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The CW
The CW
Television Network (commonly referred to as just The CW) is an American English-language broadcast television network that is operated by The CW
The CW
Network, LLC, a limited liability joint venture[2] between CBS
CBS
Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network (UPN), and Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Entertainment, a division of Time Warner, former majority owner of The WB. The network's name is an abbreviation derived from the first letters of the names of its two parent corporations ( CBS
CBS
and Warner Bros.). The CW
The CW
made its debut on September 18, 2006, after its two predecessors, UPN
UPN
and The WB, respectively ceased independent operations on September 15 and 17 of that year. The CW's first two nights of programming – on September 18 and 19, 2006 – consisted of reruns and launch-related specials. The CW
The CW
marked its formal launch date on September 20, 2006, with the two-hour premiere of the seventh cycle of America's Next Top Model. Originally, the network's programming lineup was intended to appeal mainly to women between the ages of 18 and 34,[3] although starting in 2011 the network increased in programming that appeals to men.[4] As of August 2017, the CW's audience is 50% male and 50% female.[5] The network currently runs programming six days a week: airing Monday through Fridays in the afternoon and in prime time, along with a Saturday morning live-action educational programming block produced by Litton Entertainment
Litton Entertainment
called One Magnificent Morning. It is also available in Canada on cable, satellite and IPTV
IPTV
providers through stations owned-and-operated by CBS Corporation
CBS Corporation
and affiliates that are located within proximity to the Canada–United States border (whose broadcasts of CW shows are subject to simultaneous substitution laws imposed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, if a Canadian network holds the broadcast rights); it is also available through two affiliates owned by Tribune Media
Tribune Media
that are classified in the United States as superstations – New York City affiliate WPIX
WPIX
and Los Angeles affiliate KTLA. Additionally, the CW is available in Mexico through affiliates located near the Mexico–U.S. border
Mexico–U.S. border
(such as KFMB-DT2/San Diego-Tijuana, KECY-DT3 in El Centro, California, KVIA-DT2 in El Paso, and KCWT-CD with simulcasters KFXV-LD2 and KNVO-DT4 in McAllen–Brownsville, Texas) on pay television providers. In both Canada and Mexico, some CW affiliate signals originating from the U.S. are receivable over-the-air in border areas depending on the station's signal coverage.

Contents

1 History

1.1 1993–2006: Origins 1.2 2006–2011: Ostroff era 1.3 2011–present: Pedowitz era

2 Programming

2.1 Network programming and scheduling 2.2 News
News
programming 2.3 Children's programming

3 Stations

3.1 Overview 3.2 Launch repercussions 3.3 Affiliate distribution 3.4 Digital multicasting and cable television 3.5 Station standardization 3.6 Affiliate issues

3.6.1 Problems with Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable 3.6.2 Pappas Telecasting bankruptcy 3.6.3 Marianas Media bankruptcy 3.6.4 Tribune's relations with The CW 3.6.5 Roberts Broadcasting bankruptcy

4 Related services

4.1 Video-on-demand services 4.2 The CW
The CW
HD 4.3 CW Seed

5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] 1993–2006: Origins[edit] Main articles: The WB
The WB
and UPN

The CW's original pre-launch logo. At the network's first upfront presentation on May 18, 2006, the provisional blue-and-white rectangle logo that was used during the network's formation announcement in January was replaced by a green-and-white, curved-letter insignia that drew comparisons to the logo used by CNN, another company with Time Warner ownership interest.

The CW
The CW
is a successor to The WB
The WB
and UPN, both of which launched within one week of each other in 1995.[6] UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
both began just as the Fox network had started to secure a foothold with American television audiences. The two networks launched to limited fanfare and generally mediocre to poor results. However, over the subsequent 11​1⁄2 seasons, both were able to air several series that became quite popular (such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Star Trek: Voyager, 7th Heaven, Dawson's Creek
Dawson's Creek
and Charmed). Towards the end of their first decade on the air, The WB
The WB
and UPN
UPN
were in decline, unable to reach the audience share or have the effect that Fox had gained within its first decade, much less that of the Big Three networks (ABC, CBS
CBS
and NBC). In the eleven years that UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
were in operation, the two networks lost a combined $2 billion.[7] Incidentally, Chris-Craft Industries, Viacom and Time Warner officials had discussed a possible merger of UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
as early as September 1995, only eight months after their respective launches; however, discussions ultimately broke down over issues on how to combine Chris-Craft and Tribune Broadcasting's station interests in the proposal to merge the networks, since the two companies' station portfolios overlapped with one another in several major markets[8] than facing questionable futures as separate networks. Executives from CBS
CBS
and Time Warner
Time Warner
announced on Tuesday, January 24, 2006,[9] that they would respectively shut down UPN
UPN
and The WB, and combine resources to form a new broadcast network, to be known as The CW, that would – at the outset – feature programming from both of its predecessors-to-be as well as new content developed specifically for the new network.[10][11] CBS
CBS
chairman Leslie Moonves
Leslie Moonves
explained that the name of the new network was formed from the first letters of CBS
CBS
and Warner Bros, joking, "We couldn't call it the WC for obvious reasons." Although some executives reportedly disliked the new name, Moonves stated in March 2006[12] that there was "zero chance" the name would change, citing research claiming 48% of the target demographic were already aware of the CW name. In May 2006, The CW
The CW
announced that it would pick up a combined thirteen programs from its two predecessors to air as part of the network's inaugural fall schedule: seven series held over from The WB (7th Heaven, Beauty and the Geek, Gilmore Girls, One Tree Hill, Reba, Smallville
Smallville
and Supernatural) and six held over from UPN
UPN
(America's Next Top Model, Veronica Mars, Everybody Hates Chris, Girlfriends, All of Us and WWE
WWE
SmackDown). Upon the network's launch, The CW
The CW
chose to use the scheduling model utilized by The WB
The WB
due in part to the fact that it had a more extensive base programming schedule than UPN, allowing for a larger total of weekly programming hours for the new network to fill. ( The WB
The WB
carried 30 hours of programming each week because of its having a children's program block and a daytime lineup that UPN
UPN
did not offer; UPN
UPN
was primarily a prime time-only network with 12 weekly hours of network programming at the time of the network's shutdown).[13] 2006–2011: Ostroff era[edit] Like both UPN
UPN
and The WB, The CW
The CW
targets its programming towards younger audiences. CBS
CBS
and Time Warner
Time Warner
hoped that combining their networks' schedules and affiliate lineups would strengthen The CW
The CW
into a fifth "major" broadcast network. One week before the network's official launch, on September 11, 2006, a new, full version of the network website, www.cwtv.com, was launched; the website began to feature more in-depth information about The CW's shows. The CW
The CW
launched with a premiere special/launch party from the CBS-produced Entertainment Tonight
Entertainment Tonight
at Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Studios in Burbank, California on September 18, 2006, after a repeat of the tenth-season finale of 7th Heaven;[14] the same schedule was repeated on September 19, with the sixth-season finale of Gilmore Girls
Gilmore Girls
airing in the second hour of prime time.[15] The network continued to air season finales from the previous season through the remainder of the first week, except for America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model
and WWE
WWE
SmackDown, which respectively began their new seasons on September 20 and 22, with two-hour premieres. When Top Model made its network premiere on September 20, 2006, The CW
The CW
scored a 3.4 rating/5 share (with hourly ratings of 3.1/5 and 3.6/6; The CW
The CW
placed fifth overall) in the Nielsen household ratings. It scored a 2.6 rating among Adults 18–49, finishing fourth in that age demographic and beating the 2.2 rating earned by Fox on that night. The network's second week consisted of season and series premieres for all of its other series from September 25 to October 1, with the exception of Veronica Mars, which debuted its third season on October 3.[16] Despite having several of the most popular programs carried over from UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
as part of its schedule, The CW
The CW
– even though it experienced some success with newer programs that launched in subsequent seasons which became modest hits – largely struggled to gain an audience foothold throughout its first five years on the air. Because of declining viewership for the network during the 2007–08 season and effects from the Writers Guild of America strike, the network announced on March 4, 2008, that it would eliminate its comedy department (dismissing executive vice president of comedy Kim Fleary, and senior vice president of comedy Steve Veisel), while also combining its drama and current programming departments into a single scripted programming unit. The corporate restructuring – which also included the elimination of certain positions, other newly opened positions being left unfilled, layoffs from the Kids' WB
Kids' WB
unit (as the block was set to be replaced by The CW4Kids on May 24), and the elimination and transfer of marketing positions at The CW Plus
The CW Plus
to the network's marketing department – resulted in the layoffs of around 25 to 30 employees.[17][18] On May 9, 2008, The CW
The CW
announced that it would lease its Sunday lineup (then running from 5:00 to 10:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific Time)[19][20] to production company Media Rights Capital
Media Rights Capital
(MRC). As Sundays have historically been a low-rated night for the network during its first two seasons on the air (due to stiff competition from CBS, ABC and Fox's strong Sunday lineups, and complicated further by NBC's acquisition of Sunday Night Football in September 2006, shortly before The CW
The CW
debuted), the move allowed The CW
The CW
to concentrate on its Monday through Saturday prime time schedule, while giving MRC the right to develop and schedule programs of its own choosing and reap advertising revenue generated by the lineup. The Sunday series that were scheduled – two reality series ( 4Real and In Harm's Way) and two scripted series (romantic dramedy Valentine and drama Easy Money) – performed poorly in the ratings (averaging only 1.04 million viewers[21]), prompting The CW
The CW
to scrap its agreement with MRC and program Sunday nights on its own starting on November 30, 2008. With no first-run programming available to run on Sundays as a backup, the network added reruns of The Drew Carey Show
The Drew Carey Show
and Jericho, and movies to replace the MRC-produced programs.[22] One of the shows carried over to the network from UPN, WWE
WWE
Friday Night SmackDown, ended its run on The CW
The CW
after the September 26, 2008, episode due to negotiations ending between the WWE
WWE
and The CW
The CW
on renewing the program. Representatives for The CW
The CW
later confirmed that it had chosen not to continue carrying SmackDown because the network had redefined its target audience as exclusively females 18 to 34 years old,[7] whereas Smackdown targeted a predominately male audience – although it continued to air some shows that targeted male viewers afterward, such as Smallville
Smallville
and Supernatural. Following Smackdown's move to MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
that same season, the Fox-owned network (which launched the same month as The CW's debut, albeit two weeks earlier, on September 5, 2006) began beating The CW
The CW
in the Friday ratings every week from that program's debut on the network, though The CW
The CW
continued to beat MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
overall.[23] The CW
The CW
has generally struggled in the Nielsen ratings since its inception, primarily placing fifth in all statistics tabulated by Nielsen (total audience viewership and demographic ratings). On several occasions, The CW
The CW
has even been outrated by Spanish language network Univision. This had led to speculation within the industry (including a May 16, 2008 article in The Wall Street Journal[7]) that CBS, Time Warner
Time Warner
or both companies could abandon the venture if ratings did not improve. However, The CW's fortunes were buoyed in the 2008–09 and 2009–10 television seasons thanks to increased ratings among females in the 18–34 demographic and the buzz that some of its newer series (such as Gossip Girl, 90210 and The Vampire Diaries) had generated with audiences. Executives with CBS Corporation
CBS Corporation
and Time Warner also emphasized their commitment to the network.[24] On May 5, 2009, The CW
The CW
announced that it would give the five hours of network time on Sundays back to its affiliated stations that fall, effectively becoming a weeknight-only network in prime time, in addition to The CW Daytime and The CW4Kids blocks (the latter block, airing on Saturday mornings, would remain the only weekend programming supplied by the network).[25][26] This, in turn, resulted in the discontinuance of the Sunday late afternoon repeat block that The CW inherited from The WB
The WB
(formerly branded by that network as "EasyView") through its use of the predecessor network's scheduling model. Subsequently, in mid-May, 65% of The CW's affiliates, including those carrying The CW
The CW
Plus, signed agreements to continue to air the replacement MGM Showcase movie package on Sundays, which was offered as a traditional syndicated film package meant for The CW's former prime time slot on that night.[27] 2011–present: Pedowitz era[edit] On April 28, 2011, Mark Pedowitz was appointed by the network to succeed original president of entertainment Dawn Ostroff; Pedowitz assumed broader responsibilities in The CW's business operations than Ostroff had, as the network's first president.[28] As president of entertainment, Ostroff oversaw entertainment operations while John Maatta, the network's chief operating officer, handled business affairs; both reported to a board composed of CBS
CBS
and Warner Bros. executives. Maatta began reporting to Pedowitz as a result of the latter's appointment as network president.[28] Pedowitz revealed that the core target demographic of the network would not change, though The CW
The CW
would attempt to lure new viewers. Pedowitz began looking to bring comedies back to The CW
The CW
after former president, Dawn Ostroff, publicly declared that the difficulty of developing comedies for its target demographic as the reason for their removal from the network following the 2008–09 season (with Everybody Hates Chris, and The Game – a spin-off of Girlfriends – becoming the last comedies to be cancelled).[29] The network also ordered more episodes of its original series and ran them consecutively through the first week of December, starting on September 12, without repeats.[30] In July 2012, Pedowitz no longer referred to the target demographic of The CW
The CW
as women 18-34, but rather that it would now be an "18-34 adult network".[4] The 2012-13 season saw the network move into a new creative direction under new president Mark Pedowitz. The introduction of action-superhero series Arrow (based on DC Comics' Green Arrow franchise) received favorable reviews from critics and became a hit with audiences when it premiered. As evidence of the network's refocusing toward a more inclusive audience, Arrow not only premiered to some of the highest viewership totals in the network's history (the third highest overall as of 2015[update], behind the series premieres of The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries
and The Flash), it also gave the network its strongest performance in the demographic of males 18-34 since Smallville
Smallville
ended its run in May 2011. The strength of Arrow, combined with the stability of The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries
and a rejuvenated Supernatural gave The CW
The CW
a much needed win for the season. However, the network's other creative swings in Emily Owens, M.D.
Emily Owens, M.D.
and Cult were not successful and were canceled after one season, in addition, fan favorite, Gossip Girl, ended after six seasons and once breakout hit 90210 was cancelled due to declining ratings. The remaining freshman lineup of Beauty & the Beast and The Carrie Diaries performed adequately enough for renewal. During this season, the network introduced an image campaign under the "TV Now" slogan, in part to emphasize the availability of CW content across television, computer and mobile platforms.[31] The 2013-14 season saw the network continue to build on its newfound stability with the introduction of The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries
spin-off, The Originals. Paired with Supernatural, this combo led The CW
The CW
to success on a new night. Arrow continued to perform strongly, however its new companion, the highly anticipated The Tomorrow People fizzled out and was canceled despite a promising start. Freshman period-piece Reign performed adequately enough to earn a renewal. Mid-season entry The 100 proved to be a success, however fellow mid-season entry Star-Crossed did not fare as well and was canceled. The network finally found success with its summer programming in 2013, with the revival of the U.S. version of the improv comedy series Whose Line Is It Anyway?, which later became part of the network's fall-to-spring schedule. The 2014–15 season saw the premieres of three critically acclaimed shows that also earned strong ratings: Arrow spin-off The Flash, the freshman comedy-drama Jane the Virgin
Jane the Virgin
(loosely adapted from the Venezuelan telenovela Juana la Virgen), and freshman offbeat crime dramedy iZombie (a loose adaptation based on DC's Vertigo comic book series of the same name). The Flash surpassed The Vampire Dairies as the highest-rated premiere in the network's history and became the most watched show on the network. Jane the Virgin, meanwhile, earned some of the highest critical praise of any series during the 2014–15 television season, and during its first season, became the first CW series ever to have been nominated for and win a Golden Globe Award (with lead actress Gina Rodriguez winning the Golden Globe for "Best Actress in a Comedy or Variety Series"). iZombie, which premiered as a mid-season replacement, earned both strong ratings (at one point becoming the third highest-rated show on The CW) and critical acclaim. Overall, the network ended the 2014–15 season posting its highest average total viewership in a single television season since 2007–08 with 2.15 million viewers, a 12% increase in total viewership year-to-year; The CW
The CW
also posted its highest seasonal demographic ratings among males ages 18–49 with a 0.8 share.[32] The network's Summer 2015 schedule also saw the debut of Significant Mother, the first original half-hour sitcom to air on The CW
The CW
since 2009 (other scripted half-hour comedies have aired on the network since that time, consisting of imported series acquired by The CW
The CW
through distribution deals with Canadian and British producers). The 2015–16 season saw two shows that receive similar success: the freshman musical comedy-drama Crazy Ex-Girlfriend and the Arrow/Flash spin-off DC's Legends of Tomorrow. Crazy Ex-Girlfriend became one of the most critically acclaimed shows of the season and became the second show on the network to be nominated and win a Golden Globe Award (with actress Rachel Bloom
Rachel Bloom
winning a Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actress in a Comedy or Variety Series); DC's Legends of Tomorrow, meanwhile, earned high ratings for the network and became the most watched show on the network's Thursday night block in two years. On the other hand, Containment was cancelled following mixed reviews and falling ratings (although the series had been promoted as being a limited series).[33] The 2016–17 season saw mixed fortunes with CBS
CBS
transplant Supergirl providing a boost to the lineup, while freshmen series Frequency and No Tomorrow failed to live up to ratings expectations and were canceled.[34][35] Critically acclaimed freshman series Riverdale fared better, securing a renewal despite modest ratings.[36] On February 14, 2018, The CW
The CW
announced that it will add a 2-hour prime time block on Sunday nights beginning in Fall 2018, returning the network to Sundays for the first time since the lease to Media Rights Capital ended in 2009, as well as expanding The CW's prime time slate from 10 hours to 12. Discussions with CBS
CBS
and Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
about the expansion began as early as July 2017; both gave their approval on the move that December, with the network reaching clearance deals with key affiliate partners in early 2018.[37][38] Programming[edit] Network programming and scheduling[edit] Main article: List of programs broadcast by The CW The CW
The CW
airs its prime time programming for only two hours on Monday through Friday evenings, compared to the three hours on Monday through Saturdays and four hours on Sunday nights programmed by the three longest-established networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC. This "common prime" scheduling (which was originated by Fox when it launched its prime time schedule in April 1987, and later adopted by CW predecessors The WB and UPN
UPN
when they launched in January 1995) allows the option for affiliates to air either a local newscast, syndicated programming or both during the 10:00–11:00 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time) time period. As with The WB
The WB
and UPN, The CW
The CW
does not run network programming on Saturday nights – even though it maintains a syndicated children's program block on Saturday mornings – allowing affiliates to run syndicated programs, sports, movies or network programs that were preempted from earlier in the week because of special programming carried by the station, in the 8:00–10:00 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific) time period (MyNetworkTV also does not carry any weekend prime time programming, having turned network time on Saturday evenings over to its affiliates in March 2007[39]). The CW
The CW
is also tied with NBC
NBC
(if its morning news program Today is not counted) for the fewest daytime hours programmed by any of the major broadcast networks, running only one hour of programming each weekday afternoon (compared to 4​1⁄2 daytime hours on CBS
CBS
and three hours on ABC). The CW, unlike the "Big Four" broadcast networks, also does not air any national newscasts, network-supplied sports, or late-night programming. Because of these factors, The CW's affiliates handle the responsibility of programming non-network time periods, with the majority of its stations filling those slots mainly with syndicated programming. However, some of the network's affiliates broadcast their own local news and/or sports programs (either produced by the station itself or through outsourcing agreements with an affiliate of another network). Many affiliates also carry telecasts of basketball, football and in some cases, other collegiate sporting events (such as baseball or hockey) that are produced by syndicators such as American Sports Network and Raycom Sports, while a few (mainly those owned by Tribune Broadcasting, such as former Chicago affiliate WGN-TV) carry games from local teams of major professional sports leagues such as Major League Baseball and the NBA. As of October 2017[update], The CW
The CW
currently provides 18 hours of regularly scheduled network programming each week, over the course of six days. The network provides ten hours of prime time programming to its owned-and-operated and affiliated stations on Monday through Fridays from 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific Time. Outside of prime time, an hour of daytime programming is also offered Monday through Fridays from 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. in all time zones, in the form of talk show The Robert Irvine Show (though a few affiliates – such as WPIX
WPIX
in New York City, WPWR-TV
WPWR-TV
in Chicago, KDAF
KDAF
in Dallas-Fort Worth, KPXJ
KPXJ
in Shreveport and WCCB
WCCB
in Charlotte
Charlotte
– carry the show earlier in the afternoon); while weekend programming consists solely of a three-hour educational programming block called "One Magnificent Morning" (which airs as part of the CW schedule through a time-lease agreement with Litton Entertainment) on Saturday mornings from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. in all time zones. The weekday daytime hour provided by the network and the Litton-produced Saturday morning block (the latter of which is subject to scheduling variances similar to the weekday hour in some markets, such as in Atlanta
Atlanta
and San Diego) are designed to be tape delayed and are therefore recommended to air in the same time slot in all time zones, though both are broadcast one hour earlier on affiliates of The CW Plus in the Central, Mountain and Alaska Time Zones. In Guam, CW Plus affiliate KTKB-LD
KTKB-LD
in Hagåtña airs the CW schedule day and date on a one-day tape delay from its initial broadcast because of the time difference between Guam
Guam
and the continental United States as the island is on the west side of the International Date Line. As of 2018, Supernatural (which originally aired on The WB) is the only CW series carried over from either of the network's respective predecessors that continues to be broadcast on the network. The CW
The CW
formerly aired short segments during commercial breaks within certain episodes of its programs known as "Content Wraps" – a play on the network's name – in order to advertise one company's product during part or the entirety of a commercial break. The entertainment magazine series CW Now
CW Now
was inspired in part by the success of the Content Wraps as it was intended to be a series with product placement;[40] the program was cancelled in 2008, after a single 23-episode season. For the 2006–07 season, The CW
The CW
reached an agreement with American Eagle Outfitters
American Eagle Outfitters
to incorporate tie-ins with the company's aerie clothing line as part of the Content Wrap concept within the network's Tuesday night schedule, which included subjects in the commercials commenting on plot points in each of the shows.[41] The agreement was cut down to regular advertising in February 2007, after a fan backlash by viewers of both shows and general criticism of the campaign.[42] News
News
programming[edit] The CW
The CW
does not produce any national news content, and the majority of its affiliates do not have their own news operations. As of April 2017[update], the network currently has only eight affiliates that produce their own local news programming, most of which were carry-overs from previous affiliations: WPIX
WPIX
in New York City and KTLA in Los Angeles started their news departments as independent stations and/or during early affiliations with other networks including DuMont; WCCB
WCCB
in Charlotte, North Carolina[43] started its news operation as a Fox affiliate; WISH-TV
WISH-TV
in Indianapolis[44] (which became a CW affiliate on January 1, 2015) started its news operation as an ABC affiliate before affiliating with CBS
CBS
in 1956; WDCW
WDCW
in Washington, D.C. uses reporters from Tribune's local bureau and anchors based from the studios of sister CBS
CBS
station WTVR in Richmond, Virginia, and KDAF in Dallas, KIAH
KIAH
in Houston
Houston
and WSFL-TV
WSFL-TV
in Miami use non-traditional formats (in the form of a newsreel-style program known as NewsFix). KTLA
KTLA
has the largest number of weekly hours devoted to local news programming of any CW affiliate with 66½ hours each week. Four other CW-affiliated stations maintained in-house news operations, but have since disaffiliated from the network or discontinued in-house production:

WGN-TV
WGN-TV
in Chicago has maintained a news department since it launched as a CBS
CBS
affiliate in 1948; the station – which, along with sister stations KTLA
KTLA
and WPIX, transitioned into a news-intensive outlet during its tenure with The CW
The CW
– retains a news-heavy format after disaffiliating from the network in September 2016; Under Tribune Broadcasting
Tribune Broadcasting
ownership, WLVI
WLVI
in Boston
Boston
produced an in-house 10:00 p.m. newscast, which was replaced in December 2006 with one produced by then- NBC
NBC
affiliate (now independent) WHDH, after Tribune sold WLVI
WLVI
to that station's longtime owner Sunbeam Television; XETV-TDT
XETV-TDT
in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico (serving the San Diego market) retained the news department it launched in 1999 as a Fox affiliate when it joined The CW
The CW
in August 2008; XETV's news department shut down on March 31, 2017, following the earlier announcement that the CW affiliation in San Diego
San Diego
would move to a subchannel of CBS affiliate KFMB-TV;[45] In April 2012, KCWI-TV
KCWI-TV
in Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines, Iowa
broadcast a morning news and talk program, which transitioned from an in-house production to a production of ABC affiliate WOI-DT
WOI-DT
on April 11, 2016, as a result of Nexstar Broadcasting's acquisition of KCWI.[46]

News
News
programming on CW affiliates – if the station carries any – is often outsourced to another major network affiliate in the market, especially if they are operated as part of a duopoly or management agreement, such as Tribune's respective CW-Fox duopolies of KWGN-TV/ KDVR
KDVR
in Denver
Denver
and KPLR-TV/ KTVI
KTVI
in St. Louis (the Fox stations in both duopolies – KDVR
KDVR
and KTVI
KTVI
– were formerly owned by Local TV, with Tribune-owned KWGN and KPLR respectively consolidating with those stations through local marketing agreements formed as part of a wider partnership involving Local TV, which Tribune bought outright in 2013);[47] Evansville, Indiana
Evansville, Indiana
affiliate WTVW
WTVW
(which joined The CW
The CW
in January 2013) and ABC affiliate WEHT
WEHT
(a virtual duopoly formed through Nexstar Broadcasting Group's 2011 purchase of WEHT
WEHT
and trade of WTVW to partner group Mission Broadcasting);[48] and the CW- CBS
CBS
O&O duopoly of KMAX-TV/ KOVR
KOVR
in Sacramento (the former of which has produced a morning newscast since it was a UPN
UPN
station, and – despite the two becoming a duopoly in 2005 – has remained separate from a competing program on KOVR, which produces a late-evening newscast for KMAX). The scheduling of news programming on The CW's affiliates often mirrors that of Fox stations, with morning newscasts (designed to compete with the national morning shows on ABC, CBS
CBS
and NBC
NBC
within the 7:00–9:00 a.m. timeslot; in duopolies, these are typically an extension of a sister station's morning newscast) and a prime time newscast within the 10:00–11:00 p.m. Eastern/Pacific (9:00–10:00 p.m. Central/Mountain) time slot. Rarely (but more common on the few major-market CW affiliates with in-house news departments), they may also include midday and/or early evening newscasts. Children's programming[edit] Main articles: Kids' WB, Toonzai, Vortexx, and One Magnificent Morning On September 23, 2006, the Kids' WB
Kids' WB
children's programming block – which originated on The WB
The WB
in September 1995 and continued to be produced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television – was carried over to The CW
The CW
as part of its inaugural programming lineup; although the network on which it originated ceased operations the week before, the "Kids' WB" branding was retained for the block. On October 2, 2007, through a joint decision between corporate parents Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television and CBS
CBS
Corporation, The CW
The CW
announced that it would discontinue the Kids' WB block due to competition from cable channels aimed at the demographic (such as Cartoon Network, which carried many series shared with the block and vice versa, Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon
and Disney Channel), as well as the effects of children's advertising limits, and would sell the programming rights to the network's Saturday morning block to 4Kids Entertainment (which at the time of the announcement, had produced a competing children's programming block, 4Kids TV, for Fox).[49] Kids' WB
Kids' WB
ended its run on May 17, 2008 (though some CW affiliates that delayed the block to Sundays, such as Atlanta
Atlanta
O&O WUPA, aired the block for the last time on May 18). The following week on May 24, 4Kids took over responsibility for The CW's Saturday morning children's lineup, with the debut of a new block called The CW4Kids. The block's lineup initially consisted mostly of programs carried over from Kids' WB, before eventually adding 4Kids-produced shows such as Chaotic as well as new seasons of Yu-Gi-Oh!
Yu-Gi-Oh!
and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.[50] The block was rebranded into Toonzai
Toonzai
on August 14, 2010 (though The CW4Kids name was retained as a sub-brand to fulfill branding obligations that the network had to comply with per 4Kids Entertainment's contract to lease The CW's Saturday morning timeslots); Toonzai
Toonzai
ended its run on August 18, 2012. On July 3, 2012, Saban Brands and Kidsco Media Ventures, affiliates of Saban Capital Group, entered into an agreement to program the five-hour Saturday morning time slot with a new action-adventure and comedy programming block for The CW.[51][52] TheCW4Kids/ Toonzai
Toonzai
was replaced by Vortexx
Vortexx
on August 25, 2012, featuring programs such as Power Rangers Lost Galaxy
Power Rangers Lost Galaxy
and WWE
WWE
Saturday Morning Slam, the latter of which marked the return of WWE
WWE
programming to the network since WWE Smackdown moved to MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
in 2008.[53] On June 5, 2014, The CW
The CW
announced an agreement with Litton Entertainment to program a block of live-action series designed to comply with the FCC's educational programming guidelines. Vortexx (which was the last remaining non-educational children's block on the major U.S. broadcast networks) was replaced by One Magnificent Morning on October 4, 2014.[54][55] The block features a mix of wildlife and lifestyle-themed programs, similar in vein to those featured on the Litton-produced blocks aired by ABC and CW sister network CBS
CBS
(one of its initial programs, Expedition Wild, was moved over to "One Magnificent Morning" from the ABC block; while one of the CW block's early entries, Rock the Park, moved to "Litton's Weekend Adventure" after one season).[56][57] On January 7, 2016, The CW
The CW
and Litton announced a five-year renewal for the block, extending it through the 2020–21 broadcast season.[58] Starting with the 2017–18 broadcast season, the block's running time was reduced to three hours and began airing from 8:00am to 11:00am. The CW
The CW
returned the two hours of reclaimed time to the affiliates.[59] Stations[edit] Main articles: List of The CW
The CW
Television Network affiliates (table), List of The CW
The CW
Television Network affiliates (by U.S. state), The CW Plus, and CBS
CBS
Television Stations As of November 2017[update], The CW
The CW
has eight owned-and-operated stations, and current and pending affiliation agreements with 209 additional television stations encompassing 46 states, the District of Columbia and three U.S. possessions.[60][61][62] Counting only conventional CW affiliates and over-the-air affiliates of The CW
The CW
Plus, the network has an estimated combined national reach of 100% of all households in the United States (or 323,107,367 Americans with at least one television set); this makes The CW
The CW
the largest U.S. broadcast network by population reach percentage. As of January 2016, four U.S. states (Delaware, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Vermont) lack a locally licensed CW affiliate, largely due to a lack of a need for a local affiliate as those states are located within the broadcast ranges of stations in nearby states. Delaware is served by Philadelphia
Philadelphia
O&O WPSG and Salisbury, Maryland
Salisbury, Maryland
affiliate WMDT-DT2, while New Hampshire and Vermont are each served by four CW stations based in surrounding states (including Boston
Boston
affiliate WLVI). New Jersey is served by WPSG and New York City affiliate WPIX. As a newer broadcast network, The CW
The CW
maintains affiliations with low-power stations (broadcasting either in analog or digital) in a few markets, such as Reno, Nevada
Reno, Nevada
(KRNS-CD) and Boise, Idaho
Boise, Idaho
(KYUU-LD). In some markets, including both of those mentioned, these stations also maintain digital simulcasts on a subchannel of a co-owned/co-managed full-power television station. The CW
The CW
also maintains a sizeable number of subchannel-only affiliations, the majority of which are with stations in cities located outside of the 50 largest Nielsen-designated markets and receive the network's programming via The CW
The CW
Plus; the largest subchannel-only CW affiliate by market size, as of May 31, 2017, is KFMB-TV
KFMB-TV
DT2 in San Diego, California. Currently, the Sinclair Broadcast Group
Sinclair Broadcast Group
is the largest operator of CW stations by numerical total, owning or providing services to 24 CW-affiliated stations, nine subchannel-only affiliates and one cable-only affiliate, covering 17% of all U.S. television markets; Tribune Broadcasting
Tribune Broadcasting
is the largest operator of CW stations in terms of overall market reach, owning or providing services to thirteen CW stations (including its three largest affiliates in New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago), covering 28% of the U.S.[63] Overview[edit] On the day of the network launch announcement, The CW
The CW
immediately announced it had reached ten-year affiliation agreements with Tribune Broadcasting and CBS
CBS
Television Stations. Tribune originally committed 16 stations that were previously affiliated with The WB
The WB
(including its flagship broadcast stations WGN-TV
WGN-TV
in Chicago, KTLA
KTLA
in Los Angeles and WPIX
WPIX
in New York City; another committed station, KSWB-TV
KSWB-TV
in San Diego, joined Fox in August 2008, and two others, WLVI-TV in Boston and WCWN
WCWN
in Albany, New York
Albany, New York
were respectively sold by Tribune to Sunbeam Television
Sunbeam Television
and Freedom Communications
Freedom Communications
shortly after the network launched), while CBS
CBS
committed 11 of its UPN
UPN
stations (including WKBD
WKBD
in Detroit, WPSG in Philadelphia, KBHK-TV (now KBCW) in San Francisco and WUPA
WUPA
in Atlanta). These stations combined to reach 48% of all television households in the United States. Both companies also owned several UPN
UPN
and WB-affiliated stations that did not join The CW
The CW
in overlapping markets (such as Seattle, Philadelphia and Dallas). As part of its affiliation agreement with the network, the Tribune Company agreed to divest its ownership interest in The WB (a move it made partly to avoid shouldering shutdown costs for The WB)[64] and did not acquire an equity stake in The CW. The network stated that it would eventually reach 95% of all U.S. television households. In markets where separate affiliates of both UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
operated, only one station became a CW affiliate. Executives were on record as preferring the "strongest" stations among The WB
The WB
and UPN's existing affiliates. As one example, the new network's first affiliate outside the core group of Tribune and CBS-owned stations, WJZY
WJZY
in Charlotte
Charlotte
(which was later acquired by Fox Television Stations and converted into a Fox O&O in July 2013), was tied with Atlanta
Atlanta
O&O WUPA
WUPA
as UPN's fifth highest-rated station. In most cases, it was obvious where the new network would affiliate; there were only a few markets (such as Philadelphia, Miami–Fort Lauderdale, Boston, Charlotte
Charlotte
and Atlanta) where the WB and UPN
UPN
affiliates were both relatively strong in terms of local overall viewership. For example, one of the earliest affiliates to be announced outside the core group, WKCF
WKCF
in Orlando, Florida, had not only been The WB's highest-rated affiliate for the virtual entirety of that network's run, but had also been the fourth highest-rated television station in Central Florida. Nearly all of The CW's affiliates were formerly affiliated with UPN
UPN
or The WB, with very few having been independent stations or affiliates of other networks prior to joining the network; a notable exception was Las Vegas affiliate KVCW, which had been a fairly successful independent before joining The CW. Although it was generally understood that The CW
The CW
was a merger of UPN
UPN
and The WB, the new network's creation was not structured as a merger in the legal sense. Rather, it was one new network launching at the same time that two others shut down, although it did assume certain programming content, operations and management from its predecessors. As such, The CW
The CW
was not obligated by existing affiliations with The WB
The WB
and UPN; it had to negotiate from scratch with individual stations. As a result, in several markets, the CW affiliation is on a local station different from either the former WB and UPN
UPN
stations (for example, the CW affiliation in Las Vegas ended up on KVCW, instead of former WB affiliate KVMY or now-defunct former UPN
UPN
affiliate KTUD-CA). The network has also affiliated with some digital subchannels, usually those launched by a local Big Four affiliate as a new service, in several other markets – especially if fewer than six commercial television stations existed at the time of affiliation, requiring The CW to carry its programming on a subchannel by default (for example, The CW
The CW
opted to affiliate with a subchannel of WKRC-TV in Cincinnati – which has only five commercial full-power stations – instead of former WB affiliate WSTR-TV, which instead became an affiliate of MyNetworkTV). Because of the availability of "instant duopoly" digital subchannels that will likely be easily available on cable and satellite, and the overall lack of a need to settle for a secondary affiliation with shows aired in problematic timeslots that would subject the timeshifted programs to lower average viewership in certain markets, both The CW
The CW
and MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
launched with far greater national coverage than that enjoyed by UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
when they both launched in January 1995. UPN, for several years, had affiliation gaps in the top 30 markets, and by 2005 managed to cover only 86% of the country. This resulted in secondary affiliations with other networks and the resulting diluted ratings when programs were shown out of their intended timeslots, or the lack of the program airing at all (a problem experienced by many fans of the Star Trek
Star Trek
franchise with Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Enterprise). Launch repercussions[edit] Further information: 2006 United States broadcast TV realignment The announcement of The CW
The CW
caused the largest single shakeup in U.S. broadcast television since the affiliation alliance between Fox and New World Communications in 1994 (as well as a separate alliance with Burnham Broadcasting that began a year later) and the subsequent launches of UPN
UPN
and The WB
The WB
the following year. While The CW's debut affected more markets, it likely did not cause the same degree of viewer confusion, as no affiliates of the four major networks dropped those affiliations to join The CW
The CW
(some "Big Four" affiliations did change at this time, but for unrelated reasons). The WB
The WB
and UPN
UPN
were the first major television networks to shut down since the collapse of the DuMont Television Network
DuMont Television Network
in August 1955, although other small broadcast television networks have also ceased operations over the years. It became clear that Fox Television Stations, which purchased several UPN-affiliated stations from that network's former co-owner Chris-Craft Industries in 2002, would be affected. Its UPN
UPN
affiliates in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Houston) did not receive affiliations with The CW, due to the agreement with Tribune, and Fox made it clear it would not even seek carriage of the network for its UPN
UPN
stations in four other markets. All network logos and references were quickly removed from Fox's UPN
UPN
stations. Shortly thereafter, Fox parent News Corporation (which spun off its American media and entertainment properties into 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
as part of the company's July 2013 corporate separation) announced that it would launch MyNetworkTV, a programming service meant to fill the two nightly prime time hours that UPN
UPN
would vacate on the network's Fox-owned affiliates after The CW launched. Fox also offered the service to stations owned by other broadcasting groups.[65][66][67] In markets where The WB
The WB
and UPN
UPN
were carried on separate stations, one of the two local outlets was left out in the merger; most of the stations that did not join The CW
The CW
had signed affiliation agreements with MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
instead, while others elected to become independent stations. Some stations (mainly digital subchannels, some cable channels that were formerly part of The WB
The WB
100+ Station Group, and struggling low-power stations) which did not affiliate with either network opted instead to shut down permanently. Affiliate distribution[edit] Like its predecessors UPN
UPN
and by technicality, The WB
The WB
(as none of Tribune Broadcasting's WB stations were considered to be O&Os since Time Warner
Time Warner
held majority ownership of that network), The CW does not have owned-and-operated stations in any of the three largest U.S. television markets – New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago. The network's largest owned-and-operated station is CBS-owned WPSG in Philadelphia, which also became UPN's largest O&O after Chris-Craft Industries (which sold most of its UPN
UPN
stations, including its affiliates in New York City and Los Angeles, to Fox Television Stations in 2001[68]) had its ownership stake in that network acquired by Viacom in March 2000[69][70] (neither UPN
UPN
nor the DuMont Television Network had an O&O in Chicago at all; a similar situation arose with DuMont's O&O in Los Angeles, present-day CW affiliate KTLA – which had disaffiliated from the network in 1948 shortly after the FCC ruled that it and WDTV in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
(now KDKA-TV, a CW corporate cousin through CBS
CBS
Corporation), to be O&Os through their then-owner Paramount Pictures' voting stock interest in DuMont). Because Tribune Broadcasting
Tribune Broadcasting
does not maintain an ownership stake in The CW, its stations in the two respective top markets ( WPIX
WPIX
and KTLA) are actually affiliates of the network; CBS Corporation
CBS Corporation
owns secondary stations – both independents – in two of the three markets, KCAL-TV
KCAL-TV
in Los Angeles and WLNY-TV
WLNY-TV
in the New York City market (however, while KCAL was owned by CBS
CBS
at the network's launch, WLNY was not acquired by CBS
CBS
until 2011; neither station carries CW programming, though, because of the network's affiliation deals with Tribune-owned stations in those markets, and in the latter case, WLNY's over-the-air signal does not serve the entire New York City market – resulting in most residents in the metropolitan area receiving the station mainly through cable or satellite – due to being licensed to the Long Island
Long Island
community of Riverhead, restricting its transmitter from being located more than 15 miles (24 km) from its city of license under FCC regulations). Unlike with The WB and UPN
UPN
(the latter network's founding owners, Chris-Craft and Viacom, both had their own station groups that formed UPN's core stations at its launch), only one of The CW's co-owners – CBS Corporation
CBS Corporation
– maintains ownership of the network's owned-and-operated stations (since the summer 2017 sale of WPCH-TV/Atlanta, Time Warner
Time Warner
holds no over-the-air assets whatsoever). Digital multicasting and cable television[edit] Unlike the other major networks, The CW
The CW
distributes its programming in small and certain mid-sized markets throughout the United States (generally those ranked among the bottom 110 Nielsen media markets) through The CW
The CW
Plus, a separate national feed that is carried on a mixture of full-power and low-power stations in some markets, and cable-only outlets and digital subchannel affiliations on major network stations in markets that do not have enough commercial stations to support a standalone CW affiliate (several of The CW Plus's digital subchannel outlets originally operated as cable-only affiliates at the network's launch). The service offers its own master schedule of syndicated and brokered programming acquired by the network (including some feature films and infomercials) during non-network programming hours, although some CW Plus affiliates may also run local newscasts produced by a major network affiliate. CW predecessor The WB
The WB
previously had two cable-only affiliate outlets: WGN America, the national superstation feed of WGN-TV
WGN-TV
at the time, from January 1995 to October 1999[71][72] and network-operated The WB 100+ Station Group (the direct predecessor to The CW
The CW
Plus), which was formed in September 1998 and had several of its cable-only outlets join The CW Plus
The CW Plus
at the CW network's launch. Not all of the network's cable-only affiliates were CW Plus outlets, WT05
WT05
in Toledo, Ohio offered its own schedule of syndicated programs during non-network hours that was programmed by its then-owner Block Communications, which also operates that market's major cable provider Buckeye CableSystem ( WT05
WT05
now exists as "CW13," having been converted into a digital subchannel of Gray Television-owned ABC affiliate WTVG
WTVG
in October 2014). Though The CW
The CW
is the only network with a station group that includes cable-only outlets, it is actually one of only three networks that have had cable-only stations within its affiliate body (ABC formerly had a cable-only affiliate in Winchester, Virginia-based TV3 Winchester
TV3 Winchester
until Gray shut the channel down in December 2013). Station standardization[edit] When The CW
The CW
launched in September 2006, the network began branding most of its affiliates using a combination of "CW" or "The CW", and at the affiliate's choice, either the station's channel number (for example, Nashville affiliate WNAB
WNAB
is branded as "CW58" and Seattle O&O KSTW
KSTW
brands as "CW11") or the name of the city or region it serves. Examples of the latter include Philadelphia
Philadelphia
O&O WPSG (known as " The CW
The CW
Philly 57" as an homage to its prior branding as an independent station), WLVI
WLVI
(known at launch as "Boston's CW", though it rebranded to "CW56" after being sold to Sunbeam Television), WUPA (known as "CW Atlanta" at launch, but is now known as "CW69"), Waco, Texas subchannel affiliate KWTX-DT2 (known as "CW Texas") and KVCW (branded as "CW Las Vegas"). Some stations also use the call sign/either within the station logo, in on-air identification or both; examples include WNLO/Buffalo, New York, WWHO/ Columbus, Ohio
Columbus, Ohio
and WBNX/Cleveland. In Omaha, Nebraska, KXVO
KXVO
uses the dual brandings of "CW15" and "Omaha's CW". In Honolulu, Hawaii, KHON-DT2 was originally branded as "Hawaii's CW 93" (the "93" refers to the subchannel's cable channel position on Oceanic Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable), before it was shortened to "Hawaii's CW" in September 2014. The branding once used by WKRC-DT2/Cincinnati, Ohio was "CinCW", a portmanteau with the common nickname for the city, "Cincy" (it now brands as " The CW
The CW
Cincinnati"). With the exceptions of WXCW/Fort Myers and (to a somewhat lesser extent) XETV/San Diego, all CW affiliates not owned by Tribune usually brand themselves using a version of the network logo. Mobile, Alabama CW affiliate WBPG, then known as "The Gulf Coast's CW" changed its call letters to WFNA in December 2009 and used a similar approach around their new call letters, before becoming known as "CW 55" in September 2012 and adopting a style reflective of The CW's branding techniques once again. WISH-TV
WISH-TV
in Indianapolis, as it had during its CBS
CBS
affiliation, continues to brand solely with its channel number and calls as " WISH-TV
WISH-TV
8". Affiliate issues[edit] Problems with Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable[edit] Some Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable subscribers around the country were unable to watch CW programming when the network debuted, as stations in several markets were not able to reach carriage deals with the provider to distribute the local affiliates. In markets like Charleston, South Carolina; El Paso, Texas; Honolulu, Hawaii; Palm Springs, California; Beaumont; Waco and Corpus Christi, Texas, where The CW
The CW
is broadcast on a digital subchannel of one of the market's major network affiliates, there were unsuccessful attempts in getting Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable to carry the subchannel affiliates[73] (CW co-parent Time Warner
Time Warner
had owned Time Warner Cable until it spun off the provider into a separate company in 2009). Some affiliates eventually signed carriage deals with Time Warner Cable, but not all of the CW affiliates received carriage on the provider's basic cable tiers (for example, Syracuse, New York affiliate WSTQ-LP
WSTQ-LP
can only be viewed on digital cable channel 266 in the Ithaca market).[74] Currently, the largest market without a known affiliate is the Johnstown–Altoona market, whose closest CW station is CBS-owned WPCW-TV/Pittsburgh, which is carried on TWC's Johnstown and Altoona area systems; WPCW
WPCW
was originally targeted to serve that area before it refocused its programming toward the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
market in the late 1990s. On February 2, 2007, Beaumont, Texas
Beaumont, Texas
CBS
CBS
station KFDM
KFDM
made its CW-affiliated subchannel available to Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable customers in the market on channel 10. On April 20, 2007, ABC affiliate KVIA-TV
KVIA-TV
in El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas
began broadcasting its CW-affiliated subchannel on Time Warner Cable channel 13.[75] On April 21, 2007, KCWQ-LP
KCWQ-LP
made its broadcast debut on channel 5 on Time Warner
Time Warner
Cable in the Palm Springs area.[76] Pappas Telecasting bankruptcy[edit] One of the network's major affiliate groups, Pappas Telecasting Companies, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy for thirteen of its television stations on May 10, 2008. Within the petition, Pappas specifically cited the network's low ratings and lackluster performance as one of many complications that had forced it to make the filing.[77] Several of the stations have since been sold either in business transactions with representatives involved in Pappas's bankruptcy proceedings or via station auction processes as the company winds down operations. Although Pappas had originally stated that none of its stations would be affected at all by the closing, two stations owned by the company that were formerly affiliated with The CW
The CW
have ceased operations. On May 29, 2008, Yakima, Washington
Yakima, Washington
affiliate KCWK (which served the south-central portion of that state) shut down and the station's offices were closed, leaving that area without locally based CW programming and forcing cable and satellite providers to carry Los Angeles affiliate KTLA
KTLA
in order to provide the network's programming to their subscribers. The situation was resolved in April 2009, when Fisher Communications
Fisher Communications
announced that its CBS
CBS
affiliates in the area, KIMA-TV
KIMA-TV
and satellite station KEPR-TV, would carry the network through digital subchannel affiliations. Subsequently, WLGA in Columbus, Georgia
Columbus, Georgia
lost its CW affiliation in April 2009 to a subchannel of NBC
NBC
affiliate WLTZ
WLTZ
because of the network's concerns about Pappas' financial state;[78] WLGA ultimately ceased operations in June 2010 as it was unable to compete in the market as an independent station; it later resumed operations in August 2012, as an affiliate of WeatherNation TV
WeatherNation TV
(it is now an Antenna TV affiliate). Marianas Media bankruptcy[edit] Marianas Media signed on KTKB-LD
KTKB-LD
in Hagåtña, Guam
Guam
as a CW affiliate on April 20, 2009, becoming the U.S. territory's fifth commercial television outlet. However, competition from other stations in the island combined with financial problems at Marianas, which was running the station under a local marketing agreement with the troubled KM Communications Inc.,[79] forced the station off the air on March 31, 2011. The station resumed operations the following year. Tribune's relations with The CW[edit] While Tribune Media
Tribune Media
has solid affiliation deals with The CW
The CW
on several of its stations, it also maintains a strong affiliation alliance with Fox. But with new management and ownership taking over Tribune in 2008, it was apparent that the company would switch one of its CW-affiliated stations to Fox (at least those in markets without a Fox owned-and-operated station or a former O&O that was acquired by Local TV, which Tribune later acquired in 2013[80]), adding to more questions surrounding The CW's future. In a March 2008 seminar by Tribune's then-chairman and CEO Sam Zell, it was revealed that the company's San Diego
San Diego
outlet KSWB-TV
KSWB-TV
would switch its affiliation from The CW
The CW
to Fox that August, with KSWB assuming the Fox affiliation from XETV-TV, which had been a Fox charter affiliate since that network's October 1986 inception. XETV (which is licensed to Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico under the ownership of Grupo Televisa
Grupo Televisa
but whose U.S. operations are programmed by Bay City Television) was not informed of Zell's deal until it was made public.[81] After the news broke, XETV planned on suing to prevent the switch on the grounds that it would violate an affiliation contract that XETV had with Fox that was not set to expire until 2010. However, on July 2, 2008, XETV announced that it would join The CW
The CW
on August 1 (the same day that KSWB became a Fox affiliate) and rebrand as "San Diego 6".[82] Though twelve of Tribune's thirteen other CW-affiliated stations have remained with the network, all of them began to de-emphasize the network from their branding (e.g., "CW 11") in favor of one with a stronger local identity. On-air branding that excised the CW name began being implemented by the stations in July 2008, either on-air (in the case of KWGN-TV) or through their websites (as part of a redesign for all of the Tribune stations' websites).[83] Some of these stations eventually began reincorporating the CW branding starting in 2011, such as KDAF/Dallas, KIAH/ Houston
Houston
and KRCW-TV/Portland, Oregon. Tribune Company president and CEO Peter Liguori said in a May 2014 discussion at the MoffettNathanson Media & Communications Summit that he was "not pleased with where the CW is [in regards to its ratings performance]," stating that the network "should not program to [young] people who don't watch [conventional] television." Liguori also stated that he would consider collaborating with the network in regards to improving its programming slate, possibly by incorporating programs from the company's Tribune Studios unit (a production division which launched shortly after Liguori was appointed president of Tribune in November 2013) onto the network, as well as having Tribune play a larger role in The CW's management.[84] Speaking at Goldman Sachs' 23rd Annual Communacopia Conference in September 2014, Les Moonves acknowledged that Tribune had been looking for more input in how the network is programmed and noted that Liguori is a former programmer (having previously served in executive roles at Fox, FX and Discovery Communications), saying that "[Liguori] would like to participate. He has some good ideas. He's part of our team. Will there be some change in how the CW is structured going forward? I don't know." Moonves went on to reiterate that Tribune is "a very important part of [CBS'] future" (considering that Tribune had recently acquired the CBS
CBS
affiliation for its Indianapolis
Indianapolis
station and then-CW affiliate WTTV, following disagreements between CBS
CBS
and longtime affiliate WISH-TV, which would eventually take over the CW affiliation in January 2015, over reverse compensation demands by the network).[85] In an October 2014 interview with Broadcasting & Cable, Liguori appeared to reverse course on his previous statements and spoke of Tribune's support of the network. Liguori said in a statement, "We are very encouraged by the recent uptick in The CW['s] ratings and the positive critical response to the new primetime lineup. In particular, [CW CEO Mark Pedowitz] has put in place a programming strategy that will help the network appeal to a wider, more inclusive audience, which is important for our stations across the country. We were glad to support the launch of the new shows through editorial and promotional initiatives, and we look forward to more continued collaboration to build upon this momentum."[86] In January 2016, The CW
The CW
and Tribune began negotiations on a new affiliation deal, as the original 10-year agreement signed at the network's inception was approaching its end. Complicating matters was the desire by The CW's parent companies, CBS
CBS
and Warner Bros., to stream the network's programming as a standalone pay OTT service. The impasse in negotiations resulted in a months-long standoff between the two groups.[87] On May 23, 2016, The CW
The CW
and Tribune announced they had come to a new affiliation agreement. As part of the deal, Tribune's Chicago flagship WGN-TV
WGN-TV
would leave the network and revert to being an independent station after nearly 21 years of being affiliated with The CW
The CW
and its predecessor network, The WB. A major factor in this decision is WGN-TV's large use of local sports programming, which led to many pre-emptions of the CW while WGN-TV
WGN-TV
has had to move as many as 30 games a year to another local station in Chicago.[88] The CW affiliation moved to WPWR-TV, a Fox Television Stations-owned MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
station.[89] Roberts Broadcasting bankruptcy[edit] Roberts Broadcasting filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on October 7, 2011; the company cited the loss of the UPN
UPN
affiliations on its stations in St. Louis (WRBU), Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina
(WZRB) and Jackson, Mississippi
Jackson, Mississippi
(WRBJ-TV) when that network shut down in favor of The CW
The CW
in 2006, as much of UPN's programming consisted of minority-targeted programs that Roberts felt were compatible with their stations' target audiences (though the stations have since recovered from this setback; additionally, its station in Evansville, Indiana, WAZE-TV, had instead affiliated with The WB
The WB
prior to 2006, as it was owned by South Central Communications until February 2007). The company had also been hit with lawsuits from Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television, Twentieth Television
Twentieth Television
and CBS
CBS
Television Distribution over its failure to pay fees for syndicated programming; Roberts eventually settled with Twentieth but lost the Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
and CBS
CBS
cases.[90][91] On March 24, 2011, the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) canceled WAZE's license for Roberts' failure to construct its digital transmitter facilities.[92] However, the station continued to broadcast via its three-station analog translator network. On February 20, 2012, Roberts Broadcasting announced that it was exploring the possibility of selling one or all four of its television stations in order to raise enough cash to pay off its creditors.[93] On October 22, 2012, Roberts announced that it had sold WRBJ to the Trinity Broadcasting Network;[94] the deal was approved by a bankruptcy court on January 17, 2013,[95] with TBN officially taking over operational control of WRBJ five months later on May 24[96] (The CW would return to the Jackson market on the second digital subchannel of CBS
CBS
affiliate WJTV
WJTV
in September 2013). On January 3, 2013, the repeater network of WAZE ceased operations; later that month on January 28, independent station WTVW
WTVW
hurriedly joined The CW, in order to maintain the network in the Evansville area.[97] On December 2, 2013, Roberts filed to sell WZRB to Radiant Light Ministries, a subsidiary of Tri-State Christian Television, for $2 million.[98] On December 4, Roberts also filed to sell WRBU to TCT for $5.5 million.[99] However, on December 11, the United States bankruptcy court gave initial approval for a plan by Roberts's creditors to instead transfer WRBU, WZRB and the WAZE repeaters to a trust with Ion Media Networks
Ion Media Networks
(a creditor in Roberts's chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings) as its beneficiary, with Roberts' attorney subsequently stating that Ion would purchase the stations for $7.75 million.[100][101] Roberts had earlier proposed an alternate plan that would have had only the WAZE repeaters be transferred to the trust, which would have allowed the sale of WRBU and WZRB to TCT.[100] The CW affiliation in Columbia moved to WKTC
WKTC
(with MyNetworkTV, which the station had already been affiliated with, being relegated to a secondary affiliation) in March 2014,[102] after temporarily remaining on WZRB after its conversion into an Ion Television
Ion Television
O&O the previous month. Related services[edit] Video-on-demand services[edit] The CW
The CW
provides video on demand access for delayed viewing of full episodes of the network's programming through various means, including via its website at CW TV.com
TV.com
and its mobile app for iOS and Android devices (with programs streamable over 3G and WiFi
WiFi
networks), a traditional VOD service – called The CW
The CW
on Demand – that is available on most traditional cable and IPTV
IPTV
providers, and through content deals with Hulu, iTunes and Netflix.[103][104] On January 14, 2007, The CW
The CW
began streaming full-length episodes of several of its programs on the CW TV.com
TV.com
website. The most recent episodes of the network's shows are usually made available on The CW app and The CW
The CW
on Demand the day after their original broadcast. However, due to restrictions imposed through its deal with the streaming service, streaming of the most recent episode of any CW program on Hulu
Hulu
is restricted until eight days after their initial broadcast, in order to encourage live or same-week (via both DVR and cable on demand) viewing, with day-after-air streaming on either service limited to subscribers of Hulu's subscription service. The CW previously imposed a three-day delay after an episode's original airdate before making its programs available on its website and through the Hulu
Hulu
subscription service (then known as Hulu
Hulu
Plus). However, changes implemented by the network on March 15, 2012 in an effort to reduce copyright infringement of its programming content through illegal streaming and downloading internet platforms resulted in that delay being reduced to eight hours after a program's original airing through both services.[103][104][105] Like the video-on-demand television services provided by the other U.S. broadcast networks, The CW on Demand disables fast forwarding for content provided through the service. On October 13, 2011, the network entered into digital distribution deals with streaming services Netflix
Netflix
and Hulu. The four-year Netflix agreement allows its customers to instantly watch more than 700 hours of previous seasons of The CW's current scripted series, while Hulu inked a five-year deal, giving the streaming site access to next-day content from four of the five major networks (with the exception of CW sister network CBS).[103][104] On October 24, 2012, The CW
The CW
entered into its first video-on-demand distribution deal with a pay television provider through an agreement with Comcast
Comcast
that allows customers to watch the four most-recent episodes of the network's primetime shows on the cable provider's Xfinity On Demand service, along with next-day episode content. The CW On Demand, which is accessible to subscribers at no additional charge, debuted on Comcast
Comcast
Xfinity systems nationwide on October 25.[106] The CW
The CW
HD[edit] The CW's master feed is transmitted in 1080i
1080i
high definition, with all transmission of the network's programming moving to the format in June 2012. All of the network's prime time programming has been presented in HD since March 2012 (when America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model
became the final CW program to convert to the format), with the exception of certain specials produced prior to that point (such as Grandma Got Run Over by a Reindeer, a holiday special carried over to the network from The WB) and select movie presentations. The network's Saturday morning E/I block, One Magnificent Morning, is also broadcast in HD, along with the moribund daytime talk show The Robert Irvine Show, which converted to the format in September 2017. The network is available in HD on most of its full-power affiliates, while availability of high definition content on subchannel-only or cable-exclusive affiliates varies by market; in some of these cases, the over-the-air signal is available only in standard definition (a 16:9 widescreen feed transmitted in 480i
480i
SD is presented on some over-the-air affiliates to meet minimum requirements for presentation), with the station offering an exclusive high definition feed to cable and satellite providers. Some affiliates transmit CW programming in 720p
720p
HD due to technical considerations if the network is carried on a digital subchannel of a station affiliated with another major network or if a primary feed CW affiliate carries more than one subchannel. Since June 2012, The CW Plus
The CW Plus
feed is also transmitted in HD, and the network has asked those affiliates to carry it in high definition wherever possible. With ABC beginning to use 16:9 framing for all of their graphics on September 1, 2016, The CW, along with corporate parent CBS
CBS
are currently the last two major networks that continues to use 4:3 framing for all graphics (outside of CBS
CBS
Sports). CW Seed[edit] CW Seed (originally called CWD or the CW Digital Studio) is a production arm that provides original content created exclusively for digital platforms focused in the areas of animation, game shows, comedy and digital personalities. Included in the service is interactivity, feedback from viewers, and social engagement.[107] Previously existing as a section on The CW's main website, CW Seed was spun-off to a separate website (cwseed.com) in 2014. Original web series produced by CW Seed includes Stupid Hype, I Ship It, How to Be a Vampire, JoJoHead, Prom Queen, Husbands, and the Arrowverse
Arrowverse
series Vixen, Freedom Fighters: The Ray, and Constantine: City of Demons. In addition, CW Seed hosts archive programming including shows such as Constantine, Birds of Prey, Hellcats, Forever, Everwood, Dynasty, Pushing Daisies
Pushing Daisies
and Everybody Hates Chris. See also[edit]

Book: The CW

CBS CBS
CBS
Television Stations CBS
CBS
Television Studios Warner Bros. Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television

Footnotes[edit]

^ " CBS
CBS
CORPORATION AND WARNER BROS. ENTERTAINMENT FORM NEW 5TH BROADCAST NETWORK" (Press release). The CW
The CW
Press. January 24, 2006.  ^ a b "CW Network LLC profile". Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Retrieved September 27, 2012.  ^ Paul J. Gough; James Hibberd (May 13, 2008). ""90210" Upfront and Center for CW". The Hollywood Reporter. Nielsen Company.  ^ a b Tim Molloy (July 30, 2012). "CW's Plans Include More Men, More Muppets". The Wrap. The Wrap
The Wrap
News
News
Inc.  ^ Holloway, Daniel (August 2, 2017). "CW Chief Looks to Lure Women Viewers Back With 'Dynasty,' 'Riverdale'". Variety. Retrieved October 19, 2017.  ^ Bill Carter (January 9, 1995). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; 2 Would-Be Networks Get Set for Prime Time". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 2, 2015.  ^ a b c Rebecca Dana (May 16, 2008). "It's No Gossip, Ratings Slip Threatens CW Network". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones and Company.  ^ Thomas Tyrer (September 18, 1995). "Fledgling Networks UPN, WB Already Pondering Merger". AdAge. Crain Communications. Retrieved February 7, 2015.  ^ Cynthia Littleton, Birth of the CW: UPN-WB Network Merger Deal Rocked TV Biz 10 Years Ago, Variety, January 24, 2016, Retrieved July 27, 2016. ^ Jessica Seid (January 24, 2006). "'Gilmore Girls' meet 'Smackdown'; CW Network to combine WB, UPN
UPN
in CBS-Warner venture beginning in September". CNNMoney.com. Time Warner.  ^ Bill Carter (January 24, 2006). " UPN
UPN
and WB to Combine, Forming New TV Network". The New York Times. The New York Times
The New York Times
Company.  ^ Ben Grossman (March 15, 2006). "CW Staying CW, Says Moonves". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007.  ^ Crupi, Anthony (January 24, 2006). "UPN, WB to Merge Into CW Network". Ad Week. Retrieved November 12, 2015.  ^ "CW Staggers Its Debut – New net will roll out schedule over two weeks". Zap2It. Tribune Media
Tribune Media
Services. August 18, 2006. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006.  ^ TV Guide, September 11, 2006, p. 8 ^ "THE CW NETWORK ANNOUNCES ITS INAUGURAL 2006-2007 PREMIERE SCHEDULE" (Press release). The CW. July 17, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2015 – via The Futon Critic.  ^ Michael Schneider (March 3, 2008). "Strike, ratings slip lead to CW layoffs". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved August 28, 2015.  ^ James Hibberd (March 4, 2008). "CW downsizes, sheds comedy division". The Hollywood Reporter. Nielsen Company. Associated Press. Retrieved August 28, 2015.  ^ " The CW
The CW
"Outsources" Its Sunday-Night Block; Two Dramas, Two Comedies Coming". TV Guide. Macrovision. May 9, 2008. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008.  ^ Michael Schneider (May 9, 2008). "CW outsources Sunday to MRC". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved September 2, 2015.  ^ Michael Schneider (November 20, 2008). "CW ends time-buy deal with MRC". Variety. Reed Business Information.  ^ "CW Takes Back Its Sunday Nights, Sets 'Jericho' Reruns". TVWeek. Dexter Canfield Media. November 20, 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2015.  ^ "Fox Still Likely to Pass CBS
CBS
in Adults 25–54 to Top All Key Age Demos". TV by the Numbers. March 25, 2009.  ^ Josef Adalian (August 21, 2008). "CW Parents Emphasize Support of Network". AdAge. Crain Communications.  ^ Michael Malone (May 5, 2009). "Tribune Psyched to Take back Sundays on The CW". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. Retrieved May 6, 2009.  ^ Nellie Andreeva (May 6, 2009). "CW Drops Sundays In Another Blow to Broadcast Model". Reuters. Retrieved May 6, 2009.  ^ Nellie Andreeva (May 13, 2009). "CW Affiliates Booking MGM Movie Pack". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Associated Press.  ^ a b Lacey Rose (April 28, 2011). " Mark Pedowitz Named President of The CW". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media.  ^ Lacey Rose (August 4, 2011). "CW Chief: Network Is in Search of Close-Ended Series, Comedies and a Superhero Show". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 4, 2011.  ^ Christina Radish (August 5, 2011). " The CW
The CW
President Mark Pedowitz Talks RINGER, SUPERNATURAL, NIKITA, GOSSIP GIRL, Developing More DC Superheroes, and More". Collider.com. Retrieved September 4, 2011.  ^ Harnick, Chris (October 11, 2012). "'Arrow' Brings In Huge Audience For The CW, 'Nashville' Off To Solid Start". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2017.  ^ Bibel, Sara (May 13, 2015). " The CW
The CW
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The CW
Reclaims Sunday, Will Expand Its Schedule To 6 Nights In Fall 2018". Deadline. Retrieved February 14, 2018.  ^ Paige Albiniak (February 16, 2009). " MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
Shakeup Music to Syndicators Ears". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information.  ^ Steven Mallas (September 25, 2007). ""CW Now": Content or Commercial?". The Motley Fool.  ^ ""aerie girls" – Google
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Charlotte
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WISH-TV
Expanding Daily Newscasts by Four Hours". Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved December 17, 2014.  ^ Karla Peterson (March 12, 2017). "San Diego's CW6 news signs off". The San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 1, 2017.  ^ Timothy Meinch (March 20, 2016). " KCWI-TV
KCWI-TV
has new owner, morning show changes planned". Des Moines Register. Gannett Company. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Harry A. Jessell (September 16, 2008). "Denver, St. Louis To Get Fox-CW Duops". TVNewsCheck. NewsCheck Media.  ^ Jacob Newkirk (November 22, 2011). "Big changes coming to News
News
25 and Local 7". Evansville Courier & Press. E. W. Scripps Company. Retrieved November 28, 2011.  ^ Michael Schneider (October 2, 2007). "CW turns to 4Kids on Saturdays". Variety. Reed Business Information.  ^ Annemarie Moody (November 30, 2007). "Brands Old and New for 4Kids at Licensing Expo 2008". Animation World Network. AWN, Inc.  ^ Andrew Wallenstein (July 2, 2012). "Saban Brands to rebuild CW toon block". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved July 7, 2012.  ^ C. Marcucci (July 3, 2012). " The CW
The CW
signs Saban Brands for kids block". Radio & Television Business Report. Streamline RBR, Inc.  ^ "WWE® Returns to Kids Time Slot with Original Content Anchoring Vortexx
Vortexx
on The CW" (Press release). Saban Brands. PR Newswire. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ " The CW
The CW
Sets 5-Hour Saturday Morning Block". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. June 5, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.  ^ Gail Sullivan (September 30, 2014). "Saturday morning cartoons are no more". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ Kevin Downey (June 5, 2014). "CW Joins With Litton For Sat. Morning E/I Block". TVNewsCheck. NewsCheck Media. Retrieved September 2, 2015.  ^ "The CW-Network Partners with Litton Entertainment
Litton Entertainment
on New Block" (PDF). Litton Entertainment. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2014.  ^ Petski, Denise (January 7, 2016). "The CW's Saturday Morning Block Set For Five More Years". Retrieved December 30, 2016.  ^ " The CW
The CW
Announces Fall 2017 'One Magnificent Morning' Saturday Morning Line-Up". TV News
News
Desk. Broadway World. September 13, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2017.  ^ "Network Search: CW". RabbitEars. Retrieved November 3, 2017.  ^ "Network Search: CW+". RabbitEars. Retrieved November 3, 2017.  ^ "Network Profile: The CW". Station Index.  ^ Nellie Andreeva (September 8, 2015). " The CW
The CW
In Talks With Tribune As Network Faces Affiliate & Streaming Renewals". Deadline.com. Penske Media Corporation.  ^ "Conference Call Regarding "The CW"". Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " News
News
Corp. to launch new mini-network for UPN
UPN
stations". USA Today. Gannett Company. Associated Press. February 22, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ John Eggerton (February 22, 2006). " News
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Corp. Unveils MyNetworkTV". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information.  ^ " News
News
Corporation Announces Intent to Pursue Separation of Businesses to Enhance Strategic Alignment and Increase Operational Flexibility" (Press release). News
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Corporation. June 28, 2012.  ^ Sallie Hofmeister (August 12, 2000). " News
News
Corp. to Buy Chris-Craft Parent for $5.5 Billion, Outbidding Viacom". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ "Viacom wins UPN
UPN
so let the digestion begin". Media Life Magazine. March 2000. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  ^ Melissa Grego; Joe Schlosser (April 10, 2000). " UPN
UPN
deal done; Viacom buys out Chris-Craft share". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. Retrieved June 22, 2013 – via HighBeam Research.  ^ Linda Moss (September 20, 1999). "WGN Drops WB, Adds Movies, Sitcoms". Multichannel News. Cahners Business Information. Retrieved June 22, 2013 – via HighBeam Research.  ^ MaryWade Burnside (October 7, 1999). "Last night Dawson's last ? WGN ceases to air WB programming". The Charleston Gazette. The Daily Gazette Company. Retrieved June 22, 2013 – via HighBeam Research.  ^ John M. Higgins (October 2, 2006). " Time Warner
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Cable Squeezes CW Stations". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information.  ^ " The Ithaca Journal – www.theithacajournal.com – Ithaca, NY". The Ithaca Journal. Gannett Company. November 28, 2006. [dead link] ^ " The CW
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Wait Over". KVIA-TV. News-Press & Gazette Company. April 19, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.  ^ "CW to debut on Time Warner". The Desert Sun. Gannett Company. April 20, 2007.  ^ "PAPPAS TELECASTING ANNOUNCED TODAY THAT CERTAIN AFFILIATES HAVE FILED FOR CHAPTER 11 PROTECTION". Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Andrea V. Hernandez (April 3, 2009). "WLTZ's parent firm to carry CW Network in Columbus". Ledger-Enquirer. The McClatchy Company. Retrieved December 14, 2010.  ^ "Marianas Media closes CW4, PSST". KUAM-TV. Pacific Telestations, Inc. March 30, 2011.  ^ Robert Channick (July 1, 2013). "Acquisition to make Tribune Co. largest U.S. TV station operator". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved July 1, 2013.  ^ "XETV, KSWB Battle For Fox Affiliation In San Diego". RadioMatthew.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008.  ^ "XETV Becomes San Diego
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6 – New Home of The CW
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Further reading[edit]

Lausch, Kayti Adaire (2013), The niche network: gender, genre, and the CW brand, retrieved January 27, 2017 

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Matthew Barzun Veronica Belmont Esther Dyson Ina Fried Richard Hart James Kim Declan McCullagh Tom Merritt Halsey Minor Natali Morris Rafe Needleman Andrew Nusca Ryan Seacrest Molly Wood

Contributors, current

Violet Blue Christopher Dawson David Gewirtz Jason Perlow

Contributors, former

Harry McCracken

Simon & Schuster

Atria Publishing Group

Howard 37 INK

Gallery Publishing Group

Pocket Threshold

Scribner Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster Audio Publishing

Pimsleur

Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing

Aladdin Atheneum

Radio networks

CBS
CBS
News
News
Radio CBS
CBS
Sports Radio

Miscellaneous assets

CBS
CBS
Consumer Products CBS
CBS
Records Westinghouse Electric CBS
CBS
Home Entertainment CBS
CBS
Films CBS
CBS
News

CBSN

CBS
CBS
Sports

CBS
CBS
Sports HQ

Defunct properties

CBS
CBS
Cable CBS
CBS
Paramount Domestic Television CBS
CBS
Paramount Network Television CBS
CBS
Radio Free FM Paramount Stations Group Spelling Television UPN Westinghouse Broadcasting Worldvision Enterprises

See also

Viacom (original) National Amusements Westinghouse Electric Corporation Gulf and Western Industries

v t e

Time Warner

Board of directors

William P. Barr Jeff Bewkes Robert C. Clark Mathias Döpfner Jessica Einhorn Carlos Gutierrez Fred Hassan Paul Wachter Deborah Wright

Other people

Richard Parsons Steve Ross

v t e

Turner Broadcasting System

North American television

Boomerang Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
(Adult Swim; Toonami) CNN CNN
CNN
Airport CNN
CNN
International HLN NBA TV1 TBS TNT truTV Turner Classic Movies

TBS Europe

Boing

Africa France Italy Spain

Boomerang

Central and Eastern Europe Arab World, Africa, Greece and Cyprus France Germany Italy Netherlands Nordic Portugal Spain Turkey UK & Ireland

Cartoon Network

Arabic Arab World and Africa Central & Eastern Europe France Germany Italy Netherlands Nordic Poland Portugal Russia and Southeastern Europe Turkey UK & Ireland

Turner Classic Movies

Africa TCM Cinéma Middle East Nordic Spain UK & Ireland

TNT

Comedy Film Serie Nordic Poland Romania Spain

CNN

CNN
CNN
International CNN
CNN
Türk

Cartoonito

Italy UK and Ireland

Others

Toonami
Toonami
(France) Warner TV

TBS Asia Pacific

Cartoon Network

Australia and New Zealand China (on demand) India Japan Pakistan Philippines3 Southeast Asia South Korea Taiwan

CNN

CNN-News18 CNN
CNN
International Asia Pacific CNN
CNN
International South Asia Indonesia2 Philippines 3

HBO

Cinemax HBO HBO
HBO
Family HBO
HBO
Hits HBO
HBO
Signature RED by HBO

Boomerang

Australia and New Zealand Southeast Asia South Korea Thailand

Others

Oh!K Pogo Toonami
Toonami
(India) truTV Turner Classic Movies WB Channel Warner TV World Heritage Channel

TBS Latin America

Boomerang Cartoon Network CDF Chilevisión CNN
CNN
Chile CNN
CNN
en Español CNN
CNN
International Esporte Interativo Glitz HispanicTV I.Sat Space TBS TNT Series Tooncast Warner TV truTV TNT Sports

TV production/distribution

Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
Studios Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
Studios Europe Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
Productions CNN
CNN
Films Turner Sports World Championship Wrestling4 Williams Street Hulu
Hulu
(10%)

Internet assets

Bleacher Report CNNMoney FilmStruck Super Deluxe

Former

Cable Music Channel Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
Spain Cartoon Network
Cartoon Network
Too Cartoonito
Cartoonito
Asia Cartoonito
Cartoonito
Spain China Entertainment Television CNN
CNN
Checkout Channel CNNfn CNN/SI CNX CNN+ Crime Library Gameloft Imagine TV Infinito Lumiere Movies Nuts TV Real Retro Showtime Scandinavia Silver Star! Scandinavia TCM Autor TCM Clásico The Smoking Gun TNT UK Toonami
Toonami
Jetstream (50% with Viz Media) Toonami
Toonami
Southeast Asia Toonami
Toonami
UK and Ireland truTV UK and Ireland (sold to Sony Pictures Television) Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies
2 Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Co. Turner Program Services Turner South
Turner South
(now Fox Sports Southeast) Voom HD International WPCH-TV WRET (now WCNC-TV)

^1 Owned by the NBA, operated by Turner. ^2 Co-owned by Trans Media. ^3 Co-owned with Nine Media Corporation
Nine Media Corporation
and Radio Philippines Network through a brand licensing agreement. ^4 Assets now owned by WWE, Inc. through WCW, Inc.

v t e

Warner Bros.

Founders

Jack L. Warner Harry Warner Albert Warner Sam Warner

Executives

Kevin Tsujihara (Chairman and CEO)

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Pictures Group

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Pictures Warner Animation Group New Line Cinema Castle Rock Entertainment Flagship Entertainment (joint venture with CMC)

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television Group

Alloy Entertainment Telepictures WB Animation Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Television Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
International Television Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
International Television Production (WB TV Productions UK (Shed Productions) Eyeworks)

Broadcast TV

Terrestrial TV

The CW
The CW
(co-owned with CBS)

Cable TV

Warner TV
Warner TV
(with HBO Latin America Group
HBO Latin America Group
and HBO
HBO
Asia) WB Channel (with Turner International India)

Warner Bros. Interactive

Avalanche Software Monolith Productions NetherRealm Studios Portkey Games Rocksteady Studios TT Games

TT Games
TT Games
Publishing TT Fusion Traveller's Tales TT Animation Playdemic

Turbine WB Games Montréal WB Games New York WB Games San Francisco

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Digital Networks

DramaFever Machinima, Inc. Warner Archive Instant

DC Entertainment

DC Films DC Comics

Mad Vertigo

Home video

Warner Home Video Warner Archive Collection

Public attractions

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Studio Tours

Miscellaneous assets

Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Co. Hanna-Barbera WaterTower Music Fandango (30%)

v t e

Home Box Office Inc.

TV channels

HBO Cinemax HBO
HBO
Asia RED by HBO HBO
HBO
Europe HBO
HBO
Netherlands HBO
HBO
Canada Warner TV WB Channel International

Other

HBO
HBO
Films

Miscellaneous

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