THE CATCHER IN THE RYE is a 1951 novel by
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger . A
controversial novel originally published for adults, it has since
become popular with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage angst
and alienation . It has been translated into almost all of the
world's major languages. Around 1 million copies are sold each year
with total sales of more than 65 million books. The novel's
Holden Caulfield has become an icon for teenage rebellion
. The novel also deals with complex issues of innocence, identity ,
belonging, loss, and connection.
The novel was included on Time 's 2005 list of the 100 best
English-language novels written since 1923 and it was named by Modern
Library and its readers as one of the 100 best English-language novels
of the 20th century . In 2003, it was listed at #15 on the
The Big Read .
* 1 Plot
* 2 History
* 3 Writing style
* 4 Interpretations
* 5 Reception
Censorship and use in schools
* 7 Shooters citing the book as an influence
* 8 Attempted adaptations
* 8.1 In film
* 8.2 Banned fan fiction
* 9 Cultural influence
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 11.1 Notes
* 11.2 Bibliography
* 11.3 Further reading
* 12 External links
Holden Caulfield , a teenager from New York City, describes events
that took place in December 1949 from an unspecified California
institution one year later.
Holden begins his story at Pencey Preparatory Academy, an exclusive
private school in Agerstown,
Pennsylvania , on the Saturday afternoon
of the traditional football game with a rival school. Holden has been
expelled from Pencey due to poor work and isn't to return after
Christmas break, which begins the following Wednesday. He plans to
return home on that day so that he will not be present when his
parents receive notice of his expulsion. On invitation, he goes to the
home of his history teacher, Mr. Spencer. Spencer is a well-meaning
but long-winded middle-aged man. Spencer greets him and offers him
advice, but embarrasses Holden by further criticizing Holden's work in
his subject in a rude manner.
Holden returns to his dorm wearing the new red hunting cap he bought
in New York. His dorm neighbor Robert Ackley is one of the few
students also missing the game. Ackley, unpopular among his peers,
disturbs Holden with his impolite questioning and mannerisms. Holden,
who feels sorry for Ackley, tolerates his presence. Later, Holden
agrees to write an assignment for his roommate, Ward Stradlater, who
is leaving for a date. However, Holden is distressed to learn that
Stradlater's date is an old friend, Jane Gallagher, whom Holden had a
crush on and feels protective of. When Stradlater returns hours later,
he fails to appreciate the deeply personal composition Holden wrote
for him about the baseball glove of Holden's late brother Allie, and
refuses to reveal whether he slept with Jane. Enraged, Holden punches
him, and Stradlater easily wins the ensuing fight. Fed up with Pencey
Prep, Holden catches a train to New York City, where he intends to
stay in a hotel until he returns home on Wednesday.
In a cab, Holden inquires with the driver about whether the ducks in
Central Park lagoon migrate during winter, a subject he brings up
often, but the man barely responds. Holden checks into the dilapidated
Edmont Hotel. He spends an evening dancing with three tourist women in
the hotel lounge and enjoys dancing with one, though is disappointed
that he is unable to hold a conversation with them. Following an
unpromising visit to Ernie's Nightclub in
Greenwich Village , Holden
agrees to have a prostitute named Sunny visit his room. His attitude
toward the girl changes the minute she enters the room; she seems
about the same age as he. Holden becomes uncomfortable with the
situation, and when he tells her all he wants to do is talk, she
becomes annoyed and leaves. Even though he still paid her the right
amount for her time, she returns with her pimp Maurice and demands
more money. Holden insults Maurice, and after Sunny takes the money
from Holden's wallet, Maurice punches him in the stomach and leaves
The next morning, Holden, becoming increasingly depressed and in need
of personal connection, calls Sally Hayes, a familiar date, and they
agree to meet that afternoon to attend a play. Holden shops for a
special record, "Little Shirley Beans", for his 10-year-old sister
Phoebe. He spots a small boy singing "If a body catch a body coming
through the rye ", which lifts his mood. After the play, Holden and
Sally go ice skating at
Rockefeller Center . Holden impulsively
invites Sally to run away with him that night to live in the
wilderness, but she is uninterested in his hastily generated plan and
declines. The conversation turns sour, and the two part ways.
Holden gets drunk at a bar, first calling an icy Sally, then walking
Central Park to investigate the ducks, breaking Phoebe's record on
the way. Nostalgically recalling the unchanging dioramas in the Museum
of Natural History that he enjoyed visiting as a child, Holden heads
home to see Phoebe, exhausted and out of money. He sneaks into his
parents' apartment while they are out, and wakes up Phoebe – the
only person with whom he seems to be able to communicate his true
feelings. Holden shares a selfless fantasy he has been thinking about
(based on a mishearing of
Robert Burns 's Comin\' Through the
he pictures himself as the sole guardian of thousands of children
playing in a huge rye field on the edge of a cliff. His job is to
catch the children if, in their abandon, they come close to falling
off the brink; to be, in effect, the "catcher in the rye". Because of
this misinterpretation, Holden believes that to be the "catcher in the
rye" means to save children from losing their innocence.
When his parents come home, Holden slips out and visits his former
and much-admired English teacher, Mr. Antolini, who offers advice on
life along with a place to sleep for the night. Holden is upset when
he wakes up in the night to find Mr. Antolini patting his head in a
way that he regards as "flitty" (homosexual) and uncomfortable.
Confused and uncertain, he leaves as dawn is breaking and spends most
of Monday morning wandering the city.
Losing hope of finding belonging or companionship in the city, Holden
impulsively decides that he will head out West and live as a recluse.
When he explains this plan to Phoebe on Monday at lunchtime, she wants
to go with him, even though she was looking forward to acting in a
play that Friday. Holden refuses to let her come with him, which
upsets Phoebe, so Holden decides not to leave after all. He tries to
cheer her up by taking her to the
Central Park Zoo , and as he watches
her ride the zoo's carousel , he is filled with happiness and joy at
the sight of Phoebe riding in the rain.
In a short epilogue, Holden briefly alludes to "getting sick" and
living in an institution in California near his brother D.B., and
mentions he will be attending another school in September. Holden says
that he doesn't want to tell anything more because, surprisingly, he
has found himself missing his former classmates. He warns the reader
that telling others about their own experiences will lead them to miss
the people who shared them.
Various older stories by Salinger contain characters similar to those
in The Catcher in the Rye. While at
Columbia University , Salinger
wrote a short story called "
The Young Folks " in
Whit Burnett 's
class; one character from this story has been described as a "thinly
penciled prototype of Sally Hayes". In November 1941, he sold the
Slight Rebellion off Madison ", which featured Holden
The New Yorker
The New Yorker , but it wasn't published until December
21, 1946 due to World War II. The story "I\'m Crazy ", which was
published in the December 22, 1945, issue of Collier\'s , contained
material that was later used in The Catcher in the Rye. In 1946, The
New Yorker accepted a 90-page manuscript about
Holden Caulfield for
publication, but Salinger later withdrew it.
The Catcher in the
Rye is narrated in a subjective style from the
point of view of Holden Caulfield, following his exact thought
processes. There is flow in the seemingly disjointed ideas and
episodes; for example, as Holden sits in a chair in his dorm, minor
events, such as picking up a book or looking at a table, unfold into
discussions about experiences.
Critical reviews affirm that the novel accurately reflected the
teenage colloquial speech of the time. Words and phrases that appear
* "Old" – term of familiarity or endearment.
* "Phony" – superficially acting a certain way only to change what
others think of you
* "That killed me" – I found that hilarious or astonishing
* "Flit" – homosexual
* "Crumbum" or "crumby" – inadequate, insufficient, disappointing
* "Snowing" – sweet-talking
* "I got a bang out of that" – I found it hilarious or exciting
* "Shoot the bull" – have a conversation containing false elements
* "Give her the time" – sexual intercourse
* "Chew the fat" or "chew the rag" – small-talk
* "Rubbering" or "rubbernecks" – idle onlooking/onlookers
* "The Can" – the bathroom
Bruce Brooks held that Holden's attitude remains unchanged at story's
end, implying no maturation, thus differentiating the novel from young
adult fiction . In contrast,
Louis Menand thought that teachers
assign the novel because of the optimistic ending, to teach adolescent
readers that "alienation is just a phase." While Brooks maintained
that Holden acts his age, Menand claimed that Holden thinks as an
adult, given his ability to accurately perceive people and their
motives. Others highlight the dilemma of Holden's state, in between
adolescence and adulthood. Holden is quick to become emotional. "I
felt sorry as hell for..." is a phrase he often uses. It is often said
that Holden changes at the end, when he watches Phoebe on the
carousel, and he talks about the golden ring and how it's good for
kids to try and grab it.
Freddie Bartholomew in Captains
Peter Beidler, in his A Reader's Companion to J. D. Salinger's "The
Catcher in the Rye", identifies the movie that the prostitute "Sunny"
refers to. In chapter 13 she says that in the movie a boy falls off a
boat. The movie is Captains Courageous (1937), starring Spencer Tracy
. Sunny says that Holden looks like the boy who fell off the boat.
Beidler shows (page 28) a still of the boy, played by child-actor
Freddie Bartholomew .
Each Caulfield child has literary talent. D.B. writes screenplays in
Hollywood; Holden also reveres D.B. for his writing skill (Holden's
own best subject), but he also despises Hollywood industry-based
movies, considering them the ultimate in "phony" as the writer has no
space for his own imagination, and describes D.B.'s move to Hollywood
to write for films as "prostituting himself"; Allie wrote poetry on
his baseball glove; and Phoebe is a diarist. This "catcher in the
rye" is an analogy for Holden, who admires in children attributes that
he struggles to find in adults, like innocence, kindness, spontaneity,
and generosity. Falling off the cliff could be a progression into the
adult world that surrounds him and that he strongly criticizes. Later,
Phoebe and Holden exchange roles as the "catcher" and the "fallen"; he
gives her his hunting hat, the catcher's symbol, and becomes the
fallen as Phoebe becomes the catcher.
In their biography of Salinger ,
David Shields and Shane Salerno
argue that: "The Catcher in the
Rye can best be understood as a
disguised war novel ." Salinger witnessed the horrors of World War II,
but rather than writing a combat novel, Salinger, according to Shields
and Salerno, "took the trauma of war and embedded it within what
looked to the naked eye like a coming-of-age novel."
The Catcher in the
Rye has been listed as one of the best novels of
the twentieth century. Shortly after its publication, writing for The
New York Times , Nash K. Burger called it "an unusually brilliant
novel," while James Stern wrote an admiring review of the book in a
voice imitating Holden's.
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush called it a "marvelous
book," listing it among the books that have inspired him. In June
BBC 's Finlo Rohrer wrote that, 58 years since publication,
the book is still regarded "as the defining work on what it is like to
be a teenager. Holden is at various times disaffected, disgruntled,
alienated, isolated, directionless, and sarcastic." Adam Gopnik
considers it one of the "three perfect books" in American literature,
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and
The Great Gatsby , and
believes that "no book has ever captured a city better than Catcher in
Rye captured New York in the fifties." Jeff Pruchnic wrote an
appraisal of The Catcher in the
Rye after the death of J.D. Salinger.
In this article, Pruchnic focuses on how the novel continues to be
received incredibly well, even after it has aged many generations.
Pruchnic describes Holden as a “teenage protagonist frozen
midcentury but destined to be discovered by those of a similar age in
every generation to come”.
Bill Gates said that The Catcher in the
Rye is one of his favorite books ever.
However, not all reception has been positive; the book has had its
share of critics. Rohrer writes, "Many of these readers are
disappointed that the novel fails to meet the expectations generated
by the mystique it is shrouded in.
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger has done his part to
enhance this mystique. That is to say, he has done nothing." Rohrer
assessed the reasons behind both the popularity and criticism of the
book, saying that it "captures existential teenage angst" and has a
"complex central character" and "accessible conversational style";
while at the same time some readers may dislike the "use of 1940s New
York vernacular" and other things.
CENSORSHIP AND USE IN SCHOOLS
In 1960, a teacher in
Tulsa, Oklahoma was fired for assigning the
novel in class; however, he was later reinstated. Between 1961 and
1982, The Catcher in the
Rye was the most censored book in high
schools and libraries in the United States. The book was banned in
Issaquah, Washington , high schools in 1978 as being part of an
"overall communist plot". In 1981, it was both the most censored book
and the second most taught book in public schools in the United
States. According to the
American Library Association , The Catcher
Rye was the 10th most frequently challenged book from 1990 to
1999. It was one of the ten most challenged books of 2005, and
although it had been off the list for three years, it reappeared in
the list of most challenged books of 2009.
The challenges generally begin with Holden's frequent use of vulgar
language, with other reasons including sexual references, blasphemy
, undermining of family values and moral codes, encouragement of
rebellion, and promotion of drinking, smoking, lying, and promiscuity
. Often the challengers have been unfamiliar with the plot itself.
Shelley Keller-Gage, a high school teacher who faced objections after
assigning the novel in her class, noted that "the challengers are
being just like Holden... They are trying to be catchers in the rye".
Streisand effect has been that this incident caused people to put
themselves on the waiting list to borrow the novel, when there were
SHOOTERS CITING THE BOOK AS AN INFLUENCE
Further information: The Catcher in the
Rye in popular culture §
Several shootings have been associated with Salinger's novel,
Robert John Bardo 's shooting of
Rebecca Schaeffer and John
Hinckley, Jr. 's assassination attempt on
Ronald Reagan .
Additionally, after fatally shooting John Lennon , Mark David Chapman
was arrested with a copy of the book that he had purchased that same
day, inside of which he had written: "To Holden Caulfield, From Holden
Caulfield, This is my statement".
Early in his career, Salinger expressed a willingness to have his
work adapted for the screen. In 1949, a critically panned film
version of his short story "
Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut " was
released; renamed My Foolish Heart , the film took great liberties
with Salinger's plot and is widely considered to be among the reasons
that Salinger refused to allow any subsequent film adaptations of his
work. The enduring popularity of The Catcher in the Rye, however,
has resulted in repeated attempts to secure the novel's screen rights.
When The Catcher in the
Rye was first released, many offers were made
to adapt it for the screen, including one from
Samuel Goldwyn ,
producer of My Foolish Heart. In a letter written in the early 1950s,
Salinger spoke of mounting a play in which he would play the role of
Holden Caulfield opposite Margaret O\'Brien , and, if he couldn't play
the part himself, to "forget about it." Almost 50 years later, the
Joyce Maynard definitively concluded, "The only person who
might ever have played
Holden Caulfield would have been J. D.
Salinger told Maynard in the 1970s that
Jerry Lewis "tried for years
to get his hands on the part of Holden," despite Lewis not having
read the novel until he was in his thirties. Celebrities ranging from
Marlon Brando and
Jack Nicholson to
Tobey Maguire and Leonardo
DiCaprio have since tried to make a film adaptation. In an interview
with Premiere ,
John Cusack commented that his one regret about
turning 21 was that he had become too old to play Holden Caulfield.
Billy Wilder recounted his abortive attempts to snare
the novel's rights:
Of course I read The Catcher in the Rye....Wonderful book. I loved
it. I pursued it. I wanted to make a picture out of it. And then one
day a young man came to the office of
Leland Hayward , my agent, in
New York, and said, 'Please tell Mr.
Leland Hayward to lay off. He's
very, very insensitive.' And he walked out. That was the entire
speech. I never saw him. That was
J. D. Salinger
J. D. Salinger and that was Catcher
in the Rye.
In 1961, Salinger denied
Elia Kazan permission to direct a stage
adaptation of Catcher for Broadway . More recently, Salinger's agents
received bids for the Catcher film rights from
Harvey Weinstein and
Steven Spielberg , neither of which was even passed on to Salinger
In 2003, the
BBC television program
The Big Read featured The Catcher
in the Rye, interspersing discussions of the novel with "a series of
short films that featured an actor playing J. D. Salinger's adolescent
antihero, Holden Caulfield." The show defended its unlicensed
adaptation of the novel by claiming to be a "literary review", and no
major charges were filed.
After Salinger's death in 2010, Phyllis Westberg, who was Salinger's
Harold Ober Associates, stated that nothing has changed in
terms of licensing film, television, or stage rights of his works. A
letter written by Salinger in 1957 revealed that he was open to an
adaptation of The Catcher in the
Rye released after his death. He
wrote: "Firstly, it is possible that one day the rights will be sold.
Since there's an ever-looming possibility that I won't die rich, I toy
very seriously with the idea of leaving the unsold rights to my wife
and daughter as a kind of insurance policy. It pleasures me no end,
though, I might quickly add, to know that I won't have to see the
results of the transaction." Salinger also wrote that he believed his
novel was not suitable for film treatment, and that translating Holden
Caulfield's first-person narrative into voice-over and dialogue would
BANNED FAN FICTION
In 2009, a year before his death, Salinger successfully sued to stop
the U.S. publication of a novel that presents
Holden Caulfield as an
old man. The novel's author, Fredrik Colting , commented: "call me
an ignorant Swede, but the last thing I thought possible in the U.S.
was that you banned books". The issue is complicated by the nature of
Colting's book, 60 Years Later: Coming Through the Rye, which has been
compared to fan fiction . Although commonly not authorized by
writers, no legal action is usually taken against fan fiction, since
it is rarely published commercially and thus involves no profit.
Colting, however, has published his book commercially. Unauthorized
fan fiction on The Catcher in the
Rye existed on the Internet for
years without any legal action taken by Salinger before his death.
Main article: The Catcher in the
Rye in popular culture
The Catcher in the
Rye has had significant cultural influence, and
works inspired by the novel have been said to form their own genre.
Sarah Graham assessed works influenced by The Catcher in the
include the novels Less Than Zero by
Bret Easton Ellis , The Perks of
Being a Wallflower by
Stephen Chbosky ,
A Complicated Kindness by
Miriam Toews ,
The Bell Jar by
Sylvia Plath , Ordinary People by
Judith Guest , and the film
Igby Goes Down
Igby Goes Down by
Burr Steers .
Harry Turtledove has written a pastiche-parody
"Catcher in the Rhine", based on his daughter's mishearing of
Salinger's title. In this short story, an unnamed narrator, who is
clearly meant to be
Holden Caulfield but is unnamed to avoid copyright
problems, goes on vacation to Germany and meets characters from the
Niebelunglied . This was first published in
The Chick is in the Mail ,
Esther Friesner ,
Baen 2000 and reprinted in the omnibus
Chicks Ahoy! (2010). It was reprinted in Atlantis and Other Places
also in 2010.
In "Catcher In The Wry" former major league baseball player, Bob
Uecker , recounts anecdotes of his years behind the plate and on the
road, recalling the antics of his famous teammates, including Hank
Aaron, Bob Gibson, Richie Allen, and Warren Spahn.
Book censorship in the United States
* Le Monde\'s 100 Books of the Century
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* ^ Costello, Donald P., and Harold Bloom. "The Language of "The
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* ^ "Carte Blanche: Famous Firsts".
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* ^ According to
List of best-selling books . An earlier article
says more than 20 million: Yardley, Jonathan (October 19, 2004). "J.
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* ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Allusions By Elizabeth Webber,
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* ^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (October 16, 2005). "All-Time
100 Novels: The Complete List". Time.
* ^ A B "The 100 most frequently challenged books: 1990–1999".
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* ^ List of most commonly challenged books from the list of the one
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* ^ Guinn, Jeff (August 10, 2001). "\'Catcher in the Rye\' still
influences 50 years later" (fee required).
Erie Times-News . Retrieved
2007-12-18. Alternate URL
* ^ "The Big Read", BBC, April 2003. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
* ^ Salzman, Jack (1991). New essays on the Catcher in the Rye.
Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521377980 .
* ^ Costello, Donald P. (October 1959). "The Language of 'The
Catcher in the Rye'". American Speech. 34 (3): 172–182.
. doi :10.2307/454038 . Most critics who glared at The Catcher in the
Rye at the time of its publication thought that its language was a
true and authentic rendering of teenage colloquial speech.
* ^ Brooks, Bruce (May 1, 2004). "Holden at sixteen". Horn Book
Magazine . Retrieved 2007-12-19.
* ^ Menand, Louis (September 27, 2001). "Holden at fifty". The New
Yorker. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
* ^ A B C Onstad, Katrina (February 22, 2008). "Beholden to
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* ^ Graham, 33.
* ^ Svogun, Margaret Dumais (Winter 2003). "J.D. Salinger\'s The
catcher in the Rye". Explicator. 2 (2). pp. 110–113. Retrieved
* ^ Yasuhiro Takeuchi (Fall 2002). "The Burning
Carousel and the
Carnivalesque: Subversion and Transcendence at the Close of The
Catcher in the Rye". Studies in the Novel. 34 (3). pp. 320–337.
* ^ Shields, David; Salerno, Shane (2013). Salinger (Hardcover
ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. xvi. Retrieved 23 August 2015. The Catcher
Rye can best be understood as a disguised war novel. Salinger
emerged from the war incapable of believing in the heroic, noble
ideals we like to think our cultural institutions uphold. Instead of
producing a combat novel, as Norman Mailer, James Jones, and Joseph
Heller did, Salinger took the trauma of war and embedded it within
what looked to the naked eye like a coming-of-age novel.
* ^ Burger, Nash K. (July 16, 1951). "Books of The Times". The New
York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
* ^ Stern, James (July 15, 1951). "Aw, the World\'s a Crumby
Place". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
* ^ "Academy of Achievement – George H. W. Bush". The American
Academy of Achievement. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
* ^ A B C Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "The why of the Rye". BBC
News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
* ^ Gopnik, Adam. The New Yorker, February 8, 2010, p. 21
* ^ Pruchnic, Jeff. "Holden at Sixty: Reading Catcher After the Age
of Irony." Critical Insights: ------------The Catcher in The Rye
(2011): 49-63. Literary Reference Center. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
* ^ Gates, Bill. "The Best Books I Read in 2013". gatesnotes.com.
* ^ Dutra, Fernando (September 25, 2006). "U. Connecticut: Banned
Book Week celebrates freedom". The America's Intelligence Wire.
Retrieved 2007-12-20. In 1960 a teacher in Tulsa, Okla., was fired for
assigning "The Catcher in the Rye". After appealing, the teacher was
reinstated, but the book was removed from the itinerary in the school.
* ^ A B "In Cold Fear: \'The Catcher in the Rye\', Censorship,
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Language Review . April 1, 2003. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
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Corporation. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7614-2594-6 .
* ^ Andrychuk, Sylvia (February 17, 2004). "A History of J.D.
Salinger\'s The Catcher in the Rye" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. During 1981, The Catcher in the
the unusual distinction of being the most frequently censored book in
the United States, and, at the same time, the second-most frequently
taught novel in American public schools.
* ^ ""It\'s Perfectly Normal" tops ALA\'s 2005 list of most
American Library Association . Retrieved March 3,
* ^ "Top ten most frequently challenged books of 2009". American
Library Association . Retrieved 2010-09-27.
* ^ "Art or trash? It makes for endless, unwinnable debate". The
Topeka Capital-Journal . October 6, 1997. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
Another perennial target, J.D. Salinger's "Catcher in the Rye," was
challenged in Maine because of the "f" word.
* ^ A B C Mydans, Seth (September 3, 1989). "In a Small Town, a
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The New York Times
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* ^ MacIntyre, Ben (September 24, 2005). "The American banned list
reveals a society with serious hang-ups". The Times. London. Retrieved
* ^ A B Frangedis, Helen (November 1988). "Dealing with the
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Journal. 77 (7): 72–75.
JSTOR 818945 . doi :10.2307/818945 . The
foremost allegation made against Catcher is... that it teaches loose
moral codes; that it glorifies... drinking, smoking, lying,
promiscuity, and more.
* ^ Yilu Zhao (August 31, 2003). "Banned, But Not Forgotten". The
New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-20. The Catcher in the Rye,
interpreted by some as encouraging rebellion against authority...
* ^ A B Whitfield, Stephen (December 1997). "Cherished and Cursed:
Toward a Social History of The Catcher in the Rye" (PDF). The New
England Quarterly. 70 (4): 567–600.
JSTOR 366646 . doi
:10.2307/366646 . Retrieved 2012-11-02.
* ^ J. D. Salinger. Philadelphia:
Chelsea House . 2001. pp.
77–105. ISBN 0-7910-6175-2 .
* ^ Weeks, Linton (September 10, 2000). "Telling on Dad". Amarillo
Globe-News . Retrieved 2011-02-12.
* ^ Doyle, Aidan (December 15, 2003). "When books kill". Salon.com
* ^ Hamilton, Ian (1988). In Search of J. D. Salinger. New York:
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* ^ See Dr. Peter Beidler's A Reader's Companion to J. D.
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* ^ A B Maynard, Joyce (1998). At Home in the World. New York:
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* ^ "News & Features". IFILM: The Internet Movie Guide. 2004.
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* ^ Crowe, Cameron, ed. Conversations with Wilder. New York: Alfred
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* ^ A B McAllister, David (November 11, 2003). "Will J. D. Salinger
sue?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
* ^ AJ (2010-01-29). "Why
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J. D. Salinger Never Wanted A \'Catcher
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* ^ "Slim chance of Catcher in the
Rye movie – ABC News
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* ^ Connelly, Sherryl (January 29, 2010). "Could \'Catcher in the
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yes". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
* ^ Gross, Doug (June 3, 2009). "Lawsuit targets \'rip-off\' of
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* ^ Fogel, Karl. Looks like censorship, smells like censorship...
maybe it IS censorship?. QuestionCopyright.org. 2009-07-07.
* ^ A B Sutherland, John. How fanfic took over the web London
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* ^ Fan Fiction and a New Common Law'(1997)
Rebecca Tushnet ,
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* ^ Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "Why does Salinger\'s Catcher in
Rye still resonate?".
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* Graham, Sarah (2007). J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
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* Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "The why of the Rye".