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Maba Diakhou Bâ:

Damel- Teigne
Teigne
Lat Dior
Lat Dior
Ngoné Latyr Diop Bourba Jolof Alboury Sainabou Njie (King of Jolof) Mama Gaolo Nyang Tafsir Sa Lolley Jabou Samba Gumbo Gaye (of Sanjal) Abdoulaye Ouli Bâ Sed Kani Touray N'Dari Kani Touray Army of Rip...etc

Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof :

Buumi
Buumi
- Somb The Great Jaraff Maad Patar (King of Patar) The Sandigue Ndiob Maad Amad Ngoneh Joof (King of Thiouthioune) Maad Semou Gallo Joof Mbagne Somb
Somb
Faye Makhoureja Ngoneh Joof Army of Sine...etc.[1]

The Battle of Fandane- Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
(or Thiouthiogne), also known as the Battle of Somb
Somb
or the Battle of Somb-Tioutioune, occurred on 18 July 1867.[2][3] It was a religious war between the Serer people
Serer people
and the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts of the 19th century in Senegal
Senegal
and The Gambia, but it also had a political and economic dimension to it: vendetta and empire-building.[4][5][6] Fandane, Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
and Somb
Somb
were part of the pre-colonial Serer Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
now part of independent Senegal. The Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts prevailed in the early hours of the battle, but the Serer army held firm. In the latter part of the battle the Marabouts were defeated. Maba Diakhou was killed and his body decapitated. Damel- Teigne
Teigne
Lat Dior
Lat Dior
Ngoné Latyr and Bourba Jolof Alboury Sainabou Njie fled. Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak was injured. Mama Gaolo Nyang was held prisoner.[7][8][9]

Contents

1 Background 2 Fandane-Thiouthioune

2.1 The rituals 2.2 The armies 2.3 The battle 2.4 Victory anthem of Sine

3 Controversy 4 See also 5 Notes

5.1 Bibliography

Background[edit] Prior to this battle, Maba Diakhou Bâ, the leader of the marabouts, was influenced by the king of Cayor and Baol
Baol
- Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
- to launch a jihadist assault in the Sine.[10] Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
had a grudge against Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof after he was defeated by the French at the Battle of Loro on January 12, 1864, and exiled from his kingdom. Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
sought refuge with the Maad a Sinig, who granted him asylum. The Damel- Teigne
Teigne
asked the Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
to loan him some of his forces so he could fight against the French and regain his throne. The Maad a Sinig refused to do that because he was already engaged in a long battle against the French himself in regards to the sovereignty of Joal, one of his provinces. Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
sought the assistance of Maba, the Almami of Nioro du Rip. Maba promised to help Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
regain his throne if he converted to Islam. Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
converted and in 1867, he proposed to the Almami to launch a jihad in Sine.[10][11][12][13] The Marabouts surprised the Serer people
Serer people
of Mbin o Ngor, a small Serer village in the Sine, the "Surprise of Mbin o Ngor" in 1867. Although the Serers managed to drive back the marabout forces stopping them from conquering their country, the marabouts' attack caused significant damage before they were finally forced to retreat.[14] Some prominent Serer princesses such as Lingeer
Lingeer
Selbeh Ndoffene Joof, daughter of the Maad a Sinig, was abducted and forcefully married off to Abdoulaye Oulimata Bâ, Maba Diakhou's brother.[15][16] Princess Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatma Tioube was also abducted along with Lingeer
Lingeer
Selbeh Ndoffene and held prisoners by the Marabout
Marabout
forces. Some prominent Serer personalities and princes such as Boucary Ngoneh Joof (var : Boucar Ngoné Diouf or Bukaro Ngooni Juuf) who was a relative and counsel of the King of Sine was killed in that attack. After this incident, the Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
sent a letter to the leader of the Marabouts, Maba Diakhou Bâ, inviting him to an open battle. In that letter, he wrote, "This attack is undignified... If you are a man, I challenge you to come back and meet the full army of Sine in open battle."[14][17][18][19] Fandane-Thiouthioune[edit] After Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak’s invitation to Maba to an open battle following "The surprise of Mbin o Ngor", Maba and his army went to the Sine having acquired arms and ammunition in British Gambia. On 18 July 1867, the "Watchers" notified the King of Sine that the Rip army (the Muslim
Muslim
army from Nioro du Rip) is approaching Sine.[2] The rituals[edit] See also: Serer religion According to Serer oral tradition, before Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak and his army made their way to the battlefield, he summoned the elders (his counselors) to perform the ancient rituals of their forefathers. He then commanded his Jaraff (head of the noble Council of Electors) also a Saltigue, - Wassaly Sene to perform the ritual of the ancestors and predict the outcome. Wassaly Sene is reported to have cited the name of Roog
Roog
(the Supreme Deity in Serer religion), raised his spear to the Gods of the heavens and struck it to the ground. He then cried out "Victory!"[20][21] During the battle, Maba Diakhou Bâ is said to have recited the Shahada
Shahada
(Islamic declaration of faith) from the Quran. The armies[edit] Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof's army composed of the Buumi Somb
Somb
(the heir to the throne of Somb
Somb
with his army from the east); the Great Jaraff and his army from the south; Maad Patar (King of Patar) and his army from the north-east; the Sandigue Ndiob from the north; Maad Amad Ngoneh Joof (King of Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
and uncle of Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak); Makhoureja Ngoneh Joof (variation : Makhoukhédia Ngoné, prince of Sine and younger brother of Boucary Ngoneh Joof who was killed at Mbin o Ngor); the Great Farba (his general) as well as the army of Sine, covering the west and north-west; Maad Saloum
Saloum
Sadiouka Mbodj (king of Saloum); etc. The griots beat junjung of Sine (the war drums) - a call for arms.[22][23] Maba Diakhou Bâ was accompanied by his brothers Ousmane Bâ and Abdoulaye Ouli Bâ (not to be confused with the historian Abdou Bouri Bâ, grand-nephew of Maba); the King of Cayor and Baol
Baol
Damel-Teigne Lat Dior
Lat Dior
Ngoné Latyr Diop (and his army); the King of Jolof, Bourba Jolof Alboury Sainabou Njie (and his army); Gumbo Gaye (king of Sanjal) - also spelt Gumbo Guèye; Biran Ceesay (Biranne Cissé); his generals such as Mama Gaolo Nyang and Tafsir Sa Lolley Jabou Samba (general and military advisor to Maba); etc.[24] The battle[edit] See also: Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
and Tijaniyyah The Sine army having performed the required rituals according to Serer custom, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
led his army to Somb (in the Kingdom of Sine), the battlefield. Serer tradition states that, Somb
Somb
was the starting point of the battle but it did not end there. It ended in Fandane- Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
where the outcome was decided. Muslim
Muslim
tradition agrees pretty much with this account.[10][25][26] On the day of the battle, there was a heavy rain.[27][28] Maad Semou Gallo Joof (son of Maad Amad Ngoneh) with his cousin Mbagne Somb
Somb
Faye and their griots led an offensive attack on the Muslim
Muslim
Marabout forces. The Serer strategy was to push the Muslim
Muslim
Marabout
Marabout
forces into Somb
Somb
where a strong resistance had been prepared and to prevent them from entering Thiouthioune. The strategy failed. Maba and his army successfully entered Thiouthioune. However at Thiouthioune, Maba's army faced a strong resistance by some of the retinue forces of King Amad Ngoneh of Thiouthioune, which included Maad Semou Gallo Joof and the princes: Gniba Dior Joof, Madior Latdjigué and Biram Joof. The battle took place between Somb
Somb
and Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
and lasted three quarters of the morning.[1] In the early stages of the battle, the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts prevailed. The princes and Maad (King) Semou Gallo Joof were killed. The prince Mbagne Somb
Somb
Faye committed suicide when he was captured by the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts.[12] Around 12 pm, it started to rain. Maba and his army took refuge in the coppices which surrounded the pond of Fandane and attempted to dry off their arms. Around that time, Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak had left Ndoffane Nomad with his army and moving towards Fandane to defend it. Before his arrival, Damel- Teigne
Teigne
Lat-Dior
Lat-Dior
Ngoneh Latyr and Bourba Jolof Alboury Sainabou (both valiant and experienced warriors) contemplated withdrawing from the battle at around 2 pm (tisbâr time – Muslim
Muslim
prayer time in the afternoon). Damel- Teigne
Teigne
Lat Dior
Lat Dior
reported to Maba that, he had heard the sound of Sine's junjung approaching, and Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak is bound to be among them. He tried to discuss an exit strategy because the Sine army would be too strong for them. Maba was not interested in an exit strategy, his mission was to Islamize and conquer Serer Sine.[6][11][12][29] When Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak and his army, accompanied by the King of Patar; the King of Poukham and the Sandigue Ndiob arrived on the scene, they interposed between the Muslim
Muslim
Marabout
Marabout
forces and the Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
locking the Marabouts in Sine and cutting off their exit route into Nioro du Rip
Nioro du Rip
(Maba's residence), via Saloum. Damel- Teigne
Teigne
Lat Dior Ngoné Latyr and Bourba Jolof Alboury Sainabou Njie realising that the cause has been lost, abandoned Maba in the battlefield. They fought their way out of the battlefield, the Damel- Teigne
Teigne
escaped and headed towards Cayor and the Bourba Jolof towards Gossas.[12][30][31] The Serer army defeated the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts. Maba was killed at Fandane and so was the Serer Prince Makhoureja Ngoneh Joof whom according to some was responsible for killing Maba.[30][32] The King of Sine was injured. Many of Maba's men fell at Fandane-Thiouthioune. His generals such as Mama Gaolo Nyang were held prisoners. Mama Gaolo was released two days after the battle to go and relay the incident in his country.[12][30] After Maba had been killed, Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak had his head cut off and his limbs dismembered. He then sent an arm and the head, with a letter to the French commandant at Gorée
Gorée
to announce his victory. The remains of Maba's body were scattered in several parts of Sine, including Felir, Samba Toude, Ndialgué and towards Thiamassas (var :Tiémassass).[30][33][34] According to some scholars such as Diagne, Becker, Cheikh Diouf, Klein, etc., Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak's letter and action was a threat to the French administration in Senegal, especially his succeeding letter sent to the French governor which listed the prominent members of Maba's army that had fallen in the Sine.[12][33][35][36] The French administration in Senegal
Senegal
under the governorship of Émile Pinet-Laprade kept out of the battle. They armed neither side nor did they involved their forces.[37] The French also had limited ammunition and forces (they were dying from the wars and diseases).[38] Although Lamprade tried to gain more arms and French forces from France
France
for the protection of French interest in the colony, the French government in Paris refused to sanction it and decided to devote all French resources in France due to the crisis in Europe, and their ultimate defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. As such, Laprade was ordered "to stay on the defensive" and told "he would not even receive white troops" to replace those who have died from disease.[39] Abdoulaye Ouli Bâ (Maba's brother) was not killed in the battle. In a revenge attack, he was castrated for participating in the surprise of Mbin o Ngor, the kidnapping of Lingeer
Lingeer
Selbeh Ndoffene Joof (Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak's daughter), forcefully marrying her and making her pregnant. Although released, he went missing for some time people thought that he had died like his two brothers (Maba and Ousmane) at the battle. He resurfaced by January 1868 during the raidings of the Mandinka principalities of Niani and Ouli, in the Gambia.[40][41][42] Victory anthem of Sine[edit] At the end of the battle, the victorious King of Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak nursed his injuries and led his army back home. The griots of Sine beat the junjung and chanted the following hymn in his honour (the hymn is still chanted in his honour):[43]

In Serer

Fap Hamad Joof Tandeh fo Kaet O or Oleh hat Fandane Dala Ngot Bo fud es a buta Mbai a varan'am Sun ne'n Jahu Ye de bgara Me Somb
Somb
a ndefu Yerer a Tutun Mbai Souka Ndella A raha O ndonga'nga Mbel Fandane eh Talaba a naga pitit pasar Ma Samba a humna Jahu dang O lol O ndongo sima Ya eh! Tig eh fuhuna Han O dal in eh Roog
Roog
a taha Mbai, O Kor Nadi Vara ndongo yo! Yacine O! Mbombeh O! Kumba Ndoffene a var Maba O kor of eh Hoh um Tugal O! O bai um oleh Sedu Taf um Tangeget Sun neh na Jahu Dob Tonkater o mad.

In English

Father Hamad Joof,[44] Tandeh and Kaet, the devastation they left at Fandane and went to camp in Ngot. To calm and settle my stomach let Mbaye kill him. This bull of Jahu. Coming back, he passed by Somb, he did not even have time to drink at Thiouthioune. Mbaye, son of Souka Ndella,[45] he pushed away the little talibeh.[46] At the marigot[47] of Fandane, hé! the drums beat loud Masamba[48] is sealed Jahu begins to cry The talibeh leaves us in peace. Hé! My mother! There is no time for anger. But to laugh : It is Roog’s[49] will that Mbaye, brother of Nadi, Has killed the Marabout. Hé Yassin! Hé Mbombeh! Kumba Ndoffene has killed Maba. Your husband! His head is in Europe[50] his hands at Sedhiou! His feet at Tëngéej (Rufisque)! The bull of Jahu Dob[51] Will never offend the King.[52][53]

"Coumba Ndoffene crushed their rebellion. Maba Diakhou, leader of the insurgent will be wiped out with his troops and buried without pomp in the heart of Sine."

Pathé Diagné,[54]

Controversy[edit] Senegal's Ministry of Culture states that, Maba was buried in Mbel Fandane – the mausoleum which is venerated by people in honour of Maba.[55] Serer Sine's oral tradition refute this. According to the Serers of Sine, after Maba was killed, he was dismembered and his body parts scattered in various parts of the country. An arm and the head were sent to the French Commandant at Gorée
Gorée
accompanied by a letter from Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof. Their tradition went on to state that, the mausoleum that is venerated is that of Makhoureja Ngoneh Joof and not that of Maba Diakhou Bâ. It was Makhoureja Ngoneh who was buried there not Maba.[12][56][57] According to Cheikh Diouf, in a letter marked 31 July 1867 deposited at the National Archives of Senegal, the French replied to Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak's previous letter in which they asked : "What do you want us to do with his remains?"[58] See also[edit]

Serer side

Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Serer people Kingdom of Sine Kingdom of Saloum

Muslim
Muslim
side

Maba Diakhou Bâ Lat Dior Toucouleur people Wolof people Nioro du Rip Cayor Jolof

Present-day countries

History of Senegal History of Gambia

Religions

Islam
Islam
in Senegal Islam
Islam
in the Gambia Serer Religion

Senegal
Senegal
portal Gambia
Gambia
portal Serer portal War portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye. pp 727-729 (pp 16-18) ^ a b Sarr, Alioune. Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987. pp 37-39 ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. Chronique du royaume du Sine. Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). (pp 727-729, pp 16-18) ^ Sarr, Alioune. Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987. pp 37-39 ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine." Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). (pp 727-729, pp 16-18) ^ a b Klein, pp 63-236 ^ N. Diouf. pp 727-729 (pp 16-18) ^ Klein pp 90-91 ^ Sarr. pp 16-18 ^ a b c Bâ, Abdou. pp 20-22 ^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye. pp 727-729 ^ a b c d e f g Sarr, pp 37-39 ^ Bâ, Tamsir Ousman. Essai historique sur le Rip (Bur Sine Mahecor Diouf; Latgarand N'Diaye & Abdou Boury Bâ). BIFAN. 1957 ^ a b Bâ, Tamsir Ousman. Essai historique sur le Rip (Bur Sine Mahecor Diouf; Latgarand N'Diaye – Chef d'arrondissement at Sokone & Abdou Boury Bâ). BIFAN, XIX, p. 585 ^ Sar, Alioune, 36-39 ^ Camara, Alhaji Sait. "Maba Diakhou" in Sunu Cossane. GRTS (Gambia) ^ Klein, Martin A. Islam
Islam
and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine-Saloum 1847-1914. Edinburgh University Press (1968). ISBN 0-85224-029-5. pp 90-91 ^ L'epopee de Sanmoon Fay. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991 ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. Chronique du royaume du Sine. Suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972. (pp 726-727; pp 16-18) ^ Diouf, Mahawa. L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991 ^ Klein, Martin A. Islam
Islam
and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914. Edinburgh At the University Press (1968). pp 90-91 ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, p 729 (p 18) ^ Klein, p91 ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. p729 (p18) ^ "La famille Juuf." [in] l'epopee de Sanmoon Fay. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre (1991) ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. Chronique du royaume du Sine. Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). (pp 727-729, pp 17-18) ^ Sarr, pp 37-38 ^ Klein, pp 90-91 ^ Lipschutz, Mark R. and Rasmussen, R. Kent. Dictionary of African historical biography. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, 1989. ISBN 0-520-06611-1. p 128 ^ a b c d Diouf, Niokhobaye. pp 728-729 ^ Klein, p 90 ^ Bâ, Abdou Bouri. Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum
Saloum
et du Rip. Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. pp 20-22 ^ a b Diouf, Cheikh. Fiscalité et Domination Coloniale: l'exemple du Sine: 1859-1940. Université Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar
Dakar
- (2005) ^ Diagne, Pathé. Pouvoir politique traditionnel en Afrique occidentale: essais sur les institutions politiques précoloniales. Présence africaine, 1967. pp 93- 94 ^ For a reprint of that Telegram from Maad Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak, see Sarr pp 37-39. The report of Samba Fall regarding the death of Maba can also be found in Sarr. Samba Fall's report is more detail which gives the number of deaths etc. See also:

Diouf, Niokhobaye. pp 728-729

^ Klein, pp 46-235 ^ Klein, p 92 ^ Klein, pp 88-89; 94 ^ Klein, pp 88-89, 94 ^ Diouf, Cheikh. Fiscalité et Domination Coloniale: l'exemple du Sine: 1859-1940. Université Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar
Dakar
- (2005) ^ Ba, Abdou Bouri. Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum
Saloum
et du Rip. Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. pp 20-23 ^ For Abdou Bâ's resurface, see: Klein, p 98 ^ Klein p91 ^ Amad Ngoneh Joof (King of Thiouthioune). See Sarr and Diouf, Niokhobaye ^ Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak's father. See: Diouf, Niokhobaye ^ Talibeh - English spelling in Gambia
Gambia
or Talibé - French spelling in Senegal
Senegal
can mean little beggar (children sent to beg by their Quranic teachers in Senegambia
Senegambia
see Human Rights Watch) or disciple (religious student) ^ A small stream. See: Gravrand. Horizons Africains, p15 ^ The name of Maba's horse that he took to the battle. See: Sarr and Niokhobaye Diouf ^ Supreme Deity in Serer religion ^ The French quarter in Senegal ^ Jahu Dob (French in Senegal: Diakhou Dièye or Jahu Jaay in English speaking Gambia) was Maba's mother. See: Gravrand. Horizons Africaines, No. 68. p 15. ^ Gravrand, Henri. Horizons Africaines, No 68, p 15 ^ Klein, Martin A. Islam
Islam
and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914. Edinburgh University Press (1968). p 91 ^ Diagne, Pathé. Pouvoir politique traditionnel en Afrique occidentale: essais sur les institutions politiques précoloniales. Published: Présence africaine, 1967. p 94. ^ See: REGION DE FATICK, Département de Fatick
Fatick
Commune de Fatick, entry number 12 Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, pp 727-729 (pp 16-18) ^ Diagne, Pathé. pp 93-94 ^ Diouf, Cheikh. Fiscalité et Domination Coloniale: l'exemple du Sine: 1859-1940. Université Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar
Dakar
- (2005)

Bibliography[edit]

Bâ, Abdou Bouri. Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum
Saloum
et du Rip. Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Publié dans le Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire. Tome 38, Série B, n° 4, octobre 1976, p. 813-860. Bâ-Curry, Ginette. In Search of Maba: A 19th Century Epic from Senegambia, West Africa (Preface of the Play by Edris Makward, Emeritus Professor of African Literature, Univ of Wisconsin, USA), Phoenix Press International, Maryland, 2011 [Category: Drama]. Diouf, Niokhobaye. Chronique du royaume du Sine. Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). Bâ, Tamsir Ousman. Essai historique sur le Rip (Bur Sine Mahecor Diouf; Latgarand N'Diaye & Abdou Boury Bâ). BIFAN. 1957 Diouf, Cheikh. Fiscalité et Domination Coloniale: l'exemple du Sine: 1859-1940. Université Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar
Dakar
- (2005) Gravrand, Henri. Horizons Africaines, No 68, p 15 Diagne, Pathé. Pouvoir politique traditionnel en Afrique occidentale: essais sur les institutions politiques précoloniales. Published: Présence africaine, 1967. L'épopée de Sanmoon Fay. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991 Diouf, Cheikh. Fiscalité et Domination Coloniale: l'exemple du Sine: 1859-1940. Université Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar
Dakar
- (2005) Diouf, Mahawa. L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991 Klein, Martin A. Islam
Islam
and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914. Edinburgh At the University Press (1968). Lipschutz, Mark R. and Rasmussen, R. Kent. Dictionary of African historical biography. 2nd Edition. University of California Press, 1989. ISBN 0-520-06611-1. Sarr, Alioune. Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987. Thiam, Iba Der. Maba Diakhou Bâ, Almamy du Rip (Sénégal), Paris, ABC, Dakar-Abidjan, NEA, 1977, p44.

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Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mahecor Joof Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

Faye family Guelowar Joof family Joos Maternal Dynasty The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

Buumi Faye family Joof family Lamane Lingeer Loul Maad Saloum Maad a Sinig Njie family Sarr family Sene family Teigne Thilas

Serer people
Serer people
category

Serer religion
Serer religion
category

Serer people
Serer people
portal

Ser

.