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The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (Die Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, 1899) is a book by British-born Germanophile Houston Stewart Chamberlain. In the book, Chamberlain advances various racialist and especially völkisch antisemitic theories on how he saw the Aryan race
Aryan race
as superior to others, and the Teutonic peoples as a positive force in European civilization and the Jews as a negative one. The book was his best-selling work.

Contents

1 Synopsis 2 Reception 3 Publishing history 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External links

Synopsis[edit] Published in German, the book focuses on the controversial notion that Western civilization is deeply marked by the influence of the Teutonic peoples. Chamberlain grouped all European peoples—not just Germans, but Celts, Slavs, Greeks, and Latins—into the "Aryan race", a race built on the ancient Proto-Indo-European culture. At the helm of the Aryan race, and, indeed, all races, he saw the Nordic or Teutonic peoples.

Certain anthropologists would fain teach us that all races are equally gifted; we point to history and answer: that is a lie! The races of mankind are markedly different in the nature and also in the extent of their gifts, and the Germanic races belong to the most highly gifted group, the group usually termed Aryan... Physically and mentally the Aryans are pre-eminent among all peoples; for that reason they are by right ... the lords of the world. Do we not see the homo syriacus develop just as well and as happily in the position of slave as of master? Do the Chinese not show us another example of the same nature?[2]

Chamberlain's book focused on the claim that the Teutonic peoples were the heirs to the empires of Greece and Rome, something which Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and some of his successors also believed. He argued that when the Germanic tribes destroyed the Roman Empire, Jews and other non-Europeans already dominated it. The Germans, in this scenario, saved Western civilization from Semitic domination. Chamberlain's thoughts were influenced by the writings of Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882), who had argued the superiority of the "Aryan race". This term was increasingly being used to describe Caucasian or European peoples, as opposed to Jews, who were conceptualised[by whom?] as "infusing Near Eastern poison into the European body politic".[citation needed] For Chamberlain the concept of an Aryan race was not simply defined by ethno-linguistic origins. It was also an abstract ideal of a racial élite. The Aryan, or "noble" race was always changing as superior peoples supplanted inferior ones in evolutionary struggles for survival. Building somewhat on the theories of de Gobineau and Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936), Chamberlain developed a relatively complex theory relating racial origins, physical features and cultural traits. According to Chamberlain, the modern Jew (Homo judaeica) mixes some of the features of the Hittite (H. syriaca) – notably the "Jewish nose", retreating chin, great cunning and fondness for usury[3] – and of the true Semite, the Bedouin
Bedouin
Arab (H. arabicus), in particular the dolichocephalic (long and narrow) skull, the thick-set body, and a tendency to be anti-intellectual and destructive.[4] According to this theory, the product of this miscegenation was compromised by the great differences between these two stocks:

All historically great races and nations have been produced by mixing; but wherever the difference of type is too great to be bridged over, then we have mongrels. That is the case here. The crossing between Bedouin
Bedouin
and Syrian was — from an anatomical point of view — probably worse than that between Spaniard and South American Indian.[5]

Chamberlain also considered the Berbers from North Africa as belonging to the Aryan race.

The noble Moor of Spain is anything but a pure Arab of the desert, he is half a Berber (from the Aryan race) and his veins are so full of Gothic blood that even at the present day noble inhabitants of Morocco can trace their descent back to Teutonic ancestors.[6]

Chamberlain (who had graduate training in biology), rejected Darwinism, evolution and social Darwinism
Darwinism
and instead emphasized "gestalt", which (he said) derived from Goethe. Chamberlain regarded Darwinism
Darwinism
as the most abominable and misguided doctrine of the day.[7] Chamberlain used an old biblical notion of the ethnic make up of Galilee
Galilee
to argue that while Jesus
Jesus
may have been Jewish by religion, he was probably not Jewish by race, claiming that he descended from the Amorites.[8] During the inter-war period, certain pro-Nazi theologians[who?] developed these ideas as part of the manufacture of an Aryan Jesus. Chamberlain's admirer Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
held a similar view, as evidenced in his table talk, where he canvassed the idea of Jesus
Jesus
as the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier stationed in Galilee.[9] Reception[edit]

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The Foundations sold extensively: eight editions and 60,000 copies within ten years, 100,000 copies by the outbreak of World War I and 24 editions and more than a quarter of a million copies by 1938.[10] The Russian translation was especially popular and was carried by White Russians all the way to Siberia. The 1911 translation received positive reviews in most of the British press. It was praised in The Spectator
The Spectator
as "a monument of erudition"; the Birmingham Post
Birmingham Post
said that it was "glowing with life, packed with fresh and vigorous thought"; the Glasgow Herald
Glasgow Herald
thought that it would be difficult to "over-estimate the stimulating qualities of the book." In the Times Literary Supplement it was declared to be "one of the books that really mattered". In the left-wing Fabian News George Bernard Shaw called it a "historical masterpiece". Those who failed to read it, he continued, would be unable to talk intelligently about contemporary sociological and political problems. In the U.S., Theodore Roosevelt, altogether more cautious, highlighted the extreme bias of the author, a judgement that seems to have escaped other contemporary readers, but said that Chamberlain "represents an influence to be reckoned with and seriously to be taken into account."[11] The book was important to Wilhelm II, who became Chamberlain's friend (the two held a correspondence), and as a "spiritual" foundation of the Third Reich. Chamberlain's ideas on race were greatly influential to Adolf Hitler, who readily adapted them into his Nazi ideology; Chamberlain himself joined the Nazi party, and both Hitler and Goebbels visited Chamberlain whilst he was on his deathbed. Publishing history[edit] The U.S. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
owns and lists six distinct editions or imprints of this text for the following years: 1911, 1912, 1913 (two), 1968, and 2005. See also[edit]

Antisemitism Kirchenkampf The Myth of the Twentieth Century Positive Christianity Race of Jesus Esoteric Nazism#Collective Aryan unconscious Adolf Hitler's religious views

Notes[edit]

^ " Library of Congress
Library of Congress
LCCN Permalink for a11000252". lccn.loc.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-12.  ^ Foundations. p. 542. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ Foundations. p. 394. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ Foundations. p. 374. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ Foundations. p. 389. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ Foundations. p. 398. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ See Anne Harrington, Reenchanted Science: Holism in German Culture from Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
to Hitler, (Princeton University Press: 1999) online p. 106 ^ and the Jews[permanent dead link] Hans Jonas, reply by Robert Craft, New York Review of Books, 16 April 1981 ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald, ed. (2000). Hitlers' Table Talk, 1941-1944: His Private Conversations. New York City: Enigma Books. p. 82. ISBN 1929631057. Galilee
Galilee
was a colony where the Romans had probably installed Gallic legionaries, and it's certain that Jesus
Jesus
was not a Jew. The Jews, by the way, regarded Him as the son of a whore — of a whore and a Roman soldier.  ^ William L. Shirer
William L. Shirer
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 1959, p.107 of 1985 Bookclub Associates Edition. ^ Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
"History as Literature", 1913, http://www.bartleby.com/56/8.html

External links[edit]

English Text in PDF Format Text in English translation Theodore Roosevelt's review of The Foundation of the 19th Century

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Multiracial

Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed groups

Writers

Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann

Writings

An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
(1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
(1907) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question
(1950)

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