The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
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''The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals'' is
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin ( ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist, and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended ...
's third major work of evolutionary theory, following ''
On the Origin of Species ''On the Origin of Species'' (or, more completely, ''On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life''),The book's full original title was ''On the Origin of Species by Me ...
'' (1859) and ''
The Descent of Man ''The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex'' is a book by English natural history, naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, ...
'' (1871). Initially intended as a chapter in ''The Descent of Man'', ''The Expression'' grew in length and was published separately in 1872. This book concerns the biological aspects of emotional life, and Darwin explores the animal origins of such human characteristics as the lifting of the eyebrows in moments of surprise and the raising of the upper lip in an aggressive sneer. A German translation of ''The Expression'' appeared in 1872; Dutch and French versions followed in 1873 and 1874. A second edition of the book, with only minor alterations, was published in 1890. Since its first publication, ''The Expression'' has never been out of print, but it has also been described as Darwin's "forgotten masterpiece". Before Darwin, human emotional life had posed problems to the western philosophical categories of ''mind'' and ''body''. Darwin's interest can be traced to his time as an Edinburgh medical student and the 1824 edition of Sir Charles Bell's ''Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression'' which argued for a spiritual dimension to the subject. In contrast, Darwin's biological approach links emotions to their origins in animal behaviour, and allows cultural factors only an auxiliary role in the shaping of expression. This biological emphasis leads to a concentration on six emotional states: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. It also leads to an appreciation of the universal nature of expression, with its implication of a single origin for the entire human species; and Darwin points to the importance of emotional communication with children in their psychological development. Darwin sought out the opinions of some leading British psychiatrists, notably James Crichton-Browne, in the preparation of the book which forms his main contribution to
psychology Psychology is the science, scientific study of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts. It is an academic discipline of immens ...
. Amongst the innovations with this book are Darwin's circulation of a
questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument that consists of a set of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents through survey or statistical study. A research questionnaire is typically a mix ...
(probably inspired by his cousin,
Francis Galton Sir Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, FRAI (; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911), was an English Victorian era polymath: a statistician, sociologist, psycholo ...
) during his preparatory research; simple psychology experiments on the recognition of emotions with his friends and family; and (borrowing from Duchenne de Boulogne, a physician at the Salpêtrière) the use of
photography Photography is the visual art, art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It i ...
in his presentation of scientific information. Publisher John Murray warned Darwin that including the photographs would "poke a hole in the profits" of the book; and ''The Expression of the Emotions'' is an important landmark in the history of
book illustration The illustration of manuscript books was well established in ancient times, and the tradition of the illuminated manuscript thrived in the West until the invention of printing. Other parts of the world had comparable traditions, such as the Persi ...
.


The book's development: biographical aspects

Background: In the weeks before Queen Victoria's
coronation A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a coronation crown, crown upon a monarch's head. The term also generally refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the ...
in 1838, Charles Darwin sought medical advice on his mysterious physical symptoms, and then travelled to Scotland for a period of rest and a "geologizing expedition" – but actually spent some of his time re-exploring the old haunts of his undergraduate days. On the day of the coronation, 28 June 1838, Darwin was in
Edinburgh Edinburgh ( ; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is located in Lothian ...
. Two weeks later (15 July 1838), he opened a private notebook with philosophical and psychological speculation – the ''M Notebook'' – and, over the next three months, filled it with his thoughts about possible interactions of hereditary factors with the mental and behavioural aspects of life. It should also be noted that Darwin made his first attempt at autobiography in August 1838. The critical importance of the ''M Notebook'' has often been viewed in relation to Darwin's conception of ''
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, traits characteristic of a populati ...
'' as the central mechanism of evolutionary development, which he fully grasped towards the end of September 1838, after encountering the sixth edition of
Thomas Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13/14 February 1766 – 29 December 1834) was an English cleric, scholar and influential economist in the fields of political economy and demography. In his 1798 book ''An Essay on the Principle of Population'', Malt ...
' ''Essay on Population'' (1826). The ''M notebook'' has a tentative and fragmented quality, especially in Darwin's descriptions of conversation with his father (a successful doctor with a special interest in psychiatric problems) about recurring patterns of behavior in successive generations of his patients' families. Darwin was anxious about the materialistic drift in his thinking – and of the disrepute which this could attract in early Victorian England – at the time, he was mentally preparing for marriage with his cousin Emma Wedgwood who held firm Christian beliefs. On 21 September 1838, Darwin recorded a confused and disturbing dream in which he was involved in a public execution where the corpse came to life and joked about not running away and facing death like a hero. In summary: Darwin put together the central features of his evolutionary theory as he was developing an appreciation of human behavior and family life – and he was in some emotional turmoil. A discussion of the significance of Darwin's notebooks can be found in Paul H. Barrett's ''Metaphysics, Materialism and the Evolution of Mind – Early Writings of Charles Darwin'' (1980). Development of the Text 1866–1872: Very little of Darwin's turmoil surfaced in ''On the Origin of Species'' in 1859, although Chapter 7 contains a mildly expressed argument on instinctive behaviour. In the public management of his evolutionary theory, Darwin understood that its relevance to human emotional life could draw a hostile response. Nevertheless, while preparing the text of '' The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication'' in 1866, Darwin took the decision to publish a book on ''human'' ancestry,
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection in which members of one biological sex mate choice, choose mates of the other sex to mating, mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of t ...
and emotional life. After his initial correspondence with the psychiatrist James Crichton-Browne, Darwin set aside his material concerning emotional expression in order to complete ''
The Descent of Man ''The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex'' is a book by English natural history, naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, ...
'', which covered human ancestry and sexual selection. He finished work on ''The Descent of Man'' on 15 January 1871. Two days later, he started on ''The Expression of the Emotions'' and, working quickly, completed most of the text within four months; progress then slowed because of a recurrence of his symptoms, triggered by an attack from St George Jackson Mivart. However, on 22 August 1872, he finished work on the proofs. In this book, Darwin brings his evolutionary theory into close approximation with behavioural science, although many Darwin scholars have remarked on a kind of spectral
Lamarckism Lamarckism, also known as Lamarckian inheritance or neo-Lamarckism, is the notion that an organism can pass on to its offspring physical characteristics that the parent organism acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime. It is also calle ...
haunting the text of the ''Emotions''. Universal Nature of Expression: Darwin notes the universal nature of expressions in the book, writing: "the young and the old of widely different races, both with man and animals, express the same state of mind by the same movements." This connection of mental states to the neurological organization of movement (as the words ''motive'' and ''emotion'' suggest) is central to Darwin's understanding of emotion. Darwin himself displayed many biographical links between his psychological life and locomotion, taking long, solitary walks around
Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , also ) is a market town, civil parish, and the county town of Shropshire, England, on the River Severn, north-west of London; at the 2021 United Kingdom census, 2021 census, it had a population of 76,782. The town's name can b ...
after his mother's death in 1817, in his seashore rambles near Edinburgh with the Lamarckian evolutionist Robert Edmond Grant in 1826/1827, and in the laying out of the sandwalk, his "thinking path", at Down House in Kent in 1846. These aspects of Darwin's personal life are discussed in
John Bowlby Edward John Mostyn Bowlby, Order of the British Empire, CBE, Fellow of the British Academy, FBA, Royal College of Physicians#Fellowship, FRCP, Royal College of Psychiatrists, FRCPsych (; 26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psy ...
's (1990) psychoanalytic biography of Darwin. Darwin emphasises a shared human and animal
ancestry An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear, is a parent or (Recursion, recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent and so forth). ''Ancestor'' is "any person ...
in sharp contrast to the arguments deployed in Charles Bell's ''Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression'' (1824). Bell claimed that the facial muscles were divinely designed to express uniquely human feelings. Eager to stress the distinction between human and animal communication, Bell wrote: "Expression is to the passions as
language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, and may be conveyed through a variety of met ...
is to thought." In ''The Expression'', Darwin reformulates the issues at play, writing: "The force of language is much aided by the expressive movements of the face and body" - hinting at a neurological intimacy of language with psychomotor function (
body language Body language is a type of communication in which physical behaviors, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. The ...
), and underscoring the social value of expression. Darwin's Sources on Emotional Expression: Darwin had attended a debate about emotional expression at the Plinian Society in December 1826 when he was a medical student at Edinburgh University. This had been prompted by the publication of Sir Charles Bell's ''Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression''; and in his presentation, the
phrenologist Phrenology () is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits.Wihe, J. V. (2002). "Science and Pseudoscience: A Primer in Critical Thinking." In ''Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience'', pp. 195–203. C ...
William A.F. Browne (in a spirited account of Robert Grant's Lamarckist evolutionism) ridiculed Bell's theological explanations, pointing instead to the striking similarities of human and animal biology. The meeting then ended in uproar. Forty-five years later, Darwin revisits these arguments and recruits Duchenne's (1862) unmasking of the facial mechanisms, shifting the argument from philosophical speculation to scientific discourse and highlighting the importance of
facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the Skeletal muscle, muscles beneath the skin of the face. According to one set of controversial theories, these movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Facial ...
. Darwin's response to Bell's natural theology is discussed by Lucy Hartley (2001). In the composition of the book, Darwin drew on worldwide responses to his
questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument that consists of a set of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents through survey or statistical study. A research questionnaire is typically a mix ...
(circulated in the early months of 1867) concerning emotional expression in different ethnic groups; on anthropological memories from his time on ; on conversations with livestock breeders and pigeon fanciers; on observations on his infant son William Erasmus Darwin (''"A Biographical Sketch of an Infant"'' – published in 1877 in the philosophical journal ''Mind''), on his family's dogs and cats, and on the orangutans at
London Zoo London Zoo, also known as ZSL London Zoo or London Zoological Gardens is the world's oldest scientific zoo. It was opened in London on 27 April 1828, and was originally intended to be used as a collection for science, scientific study. In 1831 o ...
; on simple psychology experiments with members of his family concerning the recognition of emotional expression; on the neurological insights of Duchenne de Boulogne, a physician at the Salpêtrière asylum in Paris; on hundreds of photographs of actors, babies and children; and on descriptions of psychiatric patients in the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum at
Wakefield Wakefield is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city in West Yorkshire, England located on the River Calder, West Yorkshire, River Calder. The city had a population of 99,251 in the 2011 Census for England and Wales, 2011 census.htt ...
in West Yorkshire. Darwin corresponded intensively with James Crichton-Browne, the son of the phrenologist William A. F. Browne and now the medical director of the Wakefield asylum. At the time, Crichton-Browne was publishing his extremely influential ''West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports'', and Darwin remarked to him that ''The Expression'' "should be called by Darwin ''and'' Browne". Darwin also drew on his personal experience of the symptoms of
bereavement Grief is the response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or some living thing that has died, to which a Human bonding, bond or affection was formed. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, grief also has ph ...
and studied the text of
Henry Maudsley Henry Maudsley Royal College of Physicians, FRCP (5 February 183523 January 1918) was a pioneering English Psychiatry, psychiatrist, commemorated in the Maudsley Hospital in London and in the annual Maudsley Lecture of the Royal College of Psy ...
's 1870 Gulstonian lectures on ''Body and Mind''. Darwin considered other approaches to the study of emotions, including their depiction in the arts – discussed by the actor Henry Siddons in his ''Practical Illustrations of Rhetorical Gesture and Action'' (1807) and by the anatomist Robert Knox in his ''Manual of Artistic Anatomy'' (1852) – but abandoned them as unreliable, although Shakespearean quotations are scattered through the text. It is notable also that Darwin does not include a discussion of
deception Deception or falsehood is an act or statement that misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea that is not true. It is often done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda and sleight o ...
in his psychology of emotional expression.


Structure

Darwin opens the book with three chapters on "the general principles of expression", introducing the rather Lamarckist phrase ''serviceable associated habits''. With this phrase, Darwin seeks to describe the initially voluntary actions which come together to constitute the complex expressions of emotion. He then invokes a principle of ''antithesis'', through which opposite states of mind induce directly opposing movements. Finally, he discusses a ''direct action of the nervous system'', in which an overflow of emotion is widely discharged, producing more generalised emotional expression. This is followed by a section (three more chapters) on modes of emotional expression peculiar to particular species, including man. He then moves on to the main argument with his characteristic approach of astonishingly widespread and detailed observations. Chapter 7 discusses "low spirits", including
anxiety Anxiety is an emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner wikt:turmoil, turmoil and includes feelings of dread over Anticipation, anticipated events. Anxiety is different than fear in that the former is defined as the anticipa ...
,
grief Grief is the response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or some living thing that has died, to which a Human bonding, bond or affection was formed. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, grief also has ph ...
, dejection and despair; and the contrasting Chapter 8 "high spirits" with joy, love, tender feelings and devotion. In his discussion of "low spirits", Darwin writes: "After the mind has suffered an acute paroxysm of grief, and the cause still continues, we fall into a state of low spirits, or we may be utterly cast down and dejected. Prolonged bodily pain, if not amounting to an agony, generally leads to the same state of mind. If we expect to suffer, we are anxious; if we have no hope of relief, we despair." Subsequent chapters include considerations of "reflection and meditation" (associated with "ill-temper", sulkiness and determination), Chapter 10 on hatred and
anger Anger, also known as wrath or Rage (emotion), rage, is an intense emotional state involving a strong uncomfortable and non-cooperative response to a perceived provocation, hurt or threat. A person experiencing anger will often experience physi ...
, Chapter 11 on "disdain, contempt,
disgust Disgust (Middle French: ''desgouster'', from Latin language, Latin ''gustus'', "taste") is an emotional response of rejection or revulsion to something potentially contagious or something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant. In '' ...
,
guilt Guilt may refer to: *Guilt (emotion) Guilt is a moral emotion that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated universal moral A moral (f ...
,
pride Pride is defined by Merriam-Webster as "reasonable self-esteem" or "confidence and satisfaction in oneself". A healthy amount of pride is good, however, pride sometimes is used interchangeably with "conceit" or "arrogance" (among other words) wh ...
, helplessness,
patience Patience (or forbearance Forbearance, in the context of a Mortgage loan, mortgage process, is a special agreement between the Creditor, lender and the Debtor, borrower to delay a foreclosure. The literal meaning of forbearance is "holding ba ...
and affirmation" and Chapter 12 on " surprise, astonishment,
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion in response to perception, perceiving or recognizing a danger or threat. Fear causes physiological changes that may produce behavioral reactions such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the thr ...
and horror". In his discussion of the emotion of disgust, Darwin notes its close links to the sense of smell, and conjectures an association with excretory products. In Chapter 13, Darwin discusses complex emotional states including self-attention,
shame Shame is an unpleasant self-conscious emotion often associated with negative self-evaluation; motivation to quit; and feelings of pain, exposure, distrust, powerlessness, and worthlessness. Definition Shame is a discrete, basic emotion, d ...
, shyness,
modesty Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others. The word "modesty" comes from the Latin word ''wikt:modestus, modestus'' which means "keeping within ...
and
blushing Blushing is the reddening of a person's face due to psychological Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts. It is a ...
. Darwin describes blushing as "the most peculiar and most human of the expressions". Darwin closes the book with Chapter 14 in which he recapitulates his main argument: he shows how human emotions link mental states with bodily movement, and are genetically determined, deriving from purposeful animal actions. He comments on the implications of the book: a single origin for the entire human species, with universal human expressions; and he stresses the social value of expression, citing the emotional communication between mother and child.


Illustrations

This was one of the first books to be illustrated with photographs – with seven heliotype plates – and the publisher John Murray warned that this "would poke a erriblehole in the profits". The published book assembled illustrations rather like a Victorian family album, with engravings of the Darwin family's domestic pets by the zoological illustrator T. W. Wood as well as work by the artists Briton Rivière, Joseph Wolf and A.D. May. It also included portraits by the Swedish photographer
Oscar Rejlander Oscar Gustave Rejlander (Stockholm Stockholm () is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in Sweden by population, largest city of Sweden as well as the List of urban areas in the Nordic countries, largest urban area in Scan ...
(1813–1875), anatomical diagrams by Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842) and Friedrich Henle (1809–1885), as well as illustrational quotations from the '' Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine'' (1862) by the French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1875). As a result of his domestic psychology experiments, Darwin reduced the number of commonly observed emotions from Duchenne's calculation of more than sixty
facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the Skeletal muscle, muscles beneath the skin of the face. According to one set of controversial theories, these movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Facial ...
s, to just six "core" expressions: anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness and sadness. Darwin received dozens of photographs of psychiatric patients from James Crichton-Browne, but included in the book only one engraving ( photoengraved by James Davis Cooper) based on these illustrations – sent on 6 June 1870 (along with Darwin's copy of Duchenne's ''Mécanisme'') (''Darwin Correspondence Project'': Letter 7220). This was ''Figure 19'', p. 296 – and showed a patient (Crichton-Browne reported) under the care of Dr James Gilchrist at the Southern Counties Asylum (of Scotland), the public wing of the Crichton Royal in Dumfries.


Reception


Contemporary

The review in the January 1873 ''
Quarterly Journal of Science ''Quarterly Journal of Science'' was the title of two British scientific periodicals of the 19th century. The first was established in 1816 by William Thomas Brande William Thomas Brande Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS FRSE (11 January 1788 ...
'' concluded that "although some parts are a little tedious, from the amount of minute detail required, there is throughout so much of acute observation and amusing anecdote as to render it perhaps more attractive to general readers than any of Mr. Darwin's previous work".


Modern

Eric Korn, in the ''
London Review of Books The ''London Review of Books'' (''LRB'') is a British literary magazine published twice monthly that features articles and essays on fiction and non-fiction subjects, which are usually structured as book reviews. History The ''London Review of ...
'', describes how the book was claimed, and he argues subverted, by
Margaret Mead Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American Cultural anthropology, cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and the 1970s. She earned her bachelor ...
and her "sympathisers", and then presented afresh by
Paul Ekman Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He was ranked 59th out of t ...
. Ekman had collected pro-Darwin, anti-Mead evidence, Korn wrote, for the universality of human facial expression of emotions. Darwin, suggests Korn, avoided unsettling the Victorian public by arguing that humans had "animal traits", and instead charmed them by telling stories of "human traits in animals", thus avoiding too much explicit talk of natural selection at work. Darwin preferred to leave the evolutionary implications hanging. Korn points out that the book has never been out of print since 1872, calling into question Ekman's talk of "Darwin's lost masterpiece". The "Editor's notes" at the "Mead Project source page" on the book comment that


Publication

Darwin concluded work on the book with a sense of
relief Relief is a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces are bonded to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:relief, relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impres ...
. The proofs, tackled by his daughter Henrietta ("Ettie") and son Leo, required a major revision which made Darwin "sick of the subject and myself, and the world". ''The Expression'' was published by John Murray on 26 November 1872. It quickly sold around 7,000 copies and was widely praised as a charming and accessible introduction to Darwin's evolutionary theories. A second edition was published by Darwin's son in 1890, without several revisions suggested by Darwin; these were not published until the third edition of 1999 (edited by
Paul Ekman Paul Ekman (born February 15, 1934) is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He was ranked 59th out of t ...
).


Influence

Published as a sequel to ''The Descent of Man'', ''The Expression'' was assured of a wide readership in mid-Victorian England. However, the early death of
George Romanes George John Romanes FRS (20 May 1848 – 23 May 1894) was a Canadian-Scots evolutionary biologist Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolution, evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, spe ...
(1848–1894) robbed Darwin of a powerful advocate in the field of
comparative psychology Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Research in this area addr ...
and his impact on academic psychology was muted, partly because of
Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (; ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology. Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and ...
's dimensional approach to the emotions and the widespread influence of the behaviorist school during the twentieth century. The generous style of biological illustration was followed in work on
animal locomotion Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of methods that animals use to move from one place to another. Some modes of locomotion are (initially) self-propelled, e.g., running, swimming, jumping, flying, hopping, soaring and gliding. ...
by photographer Eadweard
Muybridge Eadweard Muybridge (; 9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion (physics), motion, and early work in motion-picture Movie projector ...
(1830–1904) (leading to
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek κίνημα, ''kìnema'' "movement" and γράφειν, ''gràphein'' "to write") is the art of Film, motion picture (and more recently, electronic video camera) photography. Cinematographers use a lens (o ...
), and by the Scottish naturalist James Bell Pettigrew (1832–1908); in the extensively (and controversially) illustrated works of the evolutionary biologist
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist, natural history, naturalist, eugenics, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist and artist. He discovered, described and ...
; and – to a lesser extent – in
D'Arcy Thompson Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson Order of the Bath, CB Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS FRSE (2 May 1860 – 21 June 1948) was a Scottish biologist, mathematician and classics, classics scholar. He was a pioneer of mathematical and theoretical bi ...
's ''
On Growth and Form ''On Growth and Form'' is a book by the Scottish mathematical biology, mathematical biologist D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860–1948). The book is long – 793 pages in the first edition of 1917, 1116 pages in the second edition of 1942. The ...
'' (1917). Darwin's ideas were followed up in
William James William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an List of American philosophers, American philosopher, historian, and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James is considered to ...
' ''What Is An Emotion ?'' (1884); and, in the James-Lange theory of emotions, James develops Darwin's emphasis on the physical aspects, including the visceral ( autonomically mediated) components of emotion. In
Walter Cannon Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School. He coined the term "fight or flight response", and developed the theory ...
's ''Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage'' (1915), Cannon introduces the famous phrase ''
fight or flight response The fight-or-flight or the fight-flight-or-freeze response (also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival. It was first des ...
'', formulating emotions in terms of strategies for interpersonal behaviour and amplified in groups or crowds (
herd behavior Herd behavior is the behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English) is the range of Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems or Artificial Intelligence, artificial entities in ...
). More recent psychological theories of emotion have been set out in the Papez-Maclean hypothesis, the Two factor theory of emotion ( Schachter and
Singer Singing is the act of creating musical sounds with the voice. A person who sings is called a singer, artist or vocalist (in jazz and/or popular music). Singers perform music (arias, recitatives, songs, etc.) that can be sung accompaniment, wi ...
) and the
Theory of constructed emotion The theory of constructed emotion (formerly the conceptual act model of emotion) is a theory in affective science proposed by Lisa Feldman Barrett to explain the experience and perception of emotion Emotions are mental states brought on ...
. On 24 January 1895, James Crichton-Browne delivered a notable lecture in
Dumfries Dumfries ( ; sco, Dumfries; from gd, Dùn Phris ) is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is located near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth about by road from the ...
, Scotland ''On Emotional Expression'', presenting some of his reservations about Darwin's views. Crichton-Browne argued for a greater role for the higher cortical centres in the regulation of the emotional response, and touches on the theme of
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to femininity and masculinity and differentiating between them. Depending on the context, this may include sex-based social structures (i.e. gender roles) and gender identity. Most cultures us ...
differences in emotional expression, anticipating the approach of sociologist
Norbert Elias Norbert Elias (; 22 June 1897 – 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist who later became a British citizen. He is especially famous for his theory of civilizing/decivilizing processes. Biography Elias was born on 22 June 1897 in Bresla ...
in '' The Civilizing Process''. In 1905, Sir Arthur Mitchell, a psychiatrist who had served as William A.F. Browne's deputy in the Scottish Lunacy Commission, published ''About Dreaming, Laughing and Blushing'', linking some of Darwin's concerns with those of psychoanalysis.
Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating psychopathology, pathologies explained as originatin ...
's early publications on the symptoms of
hysteria Hysteria is a term used colloquially to mean ungovernable emotional excess and can refer to a temporary state of mind or emotion. In the nineteenth century, hysteria was considered a diagnosable physical Female hysteria, illness in women. It ...
(with his influential concept of unconscious emotional conflict) acknowledged debts to Darwin's work on emotional expression and Darwin's impact on
psychoanalysis PsychoanalysisFrom Greek: + . is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a body of knowledge. In what might ...
is discussed in detail by Lucille Ritvo.
John Bowlby Edward John Mostyn Bowlby, Order of the British Empire, CBE, Fellow of the British Academy, FBA, Royal College of Physicians#Fellowship, FRCP, Royal College of Psychiatrists, FRCPsych (; 26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psy ...
makes extensive reference to Darwin's ideas in his presentations of
attachment theory Attachment theory is a psychological, evolutionary and Ethology, ethological theory concerning interpersonal relationship, relationships between humans. The most important tenet is that young children need to develop a relationship with at le ...
. Constitutional (psychosomatic) theories of
personality Personality is the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that are formed from biological and environmental factors, and which change over time. While there is no generally agreed-upon definition of personality, mos ...
were elaborated by neurologist
Paul Schilder Paul Ferdinand Schilder (February 15, 1886, Vienna – December 7, 1940, New York City) was an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and medical researcher. Neurological research work (in both neurophysiology and neuropathology), coupled with an a ...
(1886–1940) with his notion of the
body image Body image is a person's thoughts, feelings and perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body. The concept of body image is used in a number of disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine, psychiatry, psy ...
, by the psychiatrist
Ernst Kretschmer Ernst Kretschmer (8 October 18888 February 1964) was a German psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders. Ps ...
and in the (now largely discredited) somato-typology of W H Sheldon (1898–1977). The biological aspects of the human emotions were further explored by
Desmond Morris Desmond John Morris Linnean Society of London, FLS ''hon. caus.'' (born 24 January 1928) is an English Zoology, zoologist, Ethology, ethologist and Surrealism, surrealist painter, as well as a popular author in human sociobiology. He is known ...
in his (richly illustrated) popular scientific book ''Manwatching'',Morris, Desmond (1978) ''Manwatching: A Field Guide To Human Behaviour'' London: Triad Panther. and recent research has confirmed that while cultural factors are critical in the determination of gesture, genetic factors are crucial to the formation of
facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the Skeletal muscle, muscles beneath the skin of the face. According to one set of controversial theories, these movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Facial ...
. In 2003, the
New York Academy of Sciences The New York Academy of Sciences (originally the Lyceum of Natural History) was founded in January 1817 as the Lyceum of Natural History. It is the fourth oldest scientific societies, scientific society in the United States. An independent, nonp ...
published ''Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years after Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals'', a collection of 37 papers (edited by Paul Ekman) with recent research on the subject.


See also

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Affect display Affect displays are the verbal and non-verbal displays of affect ( emotion). These displays can be through facial expressions, gestures and body language, volume and tone of voice, laughing, crying, etc. Affect displays can be altered or fak ...
*
Body language Body language is a type of communication in which physical behaviors, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. The ...
*
Book illustration The illustration of manuscript books was well established in ancient times, and the tradition of the illuminated manuscript thrived in the West until the invention of printing. Other parts of the world had comparable traditions, such as the Persi ...
*
Charles Darwin's health For much of his adult life, Charles Darwin's health was repeatedly compromised by an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of time. However, in some ways this may have helped his work, and Charles Dar ...
*
Emotion and memory Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memory, autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more ...
*
Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) is most often defined as the ability to perceive, use, understand, manage, and handle emotions. People with high emotional intelligence can recognize their own emotions Emotions are mental states brought on ...
* Emotions in animals * Evolution of emotion *
Facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the Skeletal muscle, muscles beneath the skin of the face. According to one set of controversial theories, these movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Facial ...
*
Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, Posture (psychology), posture, and body language. It includes the use of social cues, kinesi ...
*
Posture (psychology) In humans, posture can provide a significant amount of important information through nonverbal communication. Psychological studies have also demonstrated the effects of body posture on emotions. This research can be traced back to Charles Da ...


References


Sources

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External links

*. *. *. Free e-book versions:
D. Appleton, New York, 1899
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals, The 1872 books Books by Charles Darwin Books about emotions Books about mental health History of mental health in the United Kingdom Books about evolution Neuroscience books English-language books John Murray (publishing house) books