aaron (July 15, 2013). "Gallup agrees to $10.5 million
settlement with Justice Department". Washington Post. Retrieved 16
Boudway, Ira. "Right or Wrong, Gallup Always Wins, Bloomberg
BusinessWeek Nov. 12, 2012
Cantril, Hadley. Gauging Public Opinion (1944)
Converse, Jean M. Survey Research in the United States: Roots and
Emergence 1890-1960 (1987)
Gallup, George, ed. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935-1971 (3 vol
1972), compilation of reports on thousands of Gallup polls.
Gallup, George. Public Opinion in a Democracy (1939),
Gallup, George. The Sophisticated Poll Watcher's Guide (1972)
Moore, David W. The Superpollsters: How They Measure and Manipulate
Public Opinion in America (1995) online edition
Roll, Jr., Charles W. and Albert H. Cantril; Polls: Their Use and
Politics (1972) online edition
Social survey research
Sampling for surveys
Level of measurement
Exploratory data analysis
American National Election Studies
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems
European Values Study
List of household surveys in the United States
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study
World Values Survey
American Association for Public Opinion Research
European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research
International Statistical Institute
Pew Research Center
World Association for Public Opinion Research