_THE DAILY TELEGRAPH_, commonly referred to simply as _THE
TELEGRAPH_, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published
in London by
Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United
Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by
Arthur B. Sleigh in
1855 as _
The Daily Telegraph
_The Telegraph_ is widely regarded as a national "newspaper of record
" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having
been described by the
The paper had a circulation of 460,054 in December 2016, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, _The Sunday Telegraph_, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 359,287 as of December 2016. _The Daily Telegraph_ has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories. Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's _www.telegraph.co.uk_ website, under the title of _The Telegraph_.
_The Telegraph_ has been the first newspaper to report on a number of
notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal , which
led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which
it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year , and its 2016
undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce
. However, critics, including the paper's former chief political
Peter Oborne , accuse it of being unduly influenced by
* 1 History
* 1.1 Founding and early history * 1.2 1901 to 1945 * 1.3 1946 to 1985 * 1.4 1986 to 2004 * 1.5 2004 to present
* 2 Political stance
* 3 Sister publications
* 3.1 _The Sunday Telegraph_ * 3.2 _The Young Telegraph_
* 3.3 Website
* 3.3.1 History * 3.3.2 My Telegraph
* 4 Notable stories
* 4.1 2009 MP expenses scandal * 4.2 2016 Sam Allardyce investigation
* 5 Awards * 6 Charity and fundraising work
* 7 Criticisms
* 7.1 Accusation of news coverage influence by advertisers * 7.2 Premature obituaries
* 8 Notable people
* 8.1 Editors * 8.2 Notable columnists and journalists
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
FOUNDING AND EARLY HISTORY
The Daily Telegraph
We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action.
However, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the _Daily News _ and _ The Morning Post _, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson , and Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper, and relaunched it as _The Daily Telegraph_, with the slogan "the largest, best, and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
Jules Verne published his novel _
Michael Strogoff _, whose
plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in
1901 TO 1945
In 1937, the newspaper absorbed _
The Morning Post _, which
traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly
amongst the retired officer class. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st
Viscount Camrose, bought _The Morning Post_ with the intention of
publishing it alongside _The Daily Telegraph_, but poor sales of the
former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled
The Daily Telegraph
In November 1940, with
During the Second World War, _The Daily Telegraph_ covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park . The ability to solve _The Telegraph_'s crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after which each of the successful participants was contacted and asked if they would be prepared to undertake "a particular type of work as a contribution to the war effort". The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes.
1946 TO 1985
Both the Camrose (Berry) and Burnham (Levy-Lawson) families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986. On the death of his father in 1954, Seymour Berry, 2nd Viscount Camrose assumed the chairmanship of the _Daily Telegraph_ with his brother Michael Berry, Baron Hartwell as his editor-in-chief. During this period, the company saw the launch of sister paper _The Sunday Telegraph _ in 1960.
1986 TO 2004
Canadian businessman Conrad Black , through companies controlled by him, bought the Telegraph Group in 1986. Black, through his holding company Ravelston Corporation , owned 78% of Hollinger Inc. which in turn owned 30% of Hollinger International . Hollinger International in turn owned the Telegraph Group and other publications such as the _ Chicago Sun-Times _, the _ Jerusalem Post _ and _ The Spectator _.
On 18 January 2004, Black was dismissed as chairman of the Hollinger International board over allegations of financial wrongdoing. Black was also sued by the company. Later that day it was reported that the Barclay brothers had agreed to purchase Black's 78% interest in Hollinger Inc. for £ 245m, giving them a controlling interest in the company, and to buy out the minority shareholders later. However, a lawsuit was filed by the Hollinger International board to try to block Black from selling his shares in Hollinger Inc. until an investigation into his dealings was completed. Black filed a countersuit but, eventually, United States judge Leo Strine sided with the Hollinger International board and blocked Black from selling his Hollinger Inc. shares to the twins.
On 7 March 2004, the twins announced that they were launching another bid, this time just for _The Daily Telegraph_ and its Sunday sister paper rather than all of Hollinger Inc. Current owner of the _Daily Express _, Richard Desmond , was also interested in purchasing the paper, selling his interest in several pornographic magazines to finance the initiative. Desmond withdrew in March 2004, when the price climbed above £600m, as did Daily Mail and General Trust plc a few months later on 17 June.
2004 TO PRESENT
In November 2004, _The Telegraph_ celebrated the tenth anniversary of
its website, _Electronic Telegraph_, now re-launched as
_www.telegraph.co.uk_. The _Electronic Telegraph_ launched in 1995
The Daily Telegraph
On 10 October 2005, _The Daily Telegraph_ relaunched to incorporate a
tabloid sports section and a new standalone business section. _The
In October 2006, with its relocation to Victoria, the company was
renamed the Telegraph Media Group, repositioning itself as a
multimedia company. On 2 September 2008, the _Daily Telegraph_ was
printed with colour on each page for the first time when it left
Westferry for Newsprinters at
In June 2014, The Telegraph was criticised by _ Private Eye _ for its policy of replacing experienced journalists and news managers with less-experienced staff and search engine optimisers . On 10 September 2014, the Telegraph Media Group advertised in the _Daily Telegraph_ for a new Head of Interactive Journalism stating candidates should "have demonstrable interest in news and journalism (previous newsroom experience is not needed however)".
_The Daily Telegraph_ has been politically conservative in modern
times. The personal links between the paper's editors and the
leadership of the Conservative Party , along with the paper's
generally right-wing stance and influence over Conservative activists,
have resulted in the paper commonly being referred to, especially in
Private Eye _, as the _Torygraph_. Even when Conservative support
was shown to have slumped in the opinion polls and Labour gained the
ascendant (particularly when leader
Barclay brothers purchased the
Telegraph Group for around
£665m in late June 2004, Sir David Barclay suggested that _The Daily
Telegraph_ might no longer be the "house newspaper" of the
Conservatives in the future. In an interview with _
During the 2014 Scottish Independence Referendum the paper supported the Better Together 'No' Campaign. Alex Salmond , the former leader of the SNP, called _The Telegraph_ "extreme" on _Question Time _ in September 2015.
_THE SUNDAY TELEGRAPH_
Main article: The Sunday Telegraph
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_The Daily Telegraph_'s sister Sunday paper was founded in 1961. The writer Sir Peregrine Worsthorne is probably the best known journalist associated with the title (1961–97), eventually being editor for three years from 1986. In 1989 the Sunday title was briefly merged into a seven-day operation under Max Hastings 's overall control. In 2005 the paper was revamped, with Stella being added to the more traditional television and radio section. It costs £2.00 and includes separate Money, Living, Sport and Business supplements. Circulation of _The Sunday Telegraph_ in July 2010 was 505,214 (ABC)
_THE YOUNG TELEGRAPH_
_The Young Telegraph_ was a weekly section of _The Daily Telegraph_ published as a 14-page supplement in the weekend edition of the newspaper. _The Young Telegraph_ featured a mixture of news, features, cartoon strips and product reviews aimed at 8–12-year-olds. It was edited by Damien Kelleher (1993–97) and Kitty Melrose (1997–1999). Launched in 1990, the award-winning supplement also ran original serialised stories featuring popular brands such as _Young Indiana Jones_ and the British children's sitcom _Maid Marian and Her Merry Men _.
In 1995, an interactive spin-off called _Electronic Young Telegraph_ was launched on floppy disk. Described as an interactive computer magazine for children, _Electronic Young Telegraph_ was edited by Adam Tanswell, who led the relaunch of the product on CD-Rom in 1998. _Electronic Young Telegraph_ featured original content including interactive quizzes, informative features and computer games, as well as entertainment news and reviews. It was later re-branded as _T:Drive_ in 1999.
Telegraph.co.uk is the online version of the newspaper. It uses banner title _The Telegraph_ and includes articles from the print editions of _The Daily Telegraph_ and _The Sunday Telegraph_, as well as web-only content such as breaking news, features, picture galleries and blogs. It was named UK Consumer Website of the Year in 2007 and Digital Publisher of the year in 2009 by the Association of Online Publishers. The site is overseen by Kate Day, digital director of Telegraph Media Group. Other staff include Shane Richmond, head of technology (editorial), and Ian Douglas, head of digital production. The site, which has been the focus of the group's efforts to create an integrated news operation producing content for print and online from the same newsroom, completed a relaunch during 2008 involving the use of the Escenic content management system, popular among northern European and Scandinavian newspaper groups. Telegraph TV is a Video on Demand service run by _The Daily Telegraph_ and the _Sunday Telegraph_. It is hosted on _The Telegraph_'s website, telegraph.co.uk.
Telegraph.co.uk became the most popular UK newspaper site in April 2008. It was overtaken by Guardian.co.uk in April 2009 and later by "Mail Online". As of December 2010, "Telegraph.co.uk" is now the third most visited British newspaper website with 1.7 million daily browsers compared to 2.3 million for "Guardian.co.uk" and nearly 3 million for "Mail Online".
In November 2012, international customers accessing the Telegraph.co.uk site would have to sign up for a subscription package. Visitors had access to 20 free articles a month before having to subscribe for unlimited access. In March 2013 the pay meter system was also rolled out in the UK.
The website was launched, under the name _electronic telegraph_ at midday on 15 November 1994 at the headquarters of _The Daily Telegraph_ at Canary Wharf in London Docklands . It was Europe's first daily web-based newspaper. At this time, the modern internet was still in its infancy, with as few as 10,000 websites estimated to have existed at the time – compared to more than 100 billion by 2009. In 1994, only around 1% of the British population (some 600,000 people) had internet access at home, compared to more than 80% in 2009.
Initially the site published only the top stories from the print edition of the newspaper but it gradually increased its coverage until virtually all of the newspaper was carried online and the website was also publishing original material. The website, hosted on a Sun Microsystems Sparc 20 server and connected via a 64 kbit/s leased line from Demon Internet , was edited by Ben Rooney . Key personnel behind the launch of the site were Matthew Doull and Saul Klein and the then marketing manager of _The Daily Telegraph_, Hugo Drayton, and the webmaster Fiona Carter. Drayton later became managing director of the newspaper.
An early coup for the site was the publication of articles by Ambrose
_My Telegraph_ offers a platform for readers to have their own blog, save articles, and network with other readers. Launched in May 2007, My Telegraph won a Cross Media Award from international newspaper organisation IFRA in October 2007. One of the judges, Robert Cauthorn , described the project as "the best deployment of blogging yet seen in any newspaper anywhere in the world".
In December 2010 _Telegraph_ reporters posing as constituents
secretly recorded Business Secretary
Vince Cable . In an undisclosed
part of the transcript given to the
In May 2011 the Press Complaints Commission upheld a complaint regarding _The Telegraph_'s use of subterfuge: "On this occasion, the commission was not convinced that the public interest was such as to justify proportionately this level of subterfuge." In July 2011 a firm of private investigators hired by _The Telegraph_ to track the source of the leak concluded "strong suspicion" that two former Telegraph employees who had moved to News International , one of them Will Lewis , had gained access to the transcript and audio files and leaked them to Peston.
2009 MP EXPENSES SCANDAL
In May 2009, _The Daily Telegraph_ obtained a full copy of all the expenses claims of British Members of Parliament . The _Telegraph_ began publishing, in instalments from 8 May 2009, certain MPs' expenses.
The _Telegraph_ justified the publication of the information because it contended that the official information due to be released would have omitted key information about redesignating of second-home nominations. This led to a number of high-profile resignations from both the ruling Labour administration and the Conservative opposition.
2016 SAM ALLARDYCE INVESTIGATION
In September 2016 _Telegraph_ reporters posing as businessmen filmed England manager Sam Allardyce , offering to give advice on how to get around on FA rules on player third party ownership and negotiating a £400,000 deal. The investigation saw Allardyce leave his job by mutual consent on 27 September and making the statement "entrapment has won".
_The Daily Telegraph_ has been named the _National Newspaper of the Year _ in 2009, 1996 and 1993, while _The Sunday Telegraph_ won the same award in 1999.
Its investigation on the 2009 expenses scandal was named the "Scoop
of the Year" in 2009, with William Lewis winning "Journalist of the
Year". The _Telegraph_ won "Team of the Year" in 2004 for its
coverage of the
CHARITY AND FUNDRAISING WORK
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In 1979, following a letter in _The Daily Telegraph_ and a Government report highlighting the shortfall in care available for premature babies, Bliss , the special care baby charity, was founded. In 2009, as part of the Bliss 30th birthday celebrations, the charity was chosen as one of four beneficiaries of the newspaper's Christmas Charity Appeal. In February 2010 a cheque was presented to Bliss for £120,000.
The newspaper runs a charity appeal every Christmas, choosing different charities each year. In 2009, £1.2 million was raised.
ACCUSATION OF NEWS COVERAGE INFLUENCE BY ADVERTISERS
In July 2014, the _Daily Telegraph_ was criticised for carrying links on its website to pro-Kremlin articles supplied by a Russian state-funded publication that downplayed any Russian involvement in the downing of the passenger jet Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 . These had featured on its website as part of a commercial deal, but were later removed. The paper is paid £900,000 a year to include the supplement _ Russia Beyond the Headlines _, a publication sponsored by the _ Rossiyskaya Gazeta _, the Russian government's official newspaper. It is paid a further £750,000 a year for a similar arrangement with the Chinese state in relation to the pro-Beijing _China Watch_ supplement.
In February 2015 the chief political commentator of the _Daily
Peter Oborne resigned. Oborne accused the paper of a "form
of fraud on its readers" for its coverage of the bank
Oborne cited other instances of advertising strategy influencing the
content of articles, linking the refusal to take an editorial stance
on the repression of democratic demonstrations in Hong Kong to the
Telegraph's support from China. Additionally, he said that favourable
reviews of the
In January 2017 the Telegraph Media Group had a higher number of upheld complaints than any other UK newspaper by its regulator IPSO. Most of these findings pertained to inaccuracy, as with other UK tabloids.
The paper has published premature obituaries for Cockie Hoogterp, the second wife of Baron Blixen , Dave Swarbrick in 1999, and Dorothy Southworth Ritter , the widow of Tex Ritter and mother of John Ritter , in August 2001.
Thornton Leigh Hunt 1855 to 1873
John le Sage 1888 to 1923
Fred Miller 1923 to 1924
Arthur Watson 1924 to 1950
Colin Coote 1950 to 1964
Maurice Green 1964 to 1974
Bill Deedes 1974 to 1986
Max Hastings 1986 to 1995
Charles Moore 1995 to 2003
Martin Newland 2003 to 2005
John A. Bryant 2005 to 2007
William Lewis 2007 to 2009
Tony Gallagher 2009 to 2013
Jason Seiken 2013 to 2014
Chris Evans 2014 to Present
NOTABLE COLUMNISTS AND JOURNALISTS
* Boris Johnson , Brussels correspondent * Katharine Birbalsingh , columnist * Roger Highfield , former science editor * Herbert Hughes , music critic, 1911–1932 * Anthony Loyd , one-time war correspondent * J. H. B. Peel , columnist * Serena Sinclair , former fashion editor * Mark Steyn , former columnist * Auberon Waugh , a previous columnist * Peter Simple , the pseudonym of Michael Wharton, who wrote a humorous column, "Way of the World", from 1957 to 2006. * Robbie Collin , film critic
* Journalism portal * Conservatism portal
* ^ Fred McConnell (21 January 2014). " Tony Gallagher exits as Daily Telegraph editor Media". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
* ^ General Election 2015 explained: Newspapers
Published 28 April 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
"The UK\'s \'other paper of record\'".
* ^ "Daily Telegraph unveils full-colour redesign". _Press Gazette
_. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
* ^ _Private Eye_, Issue 1369, 27 June – 10 July 2014, pg. 7.
* ^ _Daily Telegraph_ (September 2014). "Head of Interactive
Journalism", _The Daily Telegraph_, 10 September 2014. Retrieved 2
* ^ _A_ _B_ Curtis, Bryan (25 October 2006). "Strange days at the
Daily Telegraph". _Slate_. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
* ^ Booker, Christopher (27 December 2014). "The insecure Scots
have turned in on themselves and against us". _The Daily Telegraph_.
Retrieved 31 December 2014.
* ^ Anderson, Bruce (27 December 2014). "England must be resolute
and save the Scots from self-destruction". _The Daily Telegraph_.
Retrieved 31 December 2014.
* ^ Hodges, Dan (16 December 2014). "England won\'t put up with
Scotlands behaviour for long". _The Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 31
* ^ McTernan, John (30 August 2011). "Tell the Truth