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THE CENOTAPH is a war memorial on Whitehall
Whitehall
in London, England. Its origin is in a temporary structure erected for a peace parade following the end of the First World War and after an outpouring of national sentiment it was replaced in 1920 by a permanent structure and designated the United Kingdom's official national war memorial.

Designed by Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
, the permanent structure was built from Portland stone
Portland stone
between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen "> Paris Victory Parade of 14 July 1919 and the temporary catafalque (right) by the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
(left).

The first cenotaph was a wood-and-plaster structure designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
and erected in 1919. It was one of a number of temporary structures erected for the London
London
Victory Parade (also called the Peace Day Parade) on 19 July 1919. It marked the formal end of the First World War that had taken place with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
on 28 June 1919. As one of a series of temporary wooden monuments constructed along the route of the parade, Whitehall's was not proposed until two weeks before the event. Following deliberations by the Peace Celebrations Committee, Lutyens was invited to Downing Street
Downing Street
. There, the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
, proposed that the monument should be a catafalque , like the one intended for the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
in Paris for the corresponding Victory Parade in France, but Lutyens proposed instead that the design be based on a cenotaph .

The temporary wood-and-plaster structure had the same shape as the later permanent stone structure, and consisted of a pylon that rose in a series of set-backs to the empty tomb (cenotaph) on its summit. The wreaths at each end and on top were made from laurel rather than the later carved stone sculptures. The location chosen along the parade route along Whitehall
Whitehall
was between the Foreign Office and Richmond House . The unveiling (described in The Times as 'quiet' and 'unofficial') took place the day before the Victory Parade. During the parade, those saluting the temporary cenotaph included the allied commanders John Pershing
John Pershing
, Ferdinand Foch
Ferdinand Foch
, Douglas Haig and David Beatty . For some time after the parade, the base of the memorial was covered with flowers and wreaths by members of the public. Pressure mounted to retain it, and the British War Cabinet
War Cabinet
decided on 30 July 1919 that a permanent memorial should replace the wooden version and be designated Britain's official national war memorial. The announcement was made on 23 October 1919 that the Portland stone version would be a "replica exact in every detail in permanent material of present temporary structure".

DESIGN

Lutyens had first heard the term "cenotaph" in connection with Munstead Wood , the house he designed for Gertrude Jekyll
Gertrude Jekyll
in the 1890s. He designed a garden bench seat there, consisting of a large rectangular block of elm set on stone, which acquired the name " Cenotaph
Cenotaph
of Sigismunda" at the suggestion of their friend Charles Liddell, a librarian at the British Museum
British Museum
.

Whitehall's Cenotaph
Cenotaph
was constructed from Portland stone
Portland stone
between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen and 1919 – MCMXIX). The wreaths at each end are 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter, while the one on top is 3.6 feet (1.1 m) in diameter.

Its sides are not parallel, but if extended would meet at a point about 300 metres (980 ft) above the ground. Similarly, the "horizontal" surfaces are sections of a sphere whose centre would be 900 feet (270 m) below ground. This element of the design, called entasis , was not present in the temporary structure and was added by Lutyens as a refinement when designing the permanent structure. It is 35 feet (11 m) tall and weighs 120 tonnes (120,000 kg).

The architects waived their fee for designing the cenotaph, meaning that it cost £7,325 to build, a sum equivalent to £255,332 when adjusted by inflation in 2010. Construction began on 19 January 1920, and the original flags were sent to the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
.

UNVEILING

The unveiling ceremony on 11 November 1920.

The memorial was unveiled by King George V
George V
on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War . It was decided not to dedicate the memorial, as not all the dead it commemorates are Christian
Christian
. The unveiling ceremony was part of a larger procession bringing the Unknown Warrior to be laid to rest in his tomb nearby in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
. The funeral procession route passed the Cenotaph, where the waiting King laid a wreath on the Unknown Warrior's gun-carriage before proceeding to unveil the memorial which was draped in large Union Flags .

FLAGS

The White Ensign
White Ensign
, Union Flag
Union Flag
, and Blue Ensign
Blue Ensign
on the Cenotaph.

The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
is flanked on each side by flags of the United Kingdom which Lutyens had wanted to be carved in stone. Although he was overruled and cloth flags were used, his Rochdale
Rochdale
cenotaph (unveiled 26 November 1922) has stone flags. In the years following 1919, the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
displayed a Union Flag
Union Flag
, a White Ensign
White Ensign
and a Red Ensign
Red Ensign
on one side and a Union Flag, a White Ensign, and a Blue Ensign
Blue Ensign
on the other side. On 1 April 1943, an RAF Ensign was substituted for the White Ensign
White Ensign
on the west side. The flags displayed as of 2007 represent the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
, the British Army
British Army
, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and the Merchant Navy . The Blue Ensign
Blue Ensign
represents the Royal Naval Reserve , the Royal Fleet Auxiliary , and other government services; it is possible that it was also intended to represent Dominion
Dominion
forces.

Initially the flags were changed for cleaning every six to eight weeks, but between 1922 and 1923 the practice gradually stopped until letters to the media led to its reintroduction. The initial lifespan of a flag was set at five periods of three months. By 1939, they were changed ten times a year, each flag washed twice before being disposed of. By 1924, it was decided that all discarded flags would be sent to the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
who could redistribute them to properly accredited organisations.

LATER HISTORY

Whitehall, along with other areas of London, was the scene of celebrations on 8 May 1945 when victory in Europe was declared in the Second World War
Second World War
. More formal processions past the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
took place during the London
London
Victory Celebrations on 8 June 1946. The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
had been designed to commemorate the British Empire
British Empire
military dead of the First World War, but this was later extended to include those that died in the Second World War. The dates of the Second World War were added in Roman numerals on the sides of the memorial (1939—MCMXXXIX; and 1945—MCMXLV), and the memorial was unveiled for a second time on Sunday 10 November 1946 by King George VI . The memorial is now also used to remember the dead of later wars in which British servicemen and servicewomen have fought. The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
was designated a Grade I listed building on 5 February 1970.

REMEMBRANCE SERVICES

Wreaths being laid at the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
during the Remembrance Sunday service in 2010.

The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
is the site of the annual National Service of Remembrance held at 11:00 am on Remembrance Sunday
Remembrance Sunday
, the closest Sunday to 11 November ( Armistice Day ). From 1919 until 1945, the remembrance service was held on Armistice Day, but since 1945 it has been held on Remembrance Sunday. Uniformed service personnel (excluding fire and ambulance personnel) salute the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
as they pass.

Although the Armistice Day ceremony fell away during the Second World War, in recent years the tradition of holding a ceremony at the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
at 11am on 11 November has been reinstated by The Western Front Association , a UK-based charity dedicated to perpetuating the memory of those who served in the First World War.

The first such modern ceremony was held on 11 November 1919, following a suggestion by King George V
George V
for a two-minute silence across the United Kingdom and a ceremony to take place in London. Thousands had gathered around the wood-and-plaster Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in Whitehall, where Prime Minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
walked from Downing Street to place a wreath. A wreath was also laid by a representative of the French President
French President
, and soldiers and sailors provided a guard of honour . There were also processions past the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
organised by veterans' associations.

Annual remembrance services also take place at the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
on other days of the year. These include the regimental parade held by the Royal Tank Regiment
Royal Tank Regiment
on the Sunday following Remembrance Sunday. This is the closest to Cambrai Day (20 November), the anniversary of the Battle of Cambrai that was one of the earliest deployments of British tanks. An annual parade and service is also held by the Combined Irish Regiments Association to commemorate the war dead of the Irish regiments that were disbanded on 12 June 1922 after the First World War. This parade is now held on the Sunday in June that follows the Queen's Birthday Parade. The Belgian Parade at the Cenotaph
Cenotaph
has taken place yearly since 1934 on the Sunday preceding the Belgian National Day (21 July). Belgium is the only nation that is allowed to parade its troops in uniform and carrying arms in central London.

OTHER CENOTAPHS

Main article: Cenotaph
Cenotaph
Remembrance Day
Remembrance Day
parade, at the Cenotaph in the City of Hamilton , Bermuda
Bermuda
, 1990.

Lutyens' first cenotaph design was for The Cenotaph, Southampton (unveiled 6 November 1920). The temporary Whitehall
Whitehall
Cenotaph (unofficial unveiling on 18 July 1919) was followed by the permanent Whitehall
Whitehall
Cenotaph
Cenotaph
(unveiled 11 November 1920). Lutyens' Whitehall Cenotaph
Cenotaph
design was used in the construction of other war memorials in the UK and in the British Empire. Two smaller versions that included several additions and differences were built as regimental memorials, the Queen\'s Own Royal West Kent Regiment Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in Maidstone, Kent, and the Royal Berkshire Regiment War Memorial in Reading, Berkshire. These were unveiled on 30 July 1921 and 13 September 1921 respectively. The Midland Railway War Memorial , Derby, was unveiled on 15 December 1921. The Middlesbrough cenotaph , derived from Lutyens' design, was unveiled on 11 November 1922. The Rochdale Cenotaph
Cenotaph
was unveiled on 26 November 1922. The Hong Kong cenotaph , an almost exact replica, was unveiled in 1923 between the Statue Square and the City Hall in Hong Kong. The Manchester Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in Manchester, England (also the work of Lutyens), was unveiled on 12 July 1924 and has similarities and differences. The Welch Regimental War Memorial , in the form of a Lutyens 'Whitehall' cenotaph, was unveiled at Maindy Barracks , Cardiff, on 11 November 1924. The Toronto Cenotaph
Cenotaph
was unveiled on 11 November 1925 and is modelled on Whitehall's design. A two-thirds scale copy was unveiled in Hamilton , Bermuda, on 6 May 1925. A close copy of the Whitehall
Whitehall
Cenotaph
Cenotaph
was unveiled in November 1929 in Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand. An exact replica stands in London, Ontario
London, Ontario
, Canada, and was unveiled on 11 November 1934.

REPLICA OR SIMILAR CENOTAPHS

*

Hong Kong Cenotaph
Cenotaph
, Hong Kong *

Auckland
Auckland
Cenotaph
Cenotaph
, New Zealand *

London
London
Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in London, Ontario
London, Ontario
, Canada

OTHER CENOTAPH DESIGNS BY LUTYENS IN THE UK

*

Southampton Cenotaph
Cenotaph
*

Queen\'s Own Royal West Kent Regiment Cenotaph
Cenotaph
, Maidstone *

Midland Railway War Memorial , Derby *

Rochdale
Rochdale
Cenotaph
Cenotaph
*

Manchester Cenotaph
Cenotaph
*

Welch Regimental War Memorial at Maindy Barracks , Cardiff
Cardiff

SEE ALSO

* Grade I listed buildings in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
* Grade I listed war memorials in England * World War I
World War I
memorials

REFERENCES

* ^ Lancaster, G.B. (31 October 1919). "The Glorious Dead". Ashburton Guardian. XL (9146). p. 7. Retrieved 2011-07-03. * ^ A B C D "BBC – Remembrance – Cenotaph". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2011. * ^ A B Allan Greenberg. "Lutyens's Cenotaph". 48. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians: 5–23. JSTOR 990403 . * ^ A B C Gliddon, Gerard; Skelton, Timothy John (2008). "Southampton and London: A Tale of Two Cenotaphs". Lutyens and the Great War. London: Frances Lincoln. pp. 36–47. ISBN 978-0-7112-2878-8 . * ^ A B C D E F G H "Flags on the Cenotaph" (PDF). The Flag Institute. Retrieved 2011-07-03. * ^ Massingham, Betty (1966). Miss Jekyll: Portrait of a Great Gardener. London: Country Life . pp. 140–142. * ^ Holland and Hannen and Cubitts Ltd. (1920). Cubitts: its inception and development. London: Holland & Hannen and Cubitts Ltd. p. 10. * ^ " Whitehall
Whitehall
Cenotaph". MSN Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. * ^ " Inflation
Inflation
Calculator". Bank of England. Retrieved 2011-07-03. * ^ "The Unknown Warrior". BBC History. Retrieved 2011-07-03. * ^ Hornby, Martin (2008-07-07). The Burial of the Unknown Warrior. Martin Hornby, The Western Front Association, 7 July 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2011-07-25 from http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/memorials/400-burial-unkown.html. * ^ Historic England
Historic England
. "The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
(1357354)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 2011-07-11. * ^ "The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in Whitehall". RAF Habbaniya Association. Retrieved 2011-07-03. * ^ The Western Front Association * ^ "All London
London
Silent at Armistice Hour". The New York Times. 12 November 1919. * ^ Regimental Church and Collect, The Royal Tank Regiment Association, accessed 5 October 2011 * ^ Regimental Day, The Royal Tank Regiment
Royal Tank Regiment
Association, accessed 5 October 2011 * ^ The history of the Association, Combined Irish Regiments Old Comrades Association, accessed 5 October 2011 * ^ The history of the Association – today, Combined Irish Regiments Old Comrades Association, accessed 5 October 2011 * ^ "80th Belgian Cenotaph
Cenotaph
Parade". Retrieved 1 February 2017. * ^ Historic England
Historic England
. "The Queen\'s Own Royal West Kent Regiment Cenotaph
Cenotaph
(1086395)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 6 August 2016. * ^ Historic England
Historic England
. "The Royal Berkshire Regiment Cenotaph (1321912)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 6 August 2016. * ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus (1966). Yorkshire: The North Riding. p. 252. * ^ "North Yorkshire War Memorials – Middlesbrough". The Yorkshire Regiment – First World War Remembrance. Retrieved 3 November 2013. * ^ "Brief Information on Proposed Grade 1 Items" (PDF). Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong. Retrieved 3 July 2011.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* 'The Story of the Cenotaph' by Eric Homberger, in The Times Literary Supplement, 12 November 1976 * Acco