The Catcher in the
Rye is a 1951 novel by J. D. Salinger. A classic
novel originally published for adults, it has since become popular
with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage angst and
alienation. It has been translated into almost all of the
world's major languages. Around 1 million copies are sold each year
with total sales of more than 65 million books. The novel's
Holden Caulfield has become an icon for teenage
rebellion. The novel also deals with complex issues of innocence,
identity, belonging, loss, and connection.
The novel was included on Time's 2005 list of the 100 best
English-language novels written since 1923 and it was named by
Modern Library and its readers as one of the 100 best English-language
novels of the 20th century. In 2003, it was listed at #15
on the BBC's survey The Big Read.
3 Writing style
Censorship and use in schools
7 Shooters citing the book as an influence
8 Attempted adaptations
8.1 In film
8.2 Banned fan fiction
9 Cultural influence
10 See also
11.3 Further reading
12 External links
Holden Caulfield, a teenager from New York City, is living in an
unspecified institution in southern California near
Hollywood in 1951.
Caulfield intends to live with his brother D.B, an author and World
War II veteran whom Holden resents for becoming a screenwriter, after
his release in one month. As he waits, Holden recalls the events of
the previous Christmas.
Holden begins his story at Pencey Preparatory Academy, an exclusive
boarding school in Agerstown, Pennsylvania, on the Saturday afternoon
of the traditional football game with a rival school. Holden has been
expelled from Pencey due to poor work and is not to return after
Christmas break, which begins the following Wednesday. He plans to
return home on that day so that he will not be present when his
parents receive notice of his expulsion. After forfeiting a fencing
match in New York by forgetting the equipment aboard the subway, he is
invited to the home of his history teacher, Mr. Spencer. Spencer is a
well-meaning but long-winded old man. Spencer greets him and offers
him advice, but embarrasses Holden by further criticizing Holden's
work in his subject in a rude manner.
Holden returns to his dorm wearing the new red hunting cap he bought
in New York. His dorm neighbor Robert Ackley is one of the few
students also missing the game. Ackley, unpopular among his peers,
disturbs Holden with his impolite questioning and mannerisms. Holden,
who feels sorry for Ackley, tolerates his presence. Later, Holden
agrees to write an English composition for his roommate, Ward
Stradlater, who is leaving for a date. However, Holden is distressed
to learn that Stradlater's date is an old friend, Jane Gallagher, whom
Holden had romantic feelings for and feels protective of. That night,
Holden decides to go to a
Cary Grant comedy with his best friend Mal
Brossard and Ackley. Since Ackley and Mal had already seen the film,
they end up just playing pinball and returning to Pencey. When
Stradlater returns hours later, he fails to appreciate the deeply
personal composition Holden wrote for him about the baseball glove of
Holden's late brother Allie, and refuses to reveal whether he slept
with Jane. Enraged, Holden punches him, and Stradlater easily wins the
ensuing fight. When Holden continues insulting him after the fight,
Stradlater knocks him unconscious and leaves him with a bloody nose.
After leaving for Ackley's room, Holden is disappointed when he treats
him rudely. Fed up with the so-called "phonies" at Pencey Prep, Holden
impulsively decides to leave Pencey early, sells his typewriter to
earn money, and catches a train to Penn Station in New York. Holden
intends to stay away from his home in a hotel until Wednesday, when
his parents would have received news of his expulsion. Aboard the
train, Holden meets the mother of a wealthy, obnoxious Pencey student
named Ernest Morrow, and lies to her about himself and her son.
In a taxicab, Holden inquires with the driver about whether the ducks
Central Park lagoon migrate during winter, a subject he brings
up often, but the man barely responds. Holden checks into the
dilapidated Edmont Hotel. He spends an evening dancing with three
tourist women from
Seattle in the hotel lounge and enjoys dancing with
one, though is disappointed that he is unable to hold a conversation
with them. Following an unpromising visit to Ernie's Nightclub in
Greenwich Village, Holden becomes preoccupied with his internal angst
and agrees to have a prostitute named Sunny visit his room. His
attitude toward the girl changes the minute she enters the room; she
seems about the same age as him. Holden becomes uncomfortable with the
situation, and when he tells her all he wants to do is talk, she
becomes annoyed and leaves. Even though he still paid her the right
amount for her time, she returns with her pimp Maurice and demands
more money. Holden insults Maurice, and after Sunny takes the money
from Holden's wallet, Maurice punches him in the stomach and leaves
with Sunny. Afterwards, Holden imagines that he has been shot by
Maurice, and pictures murdering him with an automatic weapon.
The next morning, Holden, becoming increasingly depressed and in need
of personal connection, calls Sally Hayes, a familiar date. Although
Holden claims that she is "the queen of all phonies", they agree to
meet that afternoon to attend a play at the Biltmore Theater. Holden
shops for a special record, "Little Shirley Beans", for his
10-year-old sister Phoebe. He spots a small boy singing "If a body
catch a body coming through the rye", which lifts his mood. Although
Holden's date initially goes well, it soon sours after Sally
introduces her friend George. After the play, Holden and Sally go ice
skating at Rockefeller Center, where Holden suddenly begins ranting
against society and frightens Sally. He impulsively invites Sally to
run away with him that night to live in the wilderness of New England,
but she is uninterested in his hastily conceived plan and declines.
The conversation turns sour, and the two angrily part ways.
Holden decides to meet his old classmate, a Columbia student named
Carl Luce, for drinks at the Wicker Bar in the Seton Hotel. During the
meeting, Holden annoys Carl with his fixation on sex. After Luce
leaves, Holden gets drunk, awkwardly flirts with several adults, and
calls an icy Sally. Exhausted and out of money, Holden wanders over to
Central Park to investigate the ducks, breaking Phoebe's record on the
way. Nostalgically recalling his experience in elementary school and
the unchanging dioramas in the Museum of Natural History that he
enjoyed visiting as a child, Holden heads home to see Phoebe. He
sneaks into his parents' apartment while they are out, and wakes up
Phoebe – the only person with whom he seems to be able to
communicate his true feelings. Although Phoebe is happy to see Holden,
she quickly deduces that he has been expelled, and chastises him for
his aimlessness and his apparent dislikes towards everything. When
asked if he cares about anything, Holden shares a selfless fantasy he
has been thinking about (based on a mishearing of Robert Burns's
Comin' Through the Rye): he pictures himself as the sole guardian of
thousands of children playing in a huge rye field on the edge of a
cliff. His job is to catch the children if, in their abandon, they
come close to falling off the brink; to be, in effect, the "catcher in
the rye". Because of this misinterpretation, Holden believes that to
be the "catcher in the rye" means to save children from losing their
When his mother returns home, Holden slips out and visits his former
and much-admired English teacher, Mr. Antolini, who is now a New York
University professor. Mr. Antolini expresses concern that Holden is
headed for "a terrible fall" and advises him to begin applying
himself. Although Holden is exhausted, he is courteous and considers
his advice. Mr. Antolini also provides Holden a place to sleep. Holden
is upset when he wakes up in the night to find Mr. Antolini patting
his head, which he interprets as a homosexual advance. Confused and
uncertain, he leaves and spends the rest of the night in a waiting
room at Grand Central Station, where he sinks further into despair and
expresses regret over leaving Mr. Antolini. He spends most of Monday
morning wandering Fifth Avenue.
Losing hope of finding belonging or companionship in the city, Holden
impulsively decides that he will head out west and live a reclusive
lifestyle as a gas station attendant. He decides to see Phoebe at
lunchtime to explain his plan and say farewell. While visiting
Phoebe's school to give a forged excuse note, Holden becomes obsessed
with graffiti containing the word "fuck", and becomes distressed by
the thought of children learning the word's meaning. When he meets
Phoebe at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, she arrives with a suitcase
and asks to go with him, even though she was looking forward to acting
Benedict Arnold in a play that Friday. Holden refuses to let her
come with him, which upsets Phoebe, so Holden decides not to leave
after all. He tries to cheer her up by allowing her to skip school and
taking her to the
Central Park Zoo, but she remains angry with him.
They eventually reach the zoo's carousel, where Phoebe reconciles with
Holden after he buys her a ticket. Holden is finally filled with
happiness and joy at the sight of Phoebe riding in the rain.
In a short epilogue, Holden briefly alludes to encountering his
parents that night and "getting sick" (implying a tuberculosis
diagnosis), mentioning that he will be attending another school in
September. Holden says that he doesn't want to tell anything more
because, surprisingly, he has found himself missing his former
classmates. He warns the reader that telling others about their own
experiences will lead them to miss the people who shared them.
Various older stories by Salinger contain characters similar to those
in The Catcher in the Rye. While at Columbia University, Salinger
wrote a short story called "The Young Folks" in Whit Burnett's class;
one character from this story has been described as a "thinly penciled
prototype of Sally Hayes". In November 1941, he sold the story "Slight
Rebellion off Madison", which featured Holden Caulfield, to The New
Yorker, but it wasn't published until December 21, 1946 due to World
War II. The story "I'm Crazy", which was published in the December 22,
1945, issue of Collier's, contained material that was later used in
The Catcher in the Rye. In 1946,
The New Yorker
The New Yorker accepted a 90-page
Holden Caulfield for publication, but Salinger later
The Catcher in the
Rye is narrated in a subjective style from the
point of view of Holden Caulfield, following his exact thought
processes. There is flow in the seemingly disjointed ideas and
episodes; for example, as Holden sits in a chair in his dorm, minor
events, such as picking up a book or looking at a table, unfold into
discussions about experiences.
Critical reviews affirm that the novel accurately reflected the
teenage colloquial speech of the time. Words and phrases that
appear frequently include:
"Old" – term of familiarity or endearment.
"Phony" – superficially acting a certain way only to change what
others think of you
"That killed me" – I found that hilarious or astonishing
"Flit" – homosexual
"Crumbum" or "crumby" – inadequate, insufficient, disappointing
"Snowing" – sweet-talking
"I got a bang out of that" – I found it hilarious or exciting
"Shoot the bull" – have a conversation containing false elements
"Give her the time" or "necking" – sexual intercourse
"Chew the fat" or "chew the rag" – small-talk
"Rubbering" or "rubbernecks" – idle onlooking/onlookers
"The Can" – the bathroom
Bruce Brooks held that Holden's attitude remains unchanged at story's
end, implying no maturation, thus differentiating the novel from young
adult fiction. In contrast,
Louis Menand thought that teachers
assign the novel because of the optimistic ending, to teach adolescent
readers that "alienation is just a phase." While Brooks maintained
that Holden acts his age, Menand claimed that Holden thinks as an
adult, given his ability to accurately perceive people and their
motives. Others highlight the dilemma of Holden's state, in between
adolescence and adulthood. Holden is quick to become
emotional. "I felt sorry as hell for..." is a phrase he often uses. It
is often said that Holden changes at the end, when he watches Phoebe
on the carousel, and he talks about the golden ring and how it's good
for kids to try and grab it.
Freddie Bartholomew in Captains Courageous
Peter Beidler, in his A Reader's Companion to J. D. Salinger's "The
Catcher in the Rye", identifies the movie that the prostitute "Sunny"
refers to. In chapter 13 she says that in the movie a boy falls off a
boat. The movie is Captains Courageous (1937), starring Spencer Tracy.
Sunny says that Holden looks like the boy who fell off the boat.
Beidler shows (page 28) a still of the boy, played by child-actor
Each Caulfield child has literary talent. D.B. writes screenplays in
Hollywood; Holden also reveres D.B. for his writing skill (Holden's
own best subject), but he also despises
movies, considering them the ultimate in "phony" as the writer has no
space for his own imagination, and describes D.B.'s move to Hollywood
to write for films as "prostituting himself"; Allie wrote poetry on
his baseball glove; and Phoebe is a diarist.[not in citation
given] This "catcher in the rye" is an analogy for Holden, who admires
in children attributes that he struggles to find in adults, like
innocence, kindness, spontaneity, and generosity. Falling off the
cliff could be a progression into the adult world that surrounds him
and that he strongly criticizes. Later, Phoebe and Holden exchange
roles as the "catcher" and the "fallen"; he gives her his hunting hat,
the catcher's symbol, and becomes the fallen as Phoebe becomes the
In their biography of Salinger,
David Shields and
Shane Salerno argue
that: "The Catcher in the
Rye can best be understood as a disguised
war novel." Salinger witnessed the horrors of World War II, but rather
than writing a combat novel, Salinger, according to Shields and
Salerno, "took the trauma of war and embedded it within what looked to
the naked eye like a coming-of-age novel."
The Catcher in the
Rye has been listed as one of the best novels of
the twentieth century. Shortly after its publication, writing for The
New York Times, Nash K. Burger called it "an unusually brilliant
novel," while James Stern wrote an admiring review of the book in
a voice imitating Holden's.
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush called it a
"marvelous book," listing it among the books that have inspired
him. In June 2009, the BBC's Finlo Rohrer wrote that, 58 years
since publication, the book is still regarded "as the defining work on
what it is like to be a teenager. Holden is at various times
disaffected, disgruntled, alienated, isolated, directionless, and
Adam Gopnik considers it one of the "three perfect
books" in American literature, along with Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn and The Great Gatsby, and believes that "no book has ever
captured a city better than Catcher in the
Rye captured New York in
the fifties." Jeff Pruchnic wrote an appraisal of The Catcher in
Rye after the death of J.D. Salinger. In this article, Pruchnic
focuses on how the novel continues to be received incredibly well,
even after it has aged many generations. Pruchnic describes Holden as
a “teenage protagonist frozen midcentury but destined to be
discovered by those of a similar age in every generation to
Bill Gates said that The Catcher in the
Rye is one of his
favorite books ever. 
However, not all reception has been positive; the book has had its
share of critics. Rohrer writes, "Many of these readers are
disappointed that the novel fails to meet the expectations generated
by the mystique it is shrouded in.
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger has done his part to
enhance this mystique. That is to say, he has done nothing."
Rohrer assessed the reasons behind both the popularity and criticism
of the book, saying that it "captures existential teenage angst" and
has a "complex central character" and "accessible conversational
style"; while at the same time some readers may dislike the "use of
1940s New York vernacular" and other things.
Censorship and use in schools
In 1960, a teacher in
Tulsa, Oklahoma was fired for assigning the
novel in class; however, he was later reinstated. Between 1961 and
1982, The Catcher in the
Rye was the most censored book in high
schools and libraries in the United States. The book was banned in
the Issaquah, Washington, high schools in 1978 as being part of an
"overall communist plot". In 1981, it was both the most censored
book and the second most taught book in public schools in the United
States. According to the American Library Association, The Catcher
Rye was the 10th most frequently challenged book from 1990 to
1999. It was one of the ten most challenged books of 2005, and
although it had been off the list for three years, it reappeared in
the list of most challenged books of 2009.
The challenges generally begin with Holden's frequent use of vulgar
language, with other reasons including sexual references,
blasphemy, undermining of family values and moral codes,
encouragement of rebellion, and promotion of drinking, smoking,
lying, promiscuity, and sexual abuse. Often the challengers have
been unfamiliar with the plot itself. Shelley Keller-Gage, a high
school teacher who faced objections after assigning the novel in her
class, noted that "the challengers are being just like Holden... They
are trying to be catchers in the rye". A
Streisand effect has been
that this incident caused people to put themselves on the waiting list
to borrow the novel, when there was no waiting list before.
Shooters citing the book as an influence
Further information: The Catcher in the
Rye in popular culture
Several shootings have been associated with Salinger's novel,
including Robert John Bardo's murder of
Rebecca Schaeffer and John
Hinckley, Jr.'s assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan. Additionally,
after fatally shooting John Lennon,
Mark David Chapman
Mark David Chapman was arrested
with a copy of the book that he had purchased that same day, inside of
which he had written: "To Holden Caulfield, From Holden Caulfield,
This is my statement".
Early in his career, Salinger expressed a willingness to have his work
adapted for the screen. In 1949, a critically panned film version
of his short story "Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut" was released;
renamed My Foolish Heart, the film took great liberties with
Salinger's plot and is widely considered to be among the reasons that
Salinger refused to allow any subsequent film adaptations of his
work. The enduring popularity of The Catcher in the Rye,
however, has resulted in repeated attempts to secure the novel's
When The Catcher in the
Rye was first released, many offers were made
to adapt it for the screen, including one from Samuel Goldwyn,
producer of My Foolish Heart. In a letter written in the early
1950s, Salinger spoke of mounting a play in which he would play the
Holden Caulfield opposite Margaret O'Brien, and, if he
couldn't play the part himself, to "forget about it." Almost 50 years
later, the writer
Joyce Maynard definitively concluded, "The only
person who might ever have played
Holden Caulfield would have been J.
Salinger told Maynard in the 1970s that
Jerry Lewis "tried for years
to get his hands on the part of Holden," despite Lewis not having
read the novel until he was in his thirties. Celebrities ranging
Marlon Brando and
Jack Nicholson to
Tobey Maguire and Leonardo
DiCaprio have since tried to make a film adaptation. In an
interview with Premiere,
John Cusack commented that his one regret
about turning 21 was that he had become too old to play Holden
Billy Wilder recounted his abortive
attempts to snare the novel's rights:
Of course I read The Catcher in the Rye... Wonderful book. I loved it.
I pursued it. I wanted to make a picture out of it. And then one day a
young man came to the office of Leland Hayward, my agent, in New York,
and said, 'Please tell Mr.
Leland Hayward to lay off. He's very, very
insensitive.' And he walked out. That was the entire speech. I never
saw him. That was
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger and that was Catcher in the Rye.
In 1961, Salinger denied
Elia Kazan permission to direct a stage
adaptation of Catcher for Broadway. More recently, Salinger's
agents received bids for the Catcher film rights from Harvey Weinstein
and Steven Spielberg, neither of which was even passed on to
Salinger for consideration.
In 2003, the
BBC television program
The Big Read featured The Catcher
in the Rye, interspersing discussions of the novel with "a series of
short films that featured an actor playing J. D. Salinger's adolescent
antihero, Holden Caulfield." The show defended its unlicensed
adaptation of the novel by claiming to be a "literary review", and no
major charges were filed.
After Salinger's death in 2010, Phyllis Westberg, who was Salinger's
Harold Ober Associates, stated that nothing has changed in
terms of licensing film, television, or stage rights of his works.
A letter written by Salinger in 1957 revealed that he was open to an
adaptation of The Catcher in the
Rye released after his death. He
wrote: "Firstly, it is possible that one day the rights will be sold.
Since there's an ever-looming possibility that I won't die rich, I toy
very seriously with the idea of leaving the unsold rights to my wife
and daughter as a kind of insurance policy. It pleasures me no end,
though, I might quickly add, to know that I won't have to see the
results of the transaction." Salinger also wrote that he believed his
novel was not suitable for film treatment, and that translating Holden
Caulfield's first-person narrative into voice-over and dialogue would
Banned fan fiction
In 2009, a year before his death, Salinger successfully sued to stop
the U.S. publication of a novel that presents
Holden Caulfield as an
old man. The novel's author, Fredrik Colting, commented: "call
me an ignorant Swede, but the last thing I thought possible in the
U.S. was that you banned books". The issue is complicated by the
nature of Colting's book, 60 Years Later: Coming Through the Rye,
which has been compared to fan fiction. Although commonly not
authorized by writers, no legal action is usually taken against fan
fiction, since it is rarely published commercially and thus involves
no profit. Colting, however, has published his book commercially,
therefore interfering with copyright law and is not protected.
Main article: The Catcher in the
Rye in popular culture
The Catcher in the
Rye has had significant cultural influence, and
works inspired by the novel have been said to form their own genre.
Sarah Graham assessed works influenced by The Catcher in the
include the novels Less Than Zero by Bret Easton Ellis, The Perks of
Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky,
A Complicated Kindness
A Complicated Kindness by
The Bell Jar
The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath, Ordinary People by Judith
Guest, and the film
Igby Goes Down
Igby Goes Down by Burr Steers.
Harry Turtledove has written a pastiche-parody "Catcher
in the Rhine", based on his daughter's mishearing of Salinger's title.
In this short story, an unnamed narrator, who is clearly meant to be
Holden Caulfield but is unnamed to avoid copyright problems, goes on
vacation to Germany and meets characters from the Niebelunglied. This
was first published in The Chick is in the Mail, edited by Esther
Baen 2000 and reprinted in the omnibus Chicks Ahoy! (2010).
It was reprinted in Atlantis and Other Places also in 2010.
In "Catcher In The Wry" former major league baseball player, Bob
Uecker, recounts anecdotes of his years behind the plate and on the
road, recalling the antics of his famous teammates, including Hank
Aaron, Bob Gibson, Richie Allen, and Warren Spahn.
The July 1985 issue of National Lampoon included a parody of the
novel, ostensibly written by Holden Caulfield's son, entitled 'The Son
of the Catcher, who Lives in Rye'.
In December 1991, punk rock band Green Day released their second
studio album (Kerplunk), containing the song Who Wrote Holden
Caulfield. The song describes said character as crazy, frustrated, and
Book censorship in the United States
Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century
^ "CalArts Remembers Beloved Animation Instructor E. Michael
Mitchell". Calarts.edu. Retrieved 2010-01-30. [permanent dead
^ "50 Most Captivating Covers". Onlineuniversities.com. Retrieved
^ Ulin, David L. (2010-01-29). "J.D. Salinger: a gift of words and
silence". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
^ Costello, Donald P., and Harold Bloom. "The Language of "The Catcher
in the Rye.." Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations: The Catcher in
Rye (2000): 11–20. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. Dec 1,
^ "Carte Blanche: Famous Firsts". Booklist. November 15, 2000.
^ Magill, Frank N. (1991). "J. D. Salinger". Magill's Survey of
American Literature. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
p. 1803. ISBN 1-85435-437-X.
^ According to List of best-selling books. An earlier article says
more than 20 million: Yardley, Jonathan (October 19, 2004). "J. D.
Salinger's Holden Caulfield, Aging Gracelessly". The Washington Post.
^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Allusions By Elizabeth Webber, Mike
^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (October 16, 2005). "All-Time 100
Novels: The Complete List". Time.
^ a b "The 100 most frequently challenged books: 1990–1999".
American Library Association. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
^ List of most commonly challenged books from the list of the one
hundred most important books of the 20th century by Radcliffe
^ Guinn, Jeff (August 10, 2001). "'Catcher in the Rye' still
influences 50 years later" (fee required). Erie Times-News. Retrieved
2007-12-18. Alternate URL
^ "The Big Read", BBC, April 2003. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
^ Salzman, Jack (1991). New essays on the Catcher in the Rye.
Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521377980.
^ Costello, Donald P. (October 1959). "The Language of 'The Catcher in
the Rye'". American Speech. 34 (3): 172–182. doi:10.2307/454038.
JSTOR 454038. Most critics who glared at The Catcher in the Rye
at the time of its publication thought that its language was a true
and authentic rendering of teenage colloquial speech.
^ Brooks, Bruce (May 1, 2004). "Holden at sixteen". Horn Book
Magazine. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved
December 19, 2007.
^ Menand, Louis (September 27, 2001). "Holden at fifty". The New
Yorker. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
^ a b c Onstad, Katrina (February 22, 2008). "Beholden to Holden". CBC
News. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008.
^ Graham, 33.
^ Svogun, Margaret Dumais (Winter 2003). "J.D. Salinger's The catcher
in the Rye". Explicator. 2 (2). pp. 110–113. Retrieved
^ Yasuhiro Takeuchi (Fall 2002). "The Burning
Carousel and the
Carnivalesque: Subversion and Transcendence at the Close of The
Catcher in the Rye". Studies in the Novel. 34 (3). pp. 320–337.
^ Shields, David; Salerno, Shane (2013). Salinger (Hardcover ed.).
Simon & Schuster. p. xvi. Retrieved 23 August 2015. The
Catcher in the
Rye can best be understood as a disguised war novel.
Salinger emerged from the war incapable of believing in the heroic,
noble ideals we like to think our cultural institutions uphold.
Instead of producing a combat novel, as Norman Mailer, James Jones,
and Joseph Heller did, Salinger took the trauma of war and embedded it
within what looked to the naked eye like a coming-of-age novel.
^ Burger, Nash K. (July 16, 1951). "Books of The Times". The New York
Times. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
^ Stern, James (July 15, 1951). "Aw, the World's a Crumby Place". The
New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
^ "Academy of Achievement – George H. W. Bush". The American Academy
of Achievement. Retrieved 2009-06-05. [permanent dead link]
^ a b c Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "The why of the Rye".
Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
^ Gopnik, Adam. The New Yorker, February 8, 2010, p. 21
^ Pruchnic, Jeff. "Holden at Sixty: Reading Catcher After the Age of
Irony." Critical Insights: ------------The Catcher in The
49-63. Literary Reference Center. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
^ Gates, Bill. "The Best Books I Read in 2013". gatesnotes.com.
^ Dutra, Fernando (September 25, 2006). "U. Connecticut: Banned Book
Week celebrates freedom". The America's Intelligence Wire. Retrieved
2007-12-20. In 1960 a teacher in Tulsa, Okla., was fired for assigning
"The Catcher in the Rye". After appealing, the teacher was reinstated,
but the book was removed from the itinerary in the
school. [permanent dead link]
^ a b "In Cold Fear: 'The Catcher in the Rye', Censorship,
Controversies and Postwar American Character. (
Book Review)". Modern
Language Review. April 1, 2003. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
^ Reiff, Raychel Haugrud (2008). J.D. Salinger: The Catcher in the Rye
and Other Works. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7614-2594-6.
^ Andrychuk, Sylvia (February 17, 2004). "A History of J.D. Salinger's
The Catcher in the Rye" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2007-09-28. During 1981, The Catcher in the
Rye had the
unusual distinction of being the most frequently censored book in the
United States, and, at the same time, the second-most frequently
taught novel in American public schools.
^ ""It's Perfectly Normal" tops ALA's 2005 list of most challenged
books". American Library Association. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
^ "Top ten most frequently challenged books of 2009". American Library
Association. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
^ "Art or trash? It makes for endless, unwinnable debate". The Topeka
Capital-Journal. October 6, 1997. Retrieved 2007-12-20. Another
perennial target, J.D. Salinger's "Catcher in the Rye," was challenged
in Maine because of the "f" word.
^ a b c Mydans, Seth (September 3, 1989). "In a Small Town, a Battle
Over a Book". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved
^ MacIntyre, Ben (September 24, 2005). "The American banned list
reveals a society with serious hang-ups". The Times. London. Retrieved
^ a b Frangedis, Helen (November 1988). "Dealing with the
Controversial Elements in The Catcher in the Rye". The English
Journal. 77 (7): 72–75. doi:10.2307/818945. JSTOR 818945. The
foremost allegation made against Catcher is... that it teaches loose
moral codes; that it glorifies... drinking, smoking, lying,
promiscuity, and more.
^ Yilu Zhao (August 31, 2003). "Banned, But Not Forgotten". The New
York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-20. The Catcher in the Rye, interpreted
by some as encouraging rebellion against authority...
^ a b Whitfield, Stephen (December 1997). "Cherished and Cursed:
Toward a Social History of The Catcher in the Rye" (PDF). The New
England Quarterly. 70 (4): 567–600. doi:10.2307/366646.
JSTOR 366646. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12,
2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
^ J. D. Salinger. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. 2001.
pp. 77–105. ISBN 0-7910-6175-2.
^ Weeks, Linton (September 10, 2000). "Telling on Dad". Amarillo
Globe-News. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
^ Doyle, Aidan (December 15, 2003). "When books kill". Salon.com.
Archived from the original on November 5, 2007.
^ Hamilton, Ian (1988). In Search of J. D. Salinger. New York: Random
House. ISBN 0-394-53468-9. p. 75.
^ a b Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1989. ISBN 1-57322-723-4. p. 446.
^ See Dr. Peter Beidler's A Reader's Companion to J. D. Salinger's the
Catcher in the Rye, Chapter 7.
^ a b Maynard, Joyce (1998). At Home in the World. New York: Picador.
p. 93. ISBN 0-312-19556-7.
^ "News & Features". IFILM: The Internet Movie Guide. 2004.
Archived from the original on 2004-09-06. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
^ Crowe, Cameron, ed. Conversations with Wilder. New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 1999. ISBN 0-375-40660-3. p. 299.
^ a b McAllister, David (November 11, 2003). "Will J. D. Salinger
sue?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
^ AJ (2010-01-29). "Why
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger Never Wanted A 'Catcher in the
Rye' Movie". The Daily Caller. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
^ "Slim chance of Catcher in the
Rye movie – ABC News (Australian
Broadcasting Corporation)". ABCnet.au. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
^ Connelly, Sherryl (January 29, 2010). "Could 'Catcher in the Rye'
finally make it to the big screen? Salinger letter suggests yes".
Daily News. New York. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
^ Gross, Doug (June 3, 2009). "Lawsuit targets 'rip-off' of 'Catcher
in the Rye'". CNN. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
^ Fogel, Karl. Looks like censorship, smells like censorship... maybe
it IS censorship?. QuestionCopyright.org. 2009-07-07.
^ Sutherland, John. How fanfic took over the web[permanent dead link]
London Evening Standard. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
^ Fan Fiction and a New Common Law'(1997) Rebecca Tushnet, Loyola of
Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal,. vol.17.
^ Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "Why does Salinger's Catcher in the
Rye still resonate?".
BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
Graham, Sarah (2007). J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34452-2.
Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "The why of the Rye".
BBC News Magazine.
Steinle, Pamela Hunt (2000). In Cold Fear: The Catcher in the Rye
Censorship Controversies and Postwar American Character. Ohio State
Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Catcher in the Rye
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