THE ADVENTURES OF TINTIN (French : Les Aventures de Tintin; ) is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé . The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies, and have been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film.
The series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième (The Little Twentieth), a youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle (The Twentieth Century). The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper Le Soir (The Evening) and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé , which produced the canonical versions of ten Tintin albums.
The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century. Its hero is Tintin , a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy (Milou in the original French edition). Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus (French: Professeur Tournesol), as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson (French: Dupont et Dupond) and the opera diva Bianca Castafiore .
The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature ligne claire ("clear line") style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, and science fiction. The stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Le Vingtième Siècle: 1929–1939 * 1.2 Le Soir: 1940–1945 * 1.3 Le Journal de Tintin: 1946–1983
* 2 Synopsis
* 2.1 Characters
* 2.2 Settings
* 3 Research * 4 Influences
* 5 Translation into English
* 5.1 British * 5.2 American * 5.3 Lettering and typography
* 6 Reception
* 6.1 Awards * 6.2 Literary criticism * 6.3 Controversy
* 7 Adaptations and memorabilia
* 7.1 Television and radio
* 7.2 Cinema
* 7.2.1 Resurgence in Tintin films
* 8 Legacy * 9 List of titles * 10 See also
* 11 References
* 11.1 Notes * 11.2 Citations * 11.3 Bibliography
* 12 Further reading * 13 External links
LE VINGTIèME SIèCLE: 1929–1939
"The idea for the character of Tintin and the sort of adventures that would befall him came to me, I believe, in five minutes, the moment I first made a sketch of the figure of this hero: that is to say, he had not haunted my youth nor even my dreams. Although it's possible that as a child I imagined myself in the role of a sort of Tintin." —Hergé, 15 November 1966.
Georges Remi, best known under the pen name
Hergé , was employed as
an illustrator at
Le Vingtième Siècle ("The Twentieth Century"), a
staunchly Roman Catholic, conservative Belgian newspaper based in
He already had experience creating comic strips. From July 1926 he
had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les
Totor C.P. des Hannetons ("The Adventures of Totor, Scout
Leader of the Cockchafers") for the
Hergé wanted to send
Tintin to the United States, Wallez
ordered him to set his adventure in the
For the third adventure,
Tintin in America , serialised from
September 1931 to October 1932,
Hergé finally got to deal with a
scenario of his own choice, and used the work to push an
anti-capitalist, anti-consumerist agenda in keeping with the paper's
The Adventures of Tintin
Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his
character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United
States, Egypt, India, China, and the United Kingdom. He also sent
Tintin to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin
American republic of
San Theodoros , the East European kingdom of
Syldavia , or the fascist state
Borduria —whose leader, Müsstler,
was a combination of Nazi German leader
LE SOIR: 1940–1945
In May 1940,
From 1943 on, Hergé with the help of Edgar P. Jacobs started redrawing and colouring the early Tintin adventures, while also collaborating in the production of new stories. The old stories, usually a bit over 100 pages long, were restructured to fit into 62 pages. Jacobs eventually ended the collaboration in 1947 when Hergé refused to share the credit with him. They remained friends regardless of the fact.
LE JOURNAL DE TINTIN: 1946–1983
At the end of the war, in September 1944, the Allies entered Brussels
and Hergé's German employers fled.
Le Soir was shut down and The
Tintin was put on hold. Then in 1946,
an invitation from Belgian comic publisher
Raymond Leblanc and his new
Le Lombard to continue
The Adventures of Tintin
Finally, in 1950,
Hergé began to poach the better members of the
Tintin magazine staff to work in the large house on Avenue Louise that
contained the fledgling Studios
Bob De Moor (who imitated
Hergé's style and did half the work), Guy Dessicy (colourist), and
Marcel DeHaye (secretary ) were the nucleus. To this,
Jacques Martin (imitated Hergé's style),
Roger Leloup (detailed,
realistic drawings), Eugène Evany (later chief of the Studios),
Michel Demaret (letterer ), and Baudouin Van Den Branden (secretary).
Harry Thompson observed, the idea was to turn the process of
The Adventures of Tintin
Main article: List of The Adventures of Tintin characters
Tintin And Snowy
Tintin is a young Belgian reporter and adventurer who becomes involved in dangerous cases in which he takes heroic action to save the day. The Adventures may feature Tintin hard at work in his investigative journalism, but seldom is he seen actually turning in a story. He is a boy of neutral attitudes with whom the audience can identify; in this respect, he represents the everyman .
Readers and critics have described
Tintin as a well-rounded yet
open-ended, intelligent and creative character, noting that his rather
neutral personality—sometimes labelled as bland—permits a balanced
reflection of the evil, folly, and foolhardiness, which surrounds him.
The character never compromises his Boy Scout ideals, which represent
Hergé's own, and his status allows the reader to assume his position
within the story, rather than merely following the adventures of a
strong protagonist. Tintin's iconic representation enhances this
Snowy (Milou in Hergé's original version), a white Wire Fox Terrier dog, is Tintin's loyal, four-legged companion. The bond between Snowy and Tintin is very deep, as they have saved each other from perilous situations many times. Snowy frequently "speaks" to the reader through his thoughts (often displaying a dry sense of humour), which are not heard by the human characters in the story. Snowy has nearly let Tintin down on occasion, particularly when distracted by a bone. Like Captain Haddock, he is fond of Loch Lomond brand Scotch whisky , and his occasional bouts of drinking tend to get him into trouble. When not distracted, Snowy is generally fearless, his only fear being arachnophobia . When Tintin gets tied up by villains (which often happens), Snowy is usually able to free him by biting through the rope.
Main article: Captain Haddock
Captain Archibald Haddock (Capitaine Haddock in Hergé's original version) is a Merchant Marine sea captain and Tintin's best friend. Introduced in The Crab with the Golden Claws , Haddock is initially depicted as a weak and alcoholic character, but later evolves to become genuinely heroic and even a socialite after he finds a treasure from his ancestor, Sir Francis Haddock (Chevalier François de Hadoque in the original version). The Captain's coarse humanity and sarcasm act as a counterpoint to Tintin's often-implausible heroism; he is always quick with a dry comment whenever the boy reporter seems too idealistic. After he and Tintin find Red Rackham's treasure, Captain Haddock lives in the luxurious mansion Marlinspike Hall (Le château de Moulinsart in the original French).
The hot-tempered Haddock uses a range of colourful insults and curses to express his feelings, such as "billions of blue blistering barnacles" or "ten thousand thundering typhoons", "bashi-bazouk ", "visigoths ", "kleptomaniac ", or "sea gherkin ", but nothing actually considered a swear word. He is a hard drinker, particularly fond of rum and of Scotch whisky, especially Loch Lomond; his bouts of drunkenness are often used for comic effect, but sometimes get him into serious trouble.
Main article: Professor Calculus
Professor Cuthbert Calculus (Professeur Tryphon Tournesol in Hergé's original version; tournesol is the French word for sunflower) is an absent-minded and partially-deaf physicist and a regular character alongside Tintin, Snowy, and Captain Haddock. He was introduced in Red Rackham\'s Treasure , and based partially on Auguste Piccard , a Swiss physicist. The leading characters do not initially welcome his presence, but through his generous nature and his scientific ability, he develops a lasting bond with them. Eventually, by the end of Land of Black Gold , he becomes a resident of Marlinspike Hall. Normally mild-mannered and dignified, Calculus occasionally loses his temper and acts in a spectacularly aggressive manner in response to actual or perceived insults, such as when Captain Haddock belittles his work or accuses him of "acting the goat". He is a fervent believer in dowsing , and carries a pendulum for that purpose. Calculus's deafness is a frequent source of humour, as he repeats back what he thinks he has heard, usually in the most unlikely words possible. He does not admit to being near-deaf and insists he is only "a little hard of hearing in one ear."
Main article: List of The Adventures of Tintin characters "Everybody wants to be Tintin: generation after generation. In a world of Rastapopouloses , Tricklers and Carreidases —or, more prosaically, Jolyon Waggs and Bolt-the-builders — Tintin represents an unattainable ideal of goodness, cleanness, authenticity." —Literary critic Tom McCarthy , 2006
Hergé's supporting characters have been cited as far more developed
than the central character, each imbued with strength of character and
depth of personality, which has been compared with that of the
Thomson and Thompson (Dupont et Dupond in Hergé's original version) are two incompetent detectives who look like identical twins, their only discernible difference being the shape of their moustaches. First introduced in Cigars of the Pharaoh , they provide much of the comic relief throughout the series, being afflicted with chronic spoonerisms . They are extremely clumsy, thoroughly incompetent, and usually bent on arresting the wrong character. The detectives usually wear bowler hats and carry walking sticks except when sent abroad; during those missions they attempt the national costume of the locality they are visiting, but instead dress in conspicuously stereotypical folkloric attire. The detectives were in part based on Hergé's father Alexis and uncle Léon, identical twins who often took walks together, wearing matching bowler hats while carrying matching walking sticks.
Bianca Castafiore is an opera singer of whom Haddock is terrified.
She was first introduced in King Ottokar\'s Sceptre and seems to
appear wherever the protagonists travel, along with her maid Irma and
Other recurring characters include Nestor the butler, Chang the loyal
Rastapopoulos the criminal mastermind,
Jolyon Wagg the
infuriating (to Haddock) insurance salesman,
General Alcazar the South
American freedom fighter and President of San Theodoros, Mohammed Ben
Kalish Ezab the Arab emir, Abdullah his mischievous son, Dr. Müller
the evil German psychiatrist,
Oliveira da Figueira
Main article: Settings in The Adventures of Tintin
The settings within
Tintin have also added depth to the strips.
Hergé mingles real and fictional lands into his stories, along with a
base in Belgium from where
Tintin sets off—originally 26 Labrador
Road, but later Marlinspike Hall. The role of setting is aptly
demonstrated in King Ottokar's Sceptre, in which
Hergé creates two
Syldavia and Borduria, and invites the reader to
tour them in text through the insertion of a travel brochure into the
storyline. Other fictional lands include
Khemed on the Arabian
Peninsula and San Theodoros,
Hergé's extensive research began with The Blue Lotus ; Hergé stated, "It was from that time that I undertook research and really interested myself in the people and countries to which I sent Tintin, out of a sense of responsibility to my readers".
Hergé's use of research and photographic reference allowed him to
build a realised universe for Tintin, going so far as to create
fictionalised countries, dressing them with specific political
cultures. These were heavily informed by the cultures evident in
Hergé's lifetime. Pierre Skilling has asserted that
monarchy as "the legitimate form of government", noting that
democratic "values seem underrepresented in a classic Franco-Belgian
Syldavia in particular is described in considerable detail,
Hergé creating a history, customs, and a language, which is actually
a Slavic-looking transcript of
Marols , a working-class Brussels
dialect. He set the country in the
Hergé's use of research would include months of preparation for
Tintin's voyage to the moon in the two-part storyline spread across
Destination Moon and
Explorers on the Moon . His research for the
storyline was noted in
In his youth,
Benjamin Rabier and suggested that a
number of images within
Tintin in the Land of the Soviets reflected
this influence, particularly the pictures of animals. René Vincent,
During the extensive research
Hergé carried out for The Blue Lotus,
he became influenced by Chinese and Japanese illustrative styles and
woodcuts . This is especially noticeable in the seascapes, which are
reminiscent of works by
Hergé also declared
TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH
Tintin first appeared in English in the weekly British children's comic Eagle in 1951 with the story King Ottokar's Sceptre. It was translated in conjunction with Casterman , Tintin's publishers, and starts by describing Tintin as "a French boy". Snowy was called by his French name "Milou".
The process of translating
The British translations were also Anglicised to appeal to British customs and values. Milou, for example, was renamed Snowy at the translators' discretion. Captain Haddock's Le château de Moulinsart was renamed Marlinspike Hall.
When it came time to translate
The Black Island , which is set in
The works were first adapted for the
From 1966 to 1979, Children\'s Digest included monthly instalments of The Adventures of Tintin. These serialisations served to increase Tintin's popularity, introducing him to many thousands of new readers in the United States.
Atlantic Monthly Press , in cooperation with Little, Brown and Company beginning in the 1970s, republished the albums based on the British translations. Alterations were made to vocabulary not well known to an American audience (such as gaol , tyre , saloon , and spanner ). As of the early 21st century , Little, Brown and Company (owned by the Hachette Book Group USA ) continues to publish Tintin books in the United States.
LETTERING AND TYPOGRAPHY
The English-language Adventures of Tintin books were originally published with handwritten lettering created by cartographer Neil Hyslop. 1958's The Crab With the Golden Claws was the first to be published with Hyslop's lettering. Hyslop was given versions of Hergé's artwork with blank panels. Hyslop would write his English script on a clear cellophane -like material, aiming to fit within the original speech bubble. Occasionally the size of the bubbles would need to be adjusted if the translated text would not fit. In the early 2000s, Tintin's English publishers Egmont discontinued publishing books featuring Hyslop's handwritten lettering, instead publishing books with text created with digital fonts. This change was instigated by publisher Casterman and Hergé's estate managers Moulinsart , who decided to replace localised hand-lettering with a single computerised font for all Tintin titles worldwide.
On 1 June 2006, the Dalai Lama bestowed the International Campaign
for Tibet 's
Light of Truth Award upon the
Hergé Foundation, along
with South African Archbishop
Main article: List of books about Tintin
The study of Tintin, sometimes referred to as "Tintinology", has become the life work of some literary critics in Belgium, France and England. Belgian author Philippe Goddin has written Hergé et Tintin reporters: Du Petit Vingtième au Journal Tintin (1986, later republished in English as Hergé and Tintin Reporters: From "Le Petit Vingtième" to "Tintin" Magazine in 1987) and Hergé et les Bigotudos (1993) amongst other books on the series. In 1983, French author Benoît Peeters released Le Monde d'Hergé, subsequently published in English as Tintin and the World of Hergé in 1988. English reporter Michael Farr has written works such as Tintin, 60 Years of Adventure (1989), Tintin: The Complete Companion (2001), Tintin "> The early works of Tintin naively depicted controversial images. Later, Hergé called his actions "a transgression of my youth." Hergé substituted this sequence with one in which the rhino accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle.
The earliest stories in
The Adventures of Tintin
Tintin in the Congo has been criticised as presenting the Africans as naïve and primitive. In the original work, Tintin is shown at a blackboard addressing a class of African children. "My dear friends," he says, "I am going to talk to you today about your fatherland: Belgium." Hergé redrew this in 1946 to show a lesson in mathematics. Hergé later admitted the flaws in the original story, excusing it saying, "I portrayed these Africans according to ... this purely paternalistic spirit of the time." Sue Buswell, who was the editor of Tintin at Methuen, summarised the perceived problems with the book in 1988 as "all to do with rubbery lips and heaps of dead animals", although Thompson noted her quote may have been "taken out of context".
André Maurois ' Les Silences du colonel Bramble, Hergé
Tintin as a big-game hunter , accidentally killing fifteen
antelope as opposed to the one needed for the evening meal. However,
concerns over the number of dead animals led Tintin's Scandinavian
publishers to request changes. A page of
Tintin killing a rhinoceros
by drilling a hole in its back and inserting a stick of dynamite was
Hergé replaced the page with one in which the rhino
accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle while he sleeps under a tree.
In 2007, the UK's
Commission for Racial Equality called for the book
to be pulled from shelves after a complaint, stating, "It beggars
belief that in this day and age that any shop would think it
acceptable to sell and display
Tintin in the Congo." In August 2007,
a Congolese student filed a complaint in
Hergé altered some of the early albums in subsequent editions,
usually at the demand of publishers. For example, at the instigation
of his American publishers, many of the African characters in Tintin
in America were re-coloured to make their race Caucasian or ambiguous.
The Shooting Star originally had an American villain with the Jewish
surname of "Blumenstein". This proved controversial, as the character
exhibited exaggerated, stereotypically Jewish characteristics.
"Blumenstein" was changed to an American with a less ethnically
ADAPTATIONS AND MEMORABILIA
Main article: Tintin books, films, and media
The Adventures of Tintin
TELEVISION AND RADIO
Two animated television adaptations and one radio adaptation have been made.
Hergé\'s Adventures of Tintin (Les aventures de Tintin d'après Hergé) (1957) was the first production of Belvision Studios . Ten of Hergé's books were adapted, each serialised into a set of five-minute episodes, with 103 episodes produced. The series was directed by Ray Goossens and written by Belgian comic artist Greg , later editor-in-chief of Tintin magazine, and produced by Raymond Leblanc . Most stories in the series varied widely from the original books, often changing whole plots.
The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
Five feature-length Tintin films were made before Hergé's death in 1983.
The Crab with the Golden Claws (Le crabe aux pinces d'or) (1947) was the first successful attempt to adapt one of the comics into a feature film. Written and directed by Claude Misonne and João B Michiels, the film was a stop-motion puppet production created by a small Belgian studio.
Tintin and the Golden Fleece (
Tintin et le mystère de la Toison
d'Or) (1961), the first live action
Tintin film, was adapted not from
Hergé's Adventures of Tintin
Tintin and the Blue Oranges ( Tintin et les oranges bleues) (1964), the second live action Tintin film, was released due to the success of the first. Again based upon an original script, once more by André Barret, it was directed by Philippe Condroyer and starred Talbot as Tintin and Jean Bouise as Haddock. The plot reveals a new invention, the blue orange, that can grow in the desert and solve world famines, devised by Calculus' friend, the Spanish Professor Zalamea. An emir whose interests are threatened by the invention of the blue orange proceeds to kidnap both Zalamea and Calculus, and Tintin and Haddock travel to Spain in order to rescue them.
Tintin and the Temple of the Sun ( Tintin et le temple du soleil) (1969), the first traditional animation Tintin film, was adapted from two of Hergé's Adventures of Tintin: The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun. The first full-length, animated film from Raymond Leblanc's Belvision, which had recently completed its television series based upon the Tintin stories; it was directed by Eddie Lateste and featured a musical score by the critically acclaimed composer François Rauber . The adaptation is mostly faithful, although the Seven Crystal Balls portion of the story was heavily condensed.
Tintin and the Lake of Sharks ( Tintin et le lac aux requins) (1972), the second traditional animation Tintin film and the last Tintin release for nearly 40 years, it was based on an original script by Greg and directed by Raymond Leblanc. Belvision's second feature takes Tintin to Syldavia to outwit his old foe Rastapopoulos. While the look of the film is richer, the story is less convincing. The movie was subsequently adapted into a comic album made up of stills from the film.
Resurgence In Tintin Films
The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn (2011) was Steven Spielberg 's motion capture 3D film based on three Hergé albums: The Crab with the Golden Claws (1941), The Secret of the Unicorn (1943), and Red Rackham\'s Treasure (1944). Peter Jackson 's company Weta Digital provided the animation and special effects. The movie's reception was positive; Jackson will direct and Spielberg will produce a second movie of a planned trilogy.
One documentary about Tintin was made during Hergé's lifetime. Years after Hergé's death, a new documentary film about Tintin and Hergé was released, then later a documentary television series was produced.
Tintin and I (
Tintin et moi) (2003), a documentary film directed by
Anders Høgsbro Østergaard and co-produced by companies from Denmark,
Belgium, France, and Switzerland, was based on the taped interview
Numa Sadoul from 1971. Although the interview was
published as a book,
Hergé was allowed to edit the work prior to
publishing and much of the interview was excised. Years after
Hergé's death, the filmmaker returns to the original tapes and
restores Hergé's often personal, insightful thoughts—and in the
process brings viewers closer to the world of
Tintin and Hergé. It
was broadcast in the
Sur les traces de Tintin (On the trail of Tintin) (2010) was a five-part documentary television series which recaps several albums of the book series by combining comic panels (motionless or otherwise ) with live-action imagery, with commentary provided. Tintin and the Black Island at the Arts Theatre in the West End of London, by the Unicorn Theatre Company, in 1980–81
Hergé himself helped to create two stage plays , collaborating with
Jacques Van Melkebeke .
Tintin in the Indies: The Mystery of
the Blue Diamond (1941) covers much of the second half of Cigars of
the Pharaoh as
Tintin attempts to rescue a stolen blue diamond. The
Disappearance of Mr. Boullock (1941–1942) has Tintin, Snowy, and
Thomson and Thompson track the mysterious Mr. Boullock around the
world and back to
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two Tintin plays appeared at the Arts Theatre in the West End of London, adapted by Geoffrey Case for the Unicorn Theatre Company. These were Tintin's Great American Adventure, based on the comic Tintin in America (1976–1977) and Tintin and the Black Island, based on The Black Island (1980–81); this second play later toured.
A musical based on
The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun
premièred on 15 September 2001 at the Stadsschouwburg (City Theatre)
The Young Vic theatre company in London ran Hergé's Adventures of Tintin, a musical version of Tintin in Tibet, at the Barbican Arts Centre (2005–2006); the production was directed by Rufus Norris and was adapted by Norris and David Greig . The show was successfully revived at the Playhouse Theatre in the West End of London before touring (2006–2007) to celebrate the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007.
Tintin began appearing in video games when Infogrames Entertainment,
SA , a French game company, released the side scroller
Tintin on the
Moon in 1989. The same company released a platformer video game
Tintin in Tibet in 1995 for the Super NES and Mega
Drive/Genesis. Another platformer from Infogrames titled Prisoners of
the Sun was released the following year for the Super NES, PC, and
Game Boy Color. As computer graphics technology improved, video game
experiences improved. In 2001,
Tintin became 3D in a game called
Tintin: Destination Adventure , released by Infogrames for the PC and
PlayStation. Then in 2011, an action-adventure video game called The
Adventures of Tintin:
The Secret of the Unicorn , a tie-in to the 2011
movie, was released by
MEMORABILIA AND MERCHANDISE
Images from the series have long been licensed for use on merchandise , the success of Tintin magazine helping to create a market for such items. Tintin's image has been used to sell a wide variety of products, from alarm clocks to underpants. Countless separate items related to the character have been available, with some becoming collectors\' items in their own right.
The Hergé Foundation has maintained control of the licenses, through Moulinsart, the commercial wing of the foundation. Speaking in 2002, Peter Horemans, the then director general at Moulinsart, noted this control: "We have to be very protective of the property. We don't take lightly any potential partners and we have to be very selective ... for him to continue to be as popular as he is, great care needs to be taken of his use." However, the Foundation has been criticised by scholars as "trivialising the work of Hergé by concentrating on the more lucrative merchandising" in the wake of a move in the late 1990s to charge them for using relevant images to illustrate their papers on the series.
Tintin memorabilia and merchandise has allowed a chain of stores
based solely on the character to become viable. The first shop was
launched in 1984 in
Covent Garden , London.
Tintin shops have also
opened in both
STAMPS AND COINS
Tintin's image has been used on postage stamps on numerous occasions.
Tintin postage stamp was an eight-franc stamp issued by
Belgian Post for the 50th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's
first adventure on 29 September 1979, featuring
Tintin and Snowy
looking through a magnifying glass at several stamps. In 1999, a
nine-stamp block celebrating ten years of the Belgian Comic Strip
Center was issued, with the center stamp a photo of Tintin's famous
moon rocket that dominates the Comic Strip Center's entry hall. To
mark the end of the Belgian Franc and to celebrate the seventieth
anniversary of the publication of
Tintin in the Congo, two more stamps
were issued by Belgian Post on 31 December 2001:
Tintin in a pith
helmet and a souvenir sheet with a single stamp in the center. The
stamps were jointly issued in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Tintin has also been commemorated by coin several times. In 1995, the
Monnaie de Paris
PARODY AND PASTICHE
During Hergé's lifetime, parodies were produced of the Adventures of Tintin, with one of the earliest appearing in Belgian newspaper La Patrie after the liberation of the country from Nazi German occupation in September 1944. Entitled Tintin au pays de nazis (" Tintin in the Land of the Nazis"), the short and crudely drawn strip lampoons Hergé for working for a Nazi-run newspaper during the occupation.
Following Hergé's death, hundreds more unofficial parodies and pastiches of the Adventures of Tintin were produced, covering a wide variety of different genres. Tom McCarthy divided such works into three specific groupings: pornographic, political, and artistic. In a number of cases, the actual name "Tintin" is replaced by something similar, like Nitnit, Timtim, or Quinquin, within these books.
McCarthy's first group, pornographic parodies, includes 1976's Tintin en Suisse (" Tintin in Switzerland") and Jan Bucquoy's 1992 work La Vie Sexuelle de Tintin ("Tintin's Sex Life"), featuring Tintin and the other characters engaged in sexual acts. Another such example was Tintin in Thailand , in which Tintin, Haddock, and Calculus travel to the East Asian country for a sex holiday . The book began circulating in December 1999, but in 2001, Belgian police arrested those responsible and confiscated 650 copies for copyright violation.
Other parodies have been produced for political reasons: for
Tintin in Iraq lampoons the world politics of the early 21st
century, with Hergé's character
General Alcazar representing
President of the
Other comic creators have chosen to create artistic stories that are
more like fan fiction than parody. The Swiss artist Exem created the
irreverent comic adventures of Zinzin, what
The response to these parodies has been mixed in the Tintinological community. Many despise them, seeing them as an affront to Hergé's work. Nick Rodwell of the Hergé Foundation took this view, declaring that "None of these copyists count as true fans of Hergé. If they were, they would respect his wishes that no one but him draw Tintin's adventures." Where possible, the foundation has taken legal action against those known to be producing such items. Others have taken a different attitude, considering such parodies and pastiches to be tributes to Hergé, and collecting them has become a "niche specialty". Hergé art exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou modern art museum in Paris, commemorating the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007
After Hergé's death in 1983, his art began to be honoured at
exhibitions around the world, keeping
Tintin awareness at a high
level. The first major
Tintin exhibition in London was Tintin: 60
years of Adventure, held in 1989 at the Town Hall in Chelsea. This
early exhibition displayed many of Hergé's original sketches and
inks, as well as some original gouaches . In 2001, an exhibition
entitled Mille Sabords! ("Billions of Blistering Barnacles!") was
shown at the National Navy Museum (
Musée national de la Marine ) in
Paris. In 2002, the
Bunkamura Museum of Art in Tokyo staged an
exhibition of original
Hergé drawings as well as of the submarine and
rocket ship invented in the strips by Professor Calculus. The
National Maritime Museum
Belgian Comic Strip Center in the
The centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007 was commemorated at the largest museum for modern art in Europe, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, with Hergé, an art exhibition honouring his work. The exhibition, which ran from 20 December 2006 until 19 February 2007, featured some 300 of Hergé's boards and original drawings, including all 124 original plates of The Blue Lotus. Laurent le Bon, organiser of the exhibit said, "It was important for the Centre to show the work of Hergé next to that of Matisse or Picasso." Michael Farr said, " Hergé has long been seen as a father figure in the comics world. If he's now recognised as a modern artist, that's very important."
2009 saw the opening of the Hergé Museum (Musée Hergé ), designed in contemporary style, in the town of Louvain-la-Neuve , south of Brussels. Visitors follow a sequence of eight permanent exhibit rooms covering the entire range of Hergé's work, showcasing the world of Tintin and his other creations. In addition, the new museum has already seen many temporary exhibits, including Into Tibet With Tintin.
Hergé is recognised as one of the leading cartoonists of the twentieth century. Most notably, Hergé's ligne claire style has been influential to creators of other Franco-Belgian comics. Contributors to Tintin magazine have employed ligne claire, and later artists Jacques Tardi , Yves Chaland , Jason Little , Phil Elliott , Martin Handford , Geof Darrow , Eric Heuvel, Garen Ewing , Joost Swarte , and others have produced works using it.
In the wider art world, both
Hergé has been lauded as "creating in art a powerful graphic record of the 20th century's tortured history" through his work on Tintin, whilst Maurice Horn's World Encyclopedia of Comics declares him to have "spear-headed the post-World War II renaissance of European comic art". French philosopher Michel Serres noted that the twenty-three completed Tintin albums constituted a "chef-d'oeuvre" ("masterpiece") to which "the work of no French novelist is comparable in importance or greatness".
Charles de Gaulle
LIST OF TITLES
Following are the twenty-four canonical Tintin comic albums as named in English. Publication dates are of the original French-language versions.
Tintin comic albums ALBUM NUMBER TITLE SERIALISATION ALBUM (B&W) ALBUM (COLOUR) NOTES
3 Tintin in America 1931–1932 1932 1945
4 Cigars of the Pharaoh 1932–1934 1934 1955
5 The Blue Lotus 1934–1935 1936 1946
6 The Broken Ear 1935–1937 1937 1943
7 The Black Island 1937–1938 1938 1943, 1966
8 King Ottokar\'s Sceptre 1938–1939 1939 1947
9 The Crab with the Golden Claws 1940–1941 1941 1943
10 The Shooting Star 1941–1942
11 The Secret of the Unicorn 1942–1943
1943 Books 11 to 15 set a middle period for Hergé marked by war and changing collaborators.
12 Red Rackham\'s Treasure 1943
13 The Seven Crystal Balls 1943–1946
14 Prisoners of the Sun 1946–1948
15 Land of Black Gold 1948–1950
16 Destination Moon 1950–1952
1953 Books 16 to 23 (and revised editions of books 4, 7 & 15) are creations of Studios Hergé .
17 Explorers on the Moon 1952–1953
18 The Calculus Affair 1954–1956
19 The Red Sea Sharks 1956–1958
20 Tintin in Tibet 1958–1959
21 The Castafiore Emerald 1961–1962
22 Flight 714 to Sydney 1966–1967
23 Tintin and the Picaros 1975–1976
24 Tintin and Alph-Art 1986
2004 Hergé's unfinished book, published posthumously.
The following are double albums with a continuing story arc.
Tintin first appeared in Eagle Vol 2:17 (3 August), which ran
in weekly parts in the lower half of the centerfold, beneath the
cutaway drawings, until Vol 3:4 (2 May 1952).
* ^ At that time,
Children's Digest had a circulation of around
700,000 copies monthly.
* ^ "Mes chers amis, je vais vous parler aujourd'hui de votre
patrie: La Belgique."
* ^ "Dead animals" refers to the fashion for big-game hunting at
the time of the work's original publication.
* ^ Two series were created. Series 1: Two books, twelve episodes,
were adapted in black and white as a test of the studio's abilities;
these were actually faithful to the original albums. Series 2: Eight
books, 91 episodes, were adapted in colour; these were often
unfaithful to the original albums. The animation quality of the series
was very limited.
* ^ Belvision had just been launched by
Raymond Leblanc , who had
Tintin magazine a decade earlier.
* ^ The series ran for three seasons, 13 episodes each season; the
21 stories usually presented in two-part segments.
* ^ Geoffrey Case (adapted), Tony Wredden (directed): Tintin's
Great American Adventure, Arts Theatre, London, 18 December 1976 to 20
February 1977, Unicorn Theatre Company.
Tintin and the Black Island,
Arts Theatre, London, 1980–81, Unicorn Theatre Company.
* ^ "
Tintin on screen" depicts both
Tintin television programs and
four of the five
Tintin film adaptations (Lake of Sharks was omitted).
* ^ "Au fond, vous savez, mon seul rival international c'est
Tintin! Nous sommes les petits qui ne se laissent pas avoir par les
grands." Spoken by Charles de Gaulle, according to his Minister for
* ^ A B C D Pollard 2007 ; Bostock The Age 24 May 2006 ; Junkers
* ^ Farr 2007a , p. 4.
* ^ A B Thompson 1991 , p. 207–208.
* ^ Screech 2005 , p. 27; Miller 2007 , p. 18; Clements 2006 ;
Wagner 2006 ; Lichfield 2006 ; Macintyre 2006 ; Gravett 2008 .
* ^ Thompson 2003 ; Gravett 2005 ; Mills 1983 .
* ^ A B Assouline 2009 , p. 19.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 24; Peeters 2012 , pp. 20–29.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 24–25; Peeters 2012 , pp. 31–32.
* ^ Assouline 2009 , p. 38.
* ^ Goddin 2008 , p. 44.
* ^ A B Farr 2001 , p. 12.
* ^ Farr 2001 , p. 12; Thompson 1991 , p. 25; Assouline 2009 .
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 29.
* ^ Lofficier Farr 2001 , p. 18; Lofficier Peeters 2012 , pp.
* ^ Peeters 2012 , pp. 39–41.
* ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 32–34; Peeters 2012 , pp. 42–43.
* ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 26–29; Peeters 2012 , pp. 45–47.
* ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 30–32.
* ^ Assouline 2009 , p. 35.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 82.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 91–92.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 90–91.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 92–93.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 98–99.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 147.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 166.
* ^ A B Thompson 1991 , p. 173.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 174.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 176, 174.
* ^ A B Thompson 1991 , p. 194.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 202–203.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 203.
* ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 289.
* ^ Walker 2005 .
* ^ McCloud 1993 .
* ^ Horeau 2004 .
* ^ McCarthy 2006 , pp. 160–161.
* ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 4.
* ^ Yusuf 2005 .
* ^ How to tell a Thompson from a Thomson 2006 .
* ^ Farr 2004 .
* ^ Thompson 2003 .
* ^ McLaughlin 2007 , p. 187.
* ^ Gravett 2005 .
* ^ McLaughlin 2007 , pp. 173–234.
* ^ Assouline 2009 .
* ^ A B Ewing 1995 .
* ^ Pain 2004 .
* ^ Moura 1999 .
* ^ A B C Sadoul The Times 4 August 2009 .
The Daily Telegraph
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