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_THE ADVENTURES OF TINTIN_ (French : _Les Aventures de Tintin_; ) is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé . The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, _Tintin_ had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies, and have been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film.

The series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in _Le Petit Vingtième _ (The Little Twentieth), a youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper _ Le Vingtième Siècle _ (The Twentieth Century). The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper _ Le Soir _ (The Evening) and spun into a successful _ Tintin
Tintin
_ magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé , which produced the canonical versions of ten _Tintin_ albums.

The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century. Its hero is Tintin
Tintin
, a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy (_Milou_ in the original French edition). Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus (French: _Professeur Tournesol_), as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson (French: _Dupont et Dupond_) and the opera diva Bianca Castafiore .

The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature _ligne claire _ ("clear line") style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, and science fiction. The stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 _Le Vingtième Siècle_: 1929–1939 * 1.2 _Le Soir_: 1940–1945 * 1.3 _Le Journal de Tintin_: 1946–1983

* 2 Synopsis

* 2.1 Characters

* 2.1.1 Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy * 2.1.2 Captain Haddock * 2.1.3 Professor Calculus * 2.1.4 Supporting characters

* 2.2 Settings

* 3 Research * 4 Influences

* 5 Translation into English

* 5.1 British * 5.2 American * 5.3 Lettering and typography

* 6 Reception

* 6.1 Awards * 6.2 Literary criticism * 6.3 Controversy

* 7 Adaptations and memorabilia

* 7.1 Television and radio

* 7.2 Cinema

* 7.2.1 Resurgence in _Tintin_ films

* 7.3 Documentaries * 7.4 Theatre * 7.5 Video games * 7.6 Memorabilia and merchandise * 7.7 Stamps and coins * 7.8 Parody
Parody
and pastiche * 7.9 Exhibitions

* 8 Legacy * 9 List of titles * 10 See also

* 11 References

* 11.1 Notes * 11.2 Citations * 11.3 Bibliography

* 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

_LE VINGTIèME SIèCLE_: 1929–1939

"The idea for the character of Tintin
Tintin
and the sort of adventures that would befall him came to me, I believe, in five minutes, the moment I first made a sketch of the figure of this hero: that is to say, he had not haunted my youth nor even my dreams. Although it's possible that as a child I imagined myself in the role of a sort of Tintin." —Hergé, 15 November 1966.

Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé , was employed as an illustrator at _Le Vingtième Siècle_ ("_The Twentieth Century_"), a staunchly Roman Catholic, conservative Belgian newspaper based in Hergé's native Brussels
Brussels
. Run by the Abbé
Abbé
Norbert Wallez , the paper described itself as a "Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information" and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled _Le Petit Vingtième _ ("_The Little Twentieth_"). Propagating Wallez's socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated _L'extraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet_ ("_The Extraordinary Adventures of Flup, Nénesse, Poussette and Cochonnet_"), a comic strip authored by a member of the newspaper's sport staff. Dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to write and draw his own cartoon strip.

He already had experience creating comic strips. From July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled _Les Aventures de Totor
Totor
C.P. des Hannetons _ ("_The Adventures of Totor, Scout Leader of the Cockchafers_") for the Scouting
Scouting
newspaper _Le Boy Scout Belge_ ("_The Belgian Boy Scout_"). Totor
Totor
was a strong influence on Tintin
Tintin
, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totor's younger brother. Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier stated that graphically, Totor
Totor
and Tintin
Tintin
were "virtually identical" except for the Scout uniform, also noting many similarities between their respective adventures, particularly in the illustration style, the fast pace of the story, and the use of humour. He was fascinated by new techniques in the medium such as the systematic use of speech bubbles—found in such American comics as George McManus ' _Bringing up Father _, George Herriman 's _ Krazy Kat _ and Rudolph Dirks 's _ Katzenjammer Kids
Katzenjammer Kids
_, copies of which had been sent to him from Mexico by the paper's reporter Léon Degrelle . _ The front page of the 1 May 1930 edition of Le Petit Vingtième_, declaring "_Tintin revient!_" (" Tintin
Tintin
Returns!") from his adventure in the Soviet Union.

Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin
Tintin
to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, acting as anti-socialist propaganda for children. The result, _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Land of the Soviets _, was serialised in _Le Petit Vingtième_ from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, following which he organised the publication of the story in book form. The story's popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallez's direction, in June he began serialisation of the second story, _ Tintin in the Congo _, designed to encourage colonial sentiment towards the Belgian Congo . Authored in a paternalistic style that depicted the Congolese as childlike idiots, in later decades it was accused of racism , however at the time was un-controversial and popular, and further publicity stunts were held to increase sales.

For the third adventure, _ Tintin in America _, serialised from September 1931 to October 1932, Hergé finally got to deal with a scenario of his own choice, and used the work to push an anti-capitalist, anti-consumerist agenda in keeping with the paper's ultra-conservative ideology. _The Adventures of Tintin_ had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine _ Cœurs Vaillants _ ("Brave Hearts") since 1930, and Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too.

Hergé went on to pen a string of _Adventures of Tintin_, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, Egypt, India, China, and the United Kingdom. He also sent Tintin
Tintin
to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin American republic of San Theodoros , the East European kingdom of Syldavia , or the fascist state Borduria —whose leader, Müsstler, was a combination of Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
.

_LE SOIR_: 1940–1945

In May 1940, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
invaded Belgium as World War II broke out across Europe. Although Hergé briefly fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, he ultimately decided to return to his occupied homeland. For political reasons, the Nazi authorities closed down _Le Vingtième Siècle_, leaving Hergé unemployed. In search of employment, he got a job as an illustrator at Belgium's leading newspaper, _ Le Soir _ (_The Evening_), which was allowed to continue publication under German management. On 17 October 1940, he was made editor of the children's supplement, _ Le Soir Jeunesse_, in which he set about producing new Tintin
Tintin
adventures. In this new, more repressive political climate of German-occupied Belgium , Hergé could no longer explore political themes in his _Adventures of Tintin_ lest he be arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
. As Harry Thompson noted, Tintin's role as a reporter came to an end, to be replaced by his new role as an explorer.

From 1943 on, Hergé with the help of Edgar P. Jacobs started redrawing and colouring the early Tintin
Tintin
adventures, while also collaborating in the production of new stories. The old stories, usually a bit over 100 pages long, were restructured to fit into 62 pages. Jacobs eventually ended the collaboration in 1947 when Hergé refused to share the credit with him. They remained friends regardless of the fact.

_LE JOURNAL DE TINTIN_: 1946–1983

At the end of the war, in September 1944, the Allies entered Brussels and Hergé's German employers fled. _Le Soir_ was shut down and _The Adventures of Tintin_ was put on hold. Then in 1946, Hergé accepted an invitation from Belgian comic publisher Raymond Leblanc and his new publishing company Le Lombard to continue _The Adventures of Tintin_ in the new _Le journal de Tintin_ (_ Tintin
Tintin
_ magazine). While elated to have his work published again, Hergé quickly learned that if _Tintin_ magazine was his deliverer, it was also his demanding employer. He no longer had the independence he preferred; he was required to produce two coloured pages a week for Leblanc's magazine—a tall order. Despite this, Hergé's dedication to detail continued, his artistic standards escalated, even as his pressures mounted.

Finally, in 1950, Hergé began to poach the better members of the _Tintin_ magazine staff to work in the large house on Avenue Louise that contained the fledgling Studios Hergé . Bob De Moor
Bob De Moor
(who imitated Hergé's style and did half the work), Guy Dessicy (colourist), and Marcel DeHaye (secretary ) were the nucleus. To this, Hergé added Jacques Martin (imitated Hergé's style), Roger Leloup (detailed, realistic drawings), Eugène Evany (later chief of the Studios), Michel Demaret (letterer ), and Baudouin Van Den Branden (secretary). As Harry Thompson observed, the idea was to turn the process of creating _The Adventures of Tintin_ into a "veritable production line, the artwork passing from person to person, everyone knowing their part, like an artistic orchestra with Hergé conducting." The Studios produced eight new Tintin
Tintin
albums for _Tintin_ magazine, and coloured and reformatted two old Tintin
Tintin
albums. Studios Hergé continued to release additional publications until Hergé's death in 1983. In 1986, a twenty-fourth unfinished album was released, the Studios were disbanded, and its assets were transferred to the Hergé Foundation . Bolstered by recent adaptations , _The Adventures of Tintin_ continue to entertain new generations of Tintin fans today.

SYNOPSIS

CHARACTERS

Main article: List of The Adventures of Tintin characters

Tintin
Tintin
And Snowy

Main articles: Tintin (character) and Snowy (character)

Tintin
Tintin
is a young Belgian reporter and adventurer who becomes involved in dangerous cases in which he takes heroic action to save the day. The _Adventures_ may feature Tintin
Tintin
hard at work in his investigative journalism, but seldom is he seen actually turning in a story. He is a boy of neutral attitudes with whom the audience can identify; in this respect, he represents the everyman .

Readers and critics have described Tintin
Tintin
as a well-rounded yet open-ended, intelligent and creative character, noting that his rather neutral personality—sometimes labelled as bland—permits a balanced reflection of the evil, folly, and foolhardiness, which surrounds him. The character never compromises his Boy Scout ideals, which represent Hergé's own, and his status allows the reader to assume his position within the story, rather than merely following the adventures of a strong protagonist. Tintin's iconic representation enhances this aspect, with Scott McCloud
Scott McCloud
noting that it "allows readers to mask themselves in a character and safely enter a sensually stimulating world."

Snowy (_Milou_ in Hergé's original version), a white Wire Fox Terrier dog, is Tintin's loyal, four-legged companion. The bond between Snowy and Tintin
Tintin
is very deep, as they have saved each other from perilous situations many times. Snowy frequently "speaks" to the reader through his thoughts (often displaying a dry sense of humour), which are not heard by the human characters in the story. Snowy has nearly let Tintin
Tintin
down on occasion, particularly when distracted by a bone. Like Captain Haddock, he is fond of Loch Lomond brand Scotch whisky , and his occasional bouts of drinking tend to get him into trouble. When not distracted, Snowy is generally fearless, his only fear being arachnophobia . When Tintin
Tintin
gets tied up by villains (which often happens), Snowy is usually able to free him by biting through the rope.

Captain Haddock

Main article: Captain Haddock

Captain Archibald Haddock (_Capitaine Haddock_ in Hergé's original version) is a Merchant Marine sea captain and Tintin's best friend. Introduced in _ The Crab with the Golden Claws _, Haddock is initially depicted as a weak and alcoholic character, but later evolves to become genuinely heroic and even a socialite after he finds a treasure from his ancestor, Sir Francis Haddock (Chevalier François de Hadoque in the original version). The Captain's coarse humanity and sarcasm act as a counterpoint to Tintin's often-implausible heroism; he is always quick with a dry comment whenever the boy reporter seems too idealistic. After he and Tintin
Tintin
find Red Rackham's treasure, Captain Haddock lives in the luxurious mansion Marlinspike Hall (Le château de Moulinsart in the original French).

The hot-tempered Haddock uses a range of colourful insults and curses to express his feelings, such as "billions of blue blistering barnacles" or "ten thousand thundering typhoons", "bashi-bazouk ", "visigoths ", "kleptomaniac ", or "sea gherkin ", but nothing actually considered a swear word. He is a hard drinker, particularly fond of rum and of Scotch whisky, especially Loch Lomond; his bouts of drunkenness are often used for comic effect, but sometimes get him into serious trouble.

Professor Calculus

Main article: Professor Calculus

Professor Cuthbert Calculus (_Professeur Tryphon Tournesol_ in Hergé's original version; tournesol is the French word for sunflower) is an absent-minded and partially-deaf physicist and a regular character alongside Tintin, Snowy, and Captain Haddock. He was introduced in _Red Rackham\'s Treasure _, and based partially on Auguste Piccard , a Swiss physicist. The leading characters do not initially welcome his presence, but through his generous nature and his scientific ability, he develops a lasting bond with them. Eventually, by the end of _ Land of Black Gold _, he becomes a resident of Marlinspike Hall. Normally mild-mannered and dignified, Calculus occasionally loses his temper and acts in a spectacularly aggressive manner in response to actual or perceived insults, such as when Captain Haddock belittles his work or accuses him of "acting the goat". He is a fervent believer in dowsing , and carries a pendulum for that purpose. Calculus's deafness is a frequent source of humour, as he repeats back what he thinks he has heard, usually in the most unlikely words possible. He does not admit to being near-deaf and insists he is only "a little hard of hearing in one ear."

Supporting Characters

Main article: List of The Adventures of Tintin characters "Everybody wants to be Tintin: generation after generation. In a world of Rastapopouloses , Tricklers and Carreidases —or, more prosaically, Jolyon Waggs and Bolt-the-builders — Tintin
Tintin
represents an unattainable ideal of goodness, cleanness, authenticity." —Literary critic Tom McCarthy , 2006

Hergé's supporting characters have been cited as far more developed than the central character, each imbued with strength of character and depth of personality, which has been compared with that of the characters of Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
. Hergé used the supporting characters to create a realistic world in which to set his protagonists' adventures. To further the realism and continuity, characters would recur throughout the series. The occupation of Belgium and the restrictions imposed upon Hergé forced him to focus on characterisation to avoid depicting troublesome political situations. As a result, the colourful supporting cast was developed during this period.

Thomson and Thompson (Dupont et Dupond in Hergé's original version) are two incompetent detectives who look like identical twins, their only discernible difference being the shape of their moustaches. First introduced in _ Cigars of the Pharaoh _, they provide much of the comic relief throughout the series, being afflicted with chronic spoonerisms . They are extremely clumsy, thoroughly incompetent, and usually bent on arresting the wrong character. The detectives usually wear bowler hats and carry walking sticks except when sent abroad; during those missions they attempt the national costume of the locality they are visiting, but instead dress in conspicuously stereotypical folkloric attire. The detectives were in part based on Hergé's father Alexis and uncle Léon, identical twins who often took walks together, wearing matching bowler hats while carrying matching walking sticks.

Bianca Castafiore is an opera singer of whom Haddock is terrified. She was first introduced in _King Ottokar\'s Sceptre _ and seems to appear wherever the protagonists travel, along with her maid Irma and pianist Igor Wagner . She is comically foolish, whimsical, absent-minded, and talkative, and seems unaware that her voice is shrill and appallingly loud. Her speciality is the Jewel Song (_Ah! Je ris de me voir si belle en ce miroir_ / _Ah! My beauty past compare, these jewels bright I wear_) from Gounod\'s opera, _Faust _, which she sings at the least provocation, much to Haddock's dismay. She is often maternal toward Haddock, of whose dislike she remains ignorant. She often confuses words, especially names, with other words that rhyme with them or of which they remind her; "Haddock" is frequently replaced by malapropisms such as " Paddock
Paddock
", " Stopcock ", or " Hopscotch ", while Nestor, Haddock's butler, is confused with "Chestor" and "Hector". Her own name means "white and chaste flower": a meaning to which Professor Calculus once refers when he breeds a white rose and names it for the singer. She was based upon opera divas in general (according to Hergé's perception), Hergé's Aunt Ninie (who was known for her "shrill" singing of opera), and, in the post-war comics, on Maria Callas .

Other recurring characters include Nestor the butler, Chang the loyal Chinese boy, Rastapopoulos the criminal mastermind, Jolyon Wagg
Jolyon Wagg
the infuriating (to Haddock) insurance salesman, General Alcazar the South American freedom fighter and President of San Theodoros, Mohammed Ben Kalish Ezab the Arab emir, Abdullah his mischievous son, Dr. Müller the evil German psychiatrist, Oliveira da Figueira the friendly Portuguese salesman, Cutts the butcher whose phone number is repeatedly confused with Haddock's, and Allan the henchman of Rastapopoulos and formerly Haddock's first mate.

SETTINGS

Main article: Settings in The Adventures of Tintin

The settings within _Tintin_ have also added depth to the strips. Hergé mingles real and fictional lands into his stories, along with a base in Belgium from where Tintin
Tintin
sets off—originally 26 Labrador Road, but later Marlinspike Hall. The role of setting is aptly demonstrated in _King Ottokar's Sceptre_, in which Hergé creates two fictional countries, Syldavia and Borduria, and invites the reader to tour them in text through the insertion of a travel brochure into the storyline. Other fictional lands include Khemed on the Arabian Peninsula and San Theodoros, São Rico , and Nuevo Rico in South America, as well as the kingdom of Gaipajama in India. Along with these fictitious locations, actual nations were employed such as Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, Congo, Peru, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Nepal, Tibet, and China. Other actual locales used were the Sahara, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Moon.

RESEARCH

Hergé's extensive research began with _ The Blue Lotus _; Hergé stated, "It was from that time that I undertook research and really interested myself in the people and countries to which I sent Tintin, out of a sense of responsibility to my readers".

Hergé's use of research and photographic reference allowed him to build a realised universe for Tintin, going so far as to create fictionalised countries, dressing them with specific political cultures. These were heavily informed by the cultures evident in Hergé's lifetime. Pierre Skilling has asserted that Hergé saw monarchy as "the legitimate form of government", noting that democratic "values seem underrepresented in a classic Franco-Belgian strip". Syldavia in particular is described in considerable detail, Hergé creating a history, customs, and a language, which is actually a Slavic-looking transcript of Marols , a working-class Brussels dialect. He set the country in the Balkans
Balkans
, and it is, by his own admission, modelled after Albania
Albania
. The country finds itself threatened by neighbouring Borduria, with an attempted annexation appearing in _King Ottokar\'s Sceptre _. This situation parallels the Italian conquest of Albania
Albania
, and that of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Austria by expansionist Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
prior to World War II.

Hergé's use of research would include months of preparation for Tintin's voyage to the moon in the two-part storyline spread across _Destination Moon _ and _ Explorers on the Moon _. His research for the storyline was noted in _ New Scientist
New Scientist
_: "The considerable research undertaken by Hergé enabled him to come very close to the type of space suit that would be used in future Moon exploration , although his portrayal of the type of rocket that was actually used was a long way off the mark". The moon rocket is based on the German V-2 rockets.

INFLUENCES

In his youth, Hergé admired Benjamin Rabier and suggested that a number of images within _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Land of the Soviets_ reflected this influence, particularly the pictures of animals. René Vincent, the Art Deco
Art Deco
designer, also affected early Tintin
Tintin
adventures: "His influence can be detected at the beginning of the _Soviets_, where my drawings are designed along a decorative line, like an 'S'." Hergé also felt no compunction in admitting that he had stolen the image of round noses from George McManus, feeling they were "so much fun that I used them, without scruples!"

During the extensive research Hergé carried out for _The Blue Lotus_, he became influenced by Chinese and Japanese illustrative styles and woodcuts . This is especially noticeable in the seascapes, which are reminiscent of works by Hokusai
Hokusai
and Hiroshige .

Hergé also declared Mark Twain
Mark Twain
an influence, although this admiration may have led him astray when depicting Incas as having no knowledge of an upcoming solar eclipse in _ Prisoners of the Sun _, an error T. F. Mills attributed to an attempt to portray "Incas in awe of a latter-day 'Connecticut Yankee '".

TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH

BRITISH

Tintin
Tintin
first appeared in English in the weekly British children's comic _Eagle _ in 1951 with the story _King Ottokar's Sceptre_. It was translated in conjunction with Casterman , Tintin's publishers, and starts by describing Tintin
Tintin
as "a French boy". Snowy was called by his French name "Milou".

The process of translating Tintin
Tintin
into British English was then commissioned in 1958 by Methuen , Hergé's British publishers. It was a joint operation, headed by Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper and Michael Turner, working closely with Hergé to attain an accurate translation as true as possible to the original work. Due in part to the large amount of language-specific word play (such as punning) in the series, especially the jokes which played on Professor Calculus ' partial deafness, it was always the intention not to translate literally, instead striving to sculpt a work whose idioms and jokes would be meritorious in their own right. Despite the free hand Hergé afforded the two, they worked closely with the original text, asking for regular assistance to understand Hergé's intentions.

The British translations were also Anglicised to appeal to British customs and values. Milou, for example, was renamed Snowy at the translators' discretion. Captain Haddock's Le château de Moulinsart was renamed Marlinspike Hall.

When it came time to translate _ The Black Island
The Black Island
_, which is set in Great Britain
Great Britain
, the opportunity was taken to make the scenes more true-to-life; such as ensuring that the British police were unarmed and ensuring scenes of the British countryside were more accurate for discerning British readers. Methuen had decided that the book did not portray Great Britain
Great Britain
accurately enough, and had compiled a list of 131 errors of detail, which should be put right, asking Studios Hergé to rework it completely. The resulting album is the dramatically updated and redrawn 1966 version that is the most commonly available today. As of the early 21st century , Egmont publishes Tintin
Tintin
books in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.

AMERICAN

Unlike in most of Western Europe
Western Europe
, the _Tintin_ books have had limited popularity in the United States
United States
.

The works were first adapted for the American English market by Golden Books , a branch of the Western Publishing Company in the 1950s. The albums were translated from French into American English with some artwork panels blanked except for the speech balloons. This was done to remove content considered to be inappropriate for children, such as drunkenness and free mixing of races. The albums were not popular and only six were published in mixed order. The edited albums later had their blanked areas redrawn by Hergé to be more acceptable, and they currently appear this way in published editions around the world.

From 1966 to 1979, _Children\'s Digest _ included monthly instalments of _The Adventures of Tintin_. These serialisations served to increase Tintin's popularity, introducing him to many thousands of new readers in the United States.

Atlantic Monthly Press , in cooperation with Little, Brown and Company beginning in the 1970s, republished the albums based on the British translations. Alterations were made to vocabulary not well known to an American audience (such as gaol , tyre , saloon , and spanner ). As of the early 21st century , Little, Brown and Company (owned by the Hachette Book Group USA ) continues to publish Tintin books in the United States.

LETTERING AND TYPOGRAPHY

The English-language Adventures of Tintin
Tintin
books were originally published with handwritten lettering created by cartographer Neil Hyslop. 1958's _The Crab With the Golden Claws_ was the first to be published with Hyslop's lettering. Hyslop was given versions of Hergé's artwork with blank panels. Hyslop would write his English script on a clear cellophane -like material, aiming to fit within the original speech bubble. Occasionally the size of the bubbles would need to be adjusted if the translated text would not fit. In the early 2000s, Tintin's English publishers Egmont discontinued publishing books featuring Hyslop's handwritten lettering, instead publishing books with text created with digital fonts. This change was instigated by publisher Casterman and Hergé's estate managers Moulinsart , who decided to replace localised hand-lettering with a single computerised font for all Tintin
Tintin
titles worldwide.

RECEPTION

AWARDS

On 1 June 2006, the Dalai Lama bestowed the International Campaign for Tibet 's Light of Truth Award upon the Hergé Foundation, along with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
. The award was in recognition of Hergé's book _ Tintin in Tibet _, Hergé's most personal adventure, which the Executive Director of ICT Europe Tsering Jampa noted was "for many ... their introduction to the awe-inspiring landscape and culture of Tibet". In 2001, the Hergé Foundation demanded the recall of the Chinese translation of the work, which had been released with the title _ Tintin
Tintin
in Chinese Tibet_. The work was subsequently published with the correct translation of the title. Accepting on behalf of the Hergé Foundation, Hergé's widow Fanny Rodwell
Fanny Rodwell
stated, "We never thought that this story of friendship would have a resonance more than 40 years later".

LITERARY CRITICISM

Main article: List of books about Tintin

The study of Tintin, sometimes referred to as "Tintinology", has become the life work of some literary critics in Belgium, France and England. Belgian author Philippe Goddin has written _ Hergé et Tintin reporters: Du Petit Vingtième au Journal Tintin_ (1986, later republished in English as _ Hergé and Tintin
Tintin
Reporters: From "Le Petit Vingtième" to "Tintin" Magazine_ in 1987) and _ Hergé et les Bigotudos_ (1993) amongst other books on the series. In 1983, French author Benoît Peeters released _Le Monde d'Hergé_, subsequently published in English as _ Tintin
Tintin
and the World of Hergé _ in 1988. English reporter Michael Farr has written works such as _Tintin, 60 Years of Adventure_ (1989), _Tintin: The Complete Companion_ (2001), _ Tintin
Tintin
">_ The early works of Tintin_ naively depicted controversial images. Later, Hergé called his actions "a transgression of my youth." Hergé substituted this sequence with one in which the rhino accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle.

The earliest stories in _The Adventures of Tintin_ have been criticised for displaying racial stereotypes, animal cruelty , colonialism , violence, and even fascist leanings, including ethnocentric caricatured portrayals of non-Europeans. While the Hergé Foundation has presented such criticism as naïveté and scholars of Hergé such as Harry Thompson have said that " Hergé did what he was told by the Abbé
Abbé
Wallez", Hergé himself felt that his background made it impossible to avoid prejudice, stating, "I was fed the prejudices of the bourgeois society that surrounded me."

_ Tintin
Tintin
in the Congo_ has been criticised as presenting the Africans as naïve and primitive. In the original work, Tintin
Tintin
is shown at a blackboard addressing a class of African children. "My dear friends," he says, "I am going to talk to you today about your fatherland: Belgium." Hergé redrew this in 1946 to show a lesson in mathematics. Hergé later admitted the flaws in the original story, excusing it saying, "I portrayed these Africans according to ... this purely paternalistic spirit of the time." Sue Buswell, who was the editor of Tintin
Tintin
at Methuen, summarised the perceived problems with the book in 1988 as "all to do with rubbery lips and heaps of dead animals", although Thompson noted her quote may have been "taken out of context".

Drawing on André Maurois ' _Les Silences du colonel Bramble_, Hergé presents Tintin
Tintin
as a big-game hunter , accidentally killing fifteen antelope as opposed to the one needed for the evening meal. However, concerns over the number of dead animals led _Tintin_'s Scandinavian publishers to request changes. A page of Tintin
Tintin
killing a rhinoceros by drilling a hole in its back and inserting a stick of dynamite was deemed excessive; Hergé replaced the page with one in which the rhino accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle while he sleeps under a tree. In 2007, the UK's Commission for Racial Equality called for the book to be pulled from shelves after a complaint, stating, "It beggars belief that in this day and age that any shop would think it acceptable to sell and display _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Congo_." In August 2007, a Congolese student filed a complaint in Brussels
Brussels
that the book was an insult to the Congolese people. Public prosecutors investigated, and a criminal case was initiated, although the matter was transferred to a civil court. Belgium's Centre for Equal Opportunities warned against "over-reaction and hyper political correctness ". Mr. Bohlwinkel

Hergé altered some of the early albums in subsequent editions, usually at the demand of publishers. For example, at the instigation of his American publishers, many of the African characters in _Tintin in America_ were re-coloured to make their race Caucasian or ambiguous. _The Shooting Star_ originally had an American villain with the Jewish surname of "Blumenstein". This proved controversial, as the character exhibited exaggerated, stereotypically Jewish characteristics. "Blumenstein" was changed to an American with a less ethnically specific name, Mr. Bohlwinkel , in later editions and subsequently to a South American of a fictional country —São Rico. Hergé later discovered that 'Bohlwinkel' was also a Jewish name.

ADAPTATIONS AND MEMORABILIA

Main article: Tintin books, films, and media

_The Adventures of Tintin_ has been adapted in a variety of media besides the original comic strip and its collections. Hergé encouraged adaptations and members of his studio working on the animated films. After Hergé's death in 1983, the Hergé Foundation and Moulinsart , the foundation's commercial and copyright wing, became responsible for authorising adaptations and exhibitions.

TELEVISION AND RADIO

Two animated television adaptations and one radio adaptation have been made.

_Hergé\'s Adventures of Tintin
Tintin
_ (_Les aventures de Tintin
Tintin
d'après Hergé_) (1957) was the first production of Belvision Studios . Ten of Hergé's books were adapted, each serialised into a set of five-minute episodes, with 103 episodes produced. The series was directed by Ray Goossens and written by Belgian comic artist Greg , later editor-in-chief of _ Tintin
Tintin
_ magazine, and produced by Raymond Leblanc . Most stories in the series varied widely from the original books, often changing whole plots.

_ The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
_ (_Les aventures de Tintin_) (1991–92) was the more successful _Tintin_ television series. An adaptation of twenty-one _Tintin_ books, it was directed by Stéphane Bernasconi and was produced by Ellipse (France) and Nelvana (Canada) on behalf of the Hergé Foundation. The series adhered closely to the albums to such an extent that panels from the original were often transposed directly to the screen. The series aired in over fifty countries and was released on DVD. It aired in the US on HBO .

_The Adventures of Tintin_ (1992–93) radio series was produced by BBC Radio 4 . The dramas starred Richard Pearce as Tintin
Tintin
and Andrew Sachs as Snowy. Captain Haddock was played by Leo McKern in Series One and Lionel Jeffries in Series Two, Professor Calculus was played by Stephen Moore and Thomson and Thompson were played by Charles Kay .

The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
were also released as radio dramas on LP and compact cassette recordings in French language versions in Belgium, France and Canada, German language versions in West Germany, Swedish language versions in Sweden, Danish language versions in Denmark and Norwegian language versions in Norway.

CINEMA

Five feature-length _Tintin_ films were made before Hergé's death in 1983.

_ The Crab with the Golden Claws _ (_Le crabe aux pinces d'or_) (1947) was the first successful attempt to adapt one of the comics into a feature film. Written and directed by Claude Misonne and João B Michiels, the film was a stop-motion puppet production created by a small Belgian studio.

_ Tintin and the Golden Fleece _ (_ Tintin
Tintin
et le mystère de la Toison d'Or_) (1961), the first live action _Tintin_ film, was adapted not from one of Hergé's _Adventures of Tintin_ but instead from an original script written by André Barret and Rémo Forlani. Directed by Jean-Jacques Vierne and starring Jean-Pierre Talbot as Tintin
Tintin
and Georges Wilson as Haddock, the plot involves Tintin
Tintin
travelling to Istanbul to collect the _Golden Fleece_, a ship left to Haddock in the will of his friend, Themistocle Paparanic. Whilst in the city however, Tintin
Tintin
and Haddock discover that a group of villains also want possession of the ship, believing that it would lead them to a hidden treasure.

_ Tintin and the Blue Oranges _ (_ Tintin
Tintin
et les oranges bleues_) (1964), the second live action _Tintin_ film, was released due to the success of the first. Again based upon an original script, once more by André Barret, it was directed by Philippe Condroyer and starred Talbot as Tintin
Tintin
and Jean Bouise as Haddock. The plot reveals a new invention, the blue orange, that can grow in the desert and solve world famines, devised by Calculus' friend, the Spanish Professor Zalamea. An emir whose interests are threatened by the invention of the blue orange proceeds to kidnap both Zalamea and Calculus, and Tintin
Tintin
and Haddock travel to Spain in order to rescue them.

_ Tintin and the Temple of the Sun _ (_ Tintin
Tintin
et le temple du soleil_) (1969), the first traditional animation _Tintin_ film, was adapted from two of Hergé's _Adventures of Tintin_: _The Seven Crystal Balls_ and _Prisoners of the Sun_. The first full-length, animated film from Raymond Leblanc's Belvision, which had recently completed its television series based upon the Tintin
Tintin
stories; it was directed by Eddie Lateste and featured a musical score by the critically acclaimed composer François Rauber . The adaptation is mostly faithful, although the _Seven Crystal Balls_ portion of the story was heavily condensed.

_ Tintin and the Lake of Sharks _ (_ Tintin
Tintin
et le lac aux requins_) (1972), the second traditional animation _Tintin_ film and the last Tintin
Tintin
release for nearly 40 years, it was based on an original script by Greg and directed by Raymond Leblanc. Belvision's second feature takes Tintin
Tintin
to Syldavia to outwit his old foe Rastapopoulos. While the look of the film is richer, the story is less convincing. The movie was subsequently adapted into a comic album made up of stills from the film.

Resurgence In _Tintin_ Films

_The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn _ (2011) was Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
's motion capture 3D film based on three Hergé albums: _ The Crab with the Golden Claws _ (1941), _The Secret of the Unicorn _ (1943), and _Red Rackham\'s Treasure _ (1944). Peter Jackson 's company Weta Digital
Weta Digital
provided the animation and special effects. The movie's reception was positive; Jackson will direct and Spielberg will produce a second movie of a planned trilogy.

DOCUMENTARIES

One documentary about _Tintin_ was made during Hergé's lifetime. Years after Hergé's death, a new documentary film about Tintin
Tintin
and Hergé was released, then later a documentary television series was produced.

_ I, Tintin _ (_Moi, Tintin_) (1976) was produced by Belvision Studios and Pierre Film.

_ Tintin and I _ (_ Tintin
Tintin
et moi_) (2003), a documentary film directed by Anders Høgsbro Østergaard and co-produced by companies from Denmark, Belgium, France, and Switzerland, was based on the taped interview with Hergé by Numa Sadoul from 1971. Although the interview was published as a book, Hergé was allowed to edit the work prior to publishing and much of the interview was excised. Years after Hergé's death, the filmmaker returns to the original tapes and restores Hergé's often personal, insightful thoughts—and in the process brings viewers closer to the world of Tintin
Tintin
and Hergé. It was broadcast in the United States
United States
on the PBS
PBS
network, 11 July 2006.

_Sur les traces de Tintin
Tintin
_ (_On the trail of Tintin_) (2010) was a five-part documentary television series which recaps several albums of the book series by combining comic panels (motionless or otherwise ) with live-action imagery, with commentary provided. _ Tintin
Tintin
and the Black Island_ at the Arts Theatre in the West End of London, by the Unicorn Theatre Company, in 1980–81

THEATRE

Hergé himself helped to create two stage plays , collaborating with humourist Jacques Van Melkebeke . _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Indies: The Mystery of the Blue Diamond _ (1941) covers much of the second half of _Cigars of the Pharaoh_ as Tintin
Tintin
attempts to rescue a stolen blue diamond. _The Disappearance of Mr. Boullock_ (1941–1942) has Tintin, Snowy, and Thomson and Thompson track the mysterious Mr. Boullock around the world and back to Brussels
Brussels
again. The plays were performed at the Théâtre Royal des Galeries in Brussels. The scripts of the plays are unfortunately lost.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two Tintin
Tintin
plays appeared at the Arts Theatre in the West End of London, adapted by Geoffrey Case for the Unicorn Theatre Company. These were _Tintin's Great American Adventure_, based on the comic _ Tintin
Tintin
in America_ (1976–1977) and _ Tintin
Tintin
and the Black Island_, based on _The Black Island_ (1980–81); this second play later toured.

A musical based on _The Seven Crystal Balls_ and _Prisoners of the Sun_ premièred on 15 September 2001 at the Stadsschouwburg (City Theatre) in Antwerp
Antwerp
, Belgium. It was entitled _Kuifje – De Zonnetempel (De Musical) _ ("_ Tintin
Tintin
– Temple of the Sun (The Musical)_") and was broadcast on Canal Plus , before moving on to Charleroi
Charleroi
in 2002 as _ Tintin
Tintin
– Le Temple du Soleil – Le Spectacle Musical _.

The Young Vic theatre company in London ran _Hergé's Adventures of Tintin_, a musical version of _ Tintin
Tintin
in Tibet_, at the Barbican Arts Centre (2005–2006); the production was directed by Rufus Norris and was adapted by Norris and David Greig . The show was successfully revived at the Playhouse Theatre in the West End of London before touring (2006–2007) to celebrate the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007.

VIDEO GAMES

Tintin
Tintin
began appearing in video games when Infogrames Entertainment, SA , a French game company, released the side scroller _ Tintin
Tintin
on the Moon _ in 1989. The same company released a platformer video game titled _ Tintin in Tibet _ in 1995 for the Super NES and Mega Drive/Genesis. Another platformer from Infogrames titled _Prisoners of the Sun _ was released the following year for the Super NES, PC, and Game Boy Color. As computer graphics technology improved, video game experiences improved. In 2001, Tintin
Tintin
became 3D in a game called _Tintin: Destination Adventure _, released by Infogrames for the PC and PlayStation. Then in 2011, an action-adventure video game called _The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn _, a tie-in to the 2011 movie, was released by Ubisoft in October 2011. The Tintin
Tintin
Shop in Covent Garden

MEMORABILIA AND MERCHANDISE

Images from the series have long been licensed for use on merchandise , the success of _Tintin_ magazine helping to create a market for such items. Tintin's image has been used to sell a wide variety of products, from alarm clocks to underpants. Countless separate items related to the character have been available, with some becoming collectors\' items in their own right.

The Hergé Foundation has maintained control of the licenses, through Moulinsart, the commercial wing of the foundation. Speaking in 2002, Peter Horemans, the then director general at Moulinsart, noted this control: "We have to be very protective of the property. We don't take lightly any potential partners and we have to be very selective ... for him to continue to be as popular as he is, great care needs to be taken of his use." However, the Foundation has been criticised by scholars as "trivialising the work of Hergé by concentrating on the more lucrative merchandising" in the wake of a move in the late 1990s to charge them for using relevant images to illustrate their papers on the series.

Tintin
Tintin
memorabilia and merchandise has allowed a chain of stores based solely on the character to become viable. The first shop was launched in 1984 in Covent Garden , London. Tintin
Tintin
shops have also opened in both Bruges
Bruges
and Brussels
Brussels
in Belgium, and in Montpellier , France. In 2014, a Tintin
Tintin
shop opened in Taguig, the Philippines, only the second of its kind in Southeast Asia. The first Tintin
Tintin
shop in Southeast Asia opened in Singapore in 2010. The British bookstore chain, Ottakar\'s , founded in 1987, was named after the character of King Ottokar from the Tintin
Tintin
book _King Ottokar's Sceptre_, and their shops stocked a large amount of Tintin
Tintin
merchandise until their takeover by Waterstone\'s in 2006. _ Belgian Post 's series of postage stamps " Tintin
Tintin
on screen" issued 30 August 2011 featuring a chronological review of Tintin_ film adaptations made through years.

STAMPS AND COINS

Main articles: Tintin
Tintin
postage stamps and Tintin
Tintin
coins

Tintin's image has been used on postage stamps on numerous occasions. The first _Tintin_ postage stamp was an eight-franc stamp issued by Belgian Post for the 50th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's first adventure on 29 September 1979, featuring Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy looking through a magnifying glass at several stamps. In 1999, a nine-stamp block celebrating ten years of the Belgian Comic Strip Center was issued, with the center stamp a photo of Tintin's famous moon rocket that dominates the Comic Strip Center's entry hall. To mark the end of the Belgian Franc and to celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the publication of _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Congo_, two more stamps were issued by Belgian Post on 31 December 2001: Tintin
Tintin
in a pith helmet and a souvenir sheet with a single stamp in the center. The stamps were jointly issued in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . In 2004, Belgian Post celebrated its own seventy-fifth anniversary, as well as the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of _Explorers on the Moon_, and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the moon landings with a souvenir sheet of five stamps based upon the _Explorers on the Moon_ adventure. To celebrate the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007, Belgian Post issued a sheet of 25 stamps depicting the album covers of all 24 _Adventures of Tintin_ (in 24 languages) plus Hergé's portrait in the center. A souvenir sheet of ten stamps called " Tintin
Tintin
on screen", issued 30 August 2011, depicts the _Tintin_ film and television adaptations.

Tintin
Tintin
has also been commemorated by coin several times. In 1995, the Monnaie de Paris
Monnaie de Paris
(Paris Mint) issued a set of twelve gold medallions , available in a limited edition of 5000. A silver medallion was minted in 2004 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Tintin
Tintin
book _Explorers on the Moon_, again in a limited run, this time of 10,000. It quickly sold out. In 2004, Belgium minted a limited edition commemorative euro coin featuring Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy celebrating the 75th anniversary of Tintin's first adventure in January 2004. Although it has a face value of €10, it is, as with other commemorative euro coins, legal tender only in the country in which it was issued—in this case, Belgium. In 2006–2012 France issued the Comic Strip Heroes commemorative coin series featuring famous Franco-Belgian comics , beginning in 2006 with _Tintin_. It was a set of six different euro coins honouring Hergé: three 1½-euro silver coins featuring Tintin
Tintin
and the Professor, Tintin
Tintin
and Captain Haddock, and Tintin
Tintin
and Chang; a €10 (gold) featuring Tintin; and a €20 (silver) and a €50 (gold) featuring Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy. In 2007, on Hergé's centenary, Belgium issued its €20 (silver) Hergé/Tintin coin.

PARODY AND PASTICHE

Main article: List of Tintin
Tintin
parodies and pastiches _ A frame from Breaking Free_, a revolutionary socialist comic that parodies the _Adventures of Tintin_

During Hergé's lifetime, parodies were produced of the _Adventures of Tintin_, with one of the earliest appearing in Belgian newspaper _La Patrie_ after the liberation of the country from Nazi German occupation in September 1944. Entitled _ Tintin
Tintin
au pays de nazis_ ("_ Tintin
Tintin
in the Land of the Nazis_"), the short and crudely drawn strip lampoons Hergé for working for a Nazi-run newspaper during the occupation.

Following Hergé's death, hundreds more unofficial parodies and pastiches of the _Adventures of Tintin_ were produced, covering a wide variety of different genres. Tom McCarthy divided such works into three specific groupings: pornographic, political, and artistic. In a number of cases, the actual name "Tintin" is replaced by something similar, like Nitnit, Timtim, or Quinquin, within these books.

McCarthy's first group, pornographic parodies, includes 1976's _ Tintin
Tintin
en Suisse_ (" Tintin
Tintin
in Switzerland") and Jan Bucquoy's 1992 work _La Vie Sexuelle de Tintin_ ("Tintin's Sex Life"), featuring Tintin
Tintin
and the other characters engaged in sexual acts. Another such example was _ Tintin
Tintin
in Thailand _, in which Tintin, Haddock, and Calculus travel to the East Asian country for a sex holiday . The book began circulating in December 1999, but in 2001, Belgian police arrested those responsible and confiscated 650 copies for copyright violation.

Other parodies have been produced for political reasons: for instance, _ Tintin
Tintin
in Iraq_ lampoons the world politics of the early 21st century, with Hergé's character General Alcazar representing President of the United States
United States
George W. Bush . Written by the pseudonymous Jack Daniels, _Breaking Free _ (1989) is a revolutionary socialist comic set in Britain during the 1980s, with Tintin
Tintin
and his uncle (modelled after Captain Haddock) being working class Englishmen who turn to socialism in order to oppose the capitalist policies of the Conservative Party government of Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
. When first published in Britain, it caused an outrage in the mainstream press, with one paper issuing the headline that "Commie nutters turn Tintin into picket yob!"

Other comic creators have chosen to create artistic stories that are more like fan fiction than parody. The Swiss artist Exem created the irreverent comic adventures of Zinzin, what _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_ calls "the most beautifully produced of the pastiches." Similarly, Canadian cartoonist Yves Rodier has produced a number of Tintin
Tintin
works, none of which have been authorised by the Hergé Foundation, including a 1986 "completion" of the unfinished _ Tintin
Tintin
and Alph-art_, which he drew in Hergé's ligne claire style.

The response to these parodies has been mixed in the Tintinological community. Many despise them, seeing them as an affront to Hergé's work. Nick Rodwell of the Hergé Foundation took this view, declaring that "None of these copyists count as true fans of Hergé. If they were, they would respect his wishes that no one but him draw Tintin's adventures." Where possible, the foundation has taken legal action against those known to be producing such items. Others have taken a different attitude, considering such parodies and pastiches to be tributes to Hergé, and collecting them has become a "niche specialty". _ Hergé_ art exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou modern art museum in Paris, commemorating the centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007

EXHIBITIONS

After Hergé's death in 1983, his art began to be honoured at exhibitions around the world, keeping _Tintin_ awareness at a high level. The first major _Tintin_ exhibition in London was _Tintin: 60 years of Adventure_, held in 1989 at the Town Hall in Chelsea. This early exhibition displayed many of Hergé's original sketches and inks, as well as some original gouaches . In 2001, an exhibition entitled _Mille Sabords!_ ("_Billions of Blistering Barnacles!_") was shown at the National Navy Museum ( Musée national de la Marine ) in Paris. In 2002, the Bunkamura Museum of Art in Tokyo staged an exhibition of original Hergé drawings as well as of the submarine and rocket ship invented in the strips by Professor Calculus. The National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London, hosted the exhibition _ The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
at Sea_ in 2004, focusing on Tintin's sea exploits, and in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's first adventure. 2004 also saw an exhibition in Halles Saint Géry in Brussels
Brussels
titled _ Tintin
Tintin
et la ville_ ("Tintin and the City") showcasing all cities in the world Tintin
Tintin
had travelled.

The Belgian Comic Strip Center in the Brussels
Brussels
business district added exhibits dedicated to Hergé in 2004. The Brussels\' Comic Book Route in the center of Brussels
Brussels
added its first _Tintin_ mural in July 2005.

The centenary of Hergé's birth in 2007 was commemorated at the largest museum for modern art in Europe, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, with _Hergé_, an art exhibition honouring his work. The exhibition, which ran from 20 December 2006 until 19 February 2007, featured some 300 of Hergé's boards and original drawings, including all 124 original plates of _The Blue Lotus_. Laurent le Bon, organiser of the exhibit said, "It was important for the Centre to show the work of Hergé next to that of Matisse or Picasso." Michael Farr said, " Hergé has long been seen as a father figure in the comics world. If he's now recognised as a modern artist, that's very important."

2009 saw the opening of the Hergé Museum (Musée Hergé ), designed in contemporary style, in the town of Louvain-la-Neuve , south of Brussels. Visitors follow a sequence of eight permanent exhibit rooms covering the entire range of Hergé's work, showcasing the world of Tintin
Tintin
and his other creations. In addition, the new museum has already seen many temporary exhibits, including _Into Tibet With Tintin_.

LEGACY

The Hergé Museum , located in the town of Louvain-la-Neuve , south of Brussels
Brussels
, opened in June 2009, honouring the work of Hergé .

Hergé is recognised as one of the leading cartoonists of the twentieth century. Most notably, Hergé's ligne claire style has been influential to creators of other Franco-Belgian comics. Contributors to _Tintin_ magazine have employed ligne claire, and later artists Jacques Tardi , Yves Chaland , Jason Little , Phil Elliott , Martin Handford , Geof Darrow , Eric Heuvel, Garen Ewing , Joost Swarte , and others have produced works using it.

In the wider art world, both Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
have claimed Hergé as one of their most important influences. Lichtenstein made paintings based on fragments from _Tintin_ comics, whilst Warhol used ligne claire and even made a series of paintings with Hergé as the subject. Warhol, who admired Tintin's "great political and satirical dimensions", said, " Hergé has influenced my work in the same way as Walt Disney
Walt Disney
. For me, Hergé was more than a comic strip artist".

Hergé has been lauded as "creating in art a powerful graphic record of the 20th century's tortured history" through his work on Tintin, whilst Maurice Horn's _World Encyclopedia of Comics_ declares him to have "spear-headed the post-World War II renaissance of European comic art". French philosopher Michel Serres noted that the twenty-three completed Tintin
Tintin
albums constituted a "_chef-d'oeuvre_" ("masterpiece") to which "the work of no French novelist is comparable in importance or greatness".

In 1966, Charles de Gaulle said, "In the end, you know, my only international rival is Tintin! We are the small ones, who do not let themselves be had by the great ones."

In March 2015, Brussels
Brussels
Airlines painted an Airbus A320-200 with registration OO-SNB in a special Tintin
Tintin
livery.

Tintin
Tintin
has become a symbol of Belgium and so was used in a variety of visual responses to the 2016 Brussels
Brussels
bombings .

LIST OF TITLES

Following are the twenty-four canonical _Tintin_ comic albums as named in English. Publication dates are of the original French-language versions.

_Tintin_ comic albums ALBUM NUMBER TITLE SERIALISATION ALBUM (B&W) ALBUM (COLOUR) NOTES

1 _ Tintin in the Land of the Soviets _ 1929–1930 1930 2017 Hergé prevented this book's republication until 1973. It has been coloured for the first time in 2017.

2 _ Tintin in the Congo _ 1930–1931 1931 1946 Re-published in colour and in a fixed 62-page format. Book
Book
10 was the first to be originally published in colour.

3 _ Tintin in America _ 1931–1932 1932 1945

4 _ Cigars of the Pharaoh _ 1932–1934 1934 1955

5 _ The Blue Lotus _ 1934–1935 1936 1946

6 _ The Broken Ear _ 1935–1937 1937 1943

7 _ The Black Island
The Black Island
_ 1937–1938 1938 1943, 1966

8 _King Ottokar\'s Sceptre _ 1938–1939 1939 1947

9 _ The Crab with the Golden Claws _ 1940–1941 1941 1943

10 _ The Shooting Star _ 1941–1942

1942

11 _ The Secret of the Unicorn _ 1942–1943

1943 Books 11 to 15 set a middle period for Hergé marked by war and changing collaborators.

12 _Red Rackham\'s Treasure _ 1943

1944

13 _ The Seven Crystal Balls _ 1943–1946

1948

14 _ Prisoners of the Sun _ 1946–1948

1949

15 _ Land of Black Gold _ 1948–1950

1950, 1971

16 _Destination Moon _ 1950–1952

1953 Books 16 to 23 (and revised editions of books 4, 7 & 15) are creations of Studios Hergé .

17 _ Explorers on the Moon _ 1952–1953

1954

18 _ The Calculus Affair _ 1954–1956

1956

19 _ The Red Sea Sharks _ 1956–1958

1958

20 _ Tintin in Tibet _ 1958–1959

1960

21 _ The Castafiore Emerald _ 1961–1962

1963

22 _ Flight 714 to Sydney
Flight 714 to Sydney
_ 1966–1967

1968

23 _ Tintin and the Picaros _ 1975–1976

1976

24 _ Tintin and Alph-Art _ 1986

2004 Hergé's unfinished book, published posthumously.

The following are double albums with a continuing story arc.

* _ Cigars of the Pharaoh _ & _ The Blue Lotus _ * _ The Secret of the Unicorn _ & _Red Rackham\'s Treasure _ * _ The Seven Crystal Balls _ & _ Prisoners of the Sun _ * _Destination Moon _ ">

* ^ Tintin
Tintin
first appeared in _Eagle_ Vol 2:17 (3 August), which ran in weekly parts in the lower half of the centerfold, beneath the cutaway drawings, until Vol 3:4 (2 May 1952). * ^ At that time, _Children's Digest_ had a circulation of around 700,000 copies monthly. * ^ "_Mes chers amis, je vais vous parler aujourd'hui de votre patrie: La Belgique._" * ^ "Dead animals" refers to the fashion for big-game hunting at the time of the work's original publication. * ^ Two series were created. Series 1: Two books, twelve episodes, were adapted in black and white as a test of the studio's abilities; these were actually faithful to the original albums. Series 2: Eight books, 91 episodes, were adapted in colour; these were often unfaithful to the original albums. The animation quality of the series was very limited. * ^ Belvision had just been launched by Raymond Leblanc , who had created _Tintin_ magazine a decade earlier. * ^ The series ran for three seasons, 13 episodes each season; the 21 stories usually presented in two-part segments. * ^ Geoffrey Case (adapted), Tony Wredden (directed): _Tintin's Great American Adventure_, Arts Theatre, London, 18 December 1976 to 20 February 1977, Unicorn Theatre Company. _ Tintin
Tintin
and the Black Island_, Arts Theatre, London, 1980–81, Unicorn Theatre Company. * ^ " Tintin
Tintin
on screen" depicts both _Tintin_ television programs and four of the five _Tintin_ film adaptations (_Lake of Sharks_ was omitted). * ^ "_Au fond, vous savez, mon seul rival international c'est Tintin! Nous sommes les petits qui ne se laissent pas avoir par les grands._" Spoken by Charles de Gaulle, according to his Minister for Cultural Affairs André Malraux . De Gaulle had just banned all NATO aircraft bases from France ; "the great ones" referred to USA and USSR. De Gaulle then added, "_On ne s'en apperçoit pas, à cause de ma taille._" ("Only nobody notices the likeness because of my size.")

CITATIONS

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pollard 2007 ; Bostock The Age 24 May 2006 ; Junkers 2007 . * ^ Farr 2007a , p. 4. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 1991 , p. 207–208. * ^ Screech 2005 , p. 27; Miller 2007 , p. 18; Clements 2006 ; Wagner 2006 ; Lichfield 2006 ; Macintyre 2006 ; Gravett 2008 . * ^ Thompson 2003 ; Gravett 2005 ; Mills 1983 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Assouline 2009 , p. 19. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 24; Peeters 2012 , pp. 20–29. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 24–25; Peeters 2012 , pp. 31–32. * ^ Assouline 2009 , p. 38. * ^ Goddin 2008 , p. 44. * ^ _A_ _B_ Farr 2001 , p. 12. * ^ Farr 2001 , p. 12; Thompson 1991 , p. 25; Assouline 2009 . * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 29. * ^ Lofficier Farr 2001 , p. 18; Lofficier Peeters 2012 , pp. 34–37. * ^ Peeters 2012 , pp. 39–41. * ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 32–34; Peeters 2012 , pp. 42–43. * ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 26–29; Peeters 2012 , pp. 45–47. * ^ Assouline 2009 , pp. 30–32. * ^ Assouline 2009 , p. 35. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 82. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 91–92. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 90–91. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 92–93. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 98–99. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 147. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 166. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 1991 , p. 173. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 174. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 176, 174. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 1991 , p. 194. * ^ Thompson 1991 , pp. 202–203. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 203. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 289. * ^ Walker 2005 . * ^ McCloud 1993 . * ^ Horeau 2004 . * ^ McCarthy 2006 , pp. 160–161. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 4. * ^ Yusuf 2005 . * ^ How to tell a Thompson from a Thomson 2006 . * ^ Farr 2004 . * ^ Thompson 2003 . * ^ McLaughlin 2007 , p. 187. * ^ Gravett 2005 . * ^ McLaughlin 2007 , pp. 173–234. * ^ Assouline 2009 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Ewing 1995 . * ^ Pain 2004 . * ^ Moura 1999 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sadoul The Times 4 August 2009 . * ^ The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
14 August 2009 ; The Times 4 August 2009 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Owens 10 July 2004 . * ^ Farr 2001 , p. 106. * ^ Farr 2001 , p. 72. * ^ Egmont Group 2013 . * ^ BBC News 9 January 2009 . * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 103; A personal website (Netherlands) 2006 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Owens 1 October 2004 . * ^ Hachette Book
Book
Group 2013 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Chris Owens (10 July 2004). "Interview with Michael Turner and Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper". Tintinologist. Retrieved 29 November 2014. * ^ Kim Adrian (22 October 2012). " Casterman Makes Tragic Changes to Tintin: Hyslop\'s Handlettering vs. "Pretty" Computer Font". Retrieved 29 November 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ BBC News 2 June 2006 . * ^ Farr 2001 , p. 162. * ^ Int\'l Campaign for Tibet 17 May 2006 . * ^ BBC News 22 May 2002 . * ^ Wagner 2006 . * ^ Peeters 1989 . * ^ Farr 2001 . * ^ Farr 2007 . * ^ Farr 2007a . * ^ Thompson 1991 . * ^ Apostolidès 2010 . * ^ Perl-Rosenthal 2010 . * ^ Tisseron 1990 . * ^ Tisseron 1993 . * ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 10. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 8. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 32. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , pp. 13–14. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , pp. 106–109. * ^ Clements 2006 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 1991 , pp. 38,49; Farr 2001 , p. 22. * ^ BBC News 28 April 2010 ; Beckford 2007 . * ^ Farr 2001 , p. 22. * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 40. * ^ BBC News 17 July 2007 . * ^ Cendrowicz 2010 ; Farr 2001 , p. 25. * ^ Buswell 1988 . * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 44. * ^ Beckford 2007 ; BBC News 12 July 2007 . * ^ Samuel 2011 ; BBC News 13 February 2012 . * ^ Vrielink 2012 . * ^ Mills 1996 . * ^ Thompson 1991 , p. 289; Tintin.com Moulinsart 2010 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , pp. 143–144. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , p. 148. * ^ Baltimore Sun 16 November 1991 . * ^ Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , p. 143. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , pp. 144–145. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , pp. 145–146. * ^ Da. 2003 . * ^ Lofficier Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , p. 147. * ^ Mulard 2012 . * ^ Fischer 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lofficier RLF: Current Fellows 2008 ; Cadambi Website: Plays Thompson 1991 , pp. 132–133,142; Lofficier HLN.be 13 December 2007 ; Wainman 2006 ; Cadambi Website: Plays YoungVic.org 2005 ; Barbican 2005 ; Cadambi Website: Plays SoniaFriedman.com 2007 . * ^ MobyGames.com 1989 ; Sinclair Infoseek 1989 . * ^ MobyGames.com 1995 . * ^ MobyGames.com 1996 . * ^ MobyGames.com 2001 . * ^ MobyGames.com 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Pignal 2010 . * ^ Conrad 2004 . * ^ DITT 2002 . * ^ Bright 1999 . * ^ " Tintin
Tintin
Shop Singapore". _SGnow_. Asia City Online Ltd. Retrieved 18 July 2017. * ^ Irish Times 9 January 1999 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Ahl 2011 ; TintinMilou.free.fr 2011 . * ^ PostBeeld 2010 ; Ahl 2011 ; TintinMilou.free.fr 2011 ; Kenneally 1991 . * ^ White 2007 ; Ahl 2011 ; TintinMilou.free.fr 2011 . * ^ Chard 1995 ; OmniCoin 2009 . * ^ Tintinesque.com 2004 . * ^ _A_ _B_ BBC News 8 January 2004 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Numista 2006 ; Coin Database 2006 . * ^ Coin Talk
Talk
2007 ; NumisCollect 2007 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Coxhead 2007 . * ^ McCarthy 2006 , pp. 186–187; Thompson 1991 , p. 168. * ^ McCarthy 2006 , p. 186; BBC News 14 February 2001 . * ^ Coxhead 2007 ; McCarthy 2006 , p. 186; Perrotte Der Spiegel 20 December 2006 ; Chiha 2007 ; Radio Télévision Suisse 28 June 2010 ; CentrePompidou.fr 2006 ; Wainman 2007 . * ^ Owens 25 February 2004 ; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006 . * ^ BDzoom.com 2001 ; Tintin.com 21 March 2001 ; Sipa 3 January 2001 ; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006 . * ^ Tintin.com 16 March 2002 . * ^ BBC News 29 March 2004 ; Kennedy 2003 ; RMG.co.uk 13 November 2003 ; Horeau 2004 ; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006 . * ^ Soumous 2004 ; Cadambi Website: Exhibitions 2006 . * ^ The Independent 15 October 2011 ; Kenneally 1991 . * ^ City of Brussels
Brussels
Comic Book
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Route ; de Koning Gans Website 2005 . * ^ designboom 2006 . * ^ Junkers 2007 ; TwoCircles 21 May 2007 ; Highbeam 21 May 2007 . * ^ The Economist 28 May 2009 ; Contimporist 3 June 2009 ; Tintin.com Musée Hergé 2009 . * ^ Tintin.com Musée Hergé 2009 . * ^ Musée Hergé May 2012 . * ^ The Economist 28 May 2009 ; Contimporist 3 June 2009 . * ^ Radio Télévision Suisse 28 June 2010 . * ^ Armitstead The New York Times 5 March 1983 ; Lofficier & Lofficier 2002 , p. 9. * ^ "TINTIN / A Brussels
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Airlines aircraft in Tintin
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colours". * ^ Butter, Susannah (24 March 2016), " Brussels
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attacks: how Tintin became a symbol of solidarity on Twitter", _ London Evening Standard _

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

* Apostolidès, Jean-Marie (2010) . _The Metamorphoses of Tintin, or Tintin
Tintin
for Adults_. Jocelyn Hoy (translator). Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-6031-7 . * Assouline, Pierre (2009) . _Hergé, the Man Who Created Tintin_. Charles Ruas (translator). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539759-8 . * Farr, Michael (2001). _Tintin: The Complete Companion_. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-5522-0 . * Farr, Michael (2007). _ Tintin
Tintin
& Co_. London: John Murray Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4052-3264-7 . * Farr, Michael (2007a). _The Adventures of Hergé_ (Re-release ed.). San Francisco: Last Gasp (first published in 2007 by John Murray Publishers Ltd.). ISBN 978-0-86719-679-5 . * Goddin, Philippe (2008). _The Art of Hergé, Inventor of Tintin: Volume 1, 1907–1937_. Michael Farr (translator). San Francisco: Last Gasp. ISBN 978-0-86719-706-8 . * Gravett, Paul (2005). _Graphic Novels: Stories to Change Your Life_. London: Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-84513-068-8 . * Horeau, Yves (2004). _ The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
at Sea_. Michael Farr (translator). London: Hodder & Stoughton (First published 1999 by John Murray Publishers Ltd.). ISBN 978-0-7195-6119-1 . * Horn, Maurice (1983). _World Encyclopedia of Comics_ (2nd Revised ed.). New York City: Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-87754-323-7 . * Lofficier, Jean-Marc ; Lofficier, Randy (2002). _The Pocket Essential Tintin_. Harpenden, Hertfordshire: Pocket Essentials. ISBN 978-1-904048-17-6 . * McCarthy, Tom (2006). _ Tintin
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and the Secret of Literature_. London: Granta. ISBN 978-1-86207-831-4 . * McCloud, Scott (1993). _Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art_. Princeton, Wisconsin: Kitchen Sink Press. ISBN 978-0-87816-243-7 . * McLaughlin, Jeff (2007). _Comics as Philosophy_. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi (First published December 2005). ISBN 978-1-60473-000-5 . * Miller, Ann (2007). _Reading Bande Dessinée: Critical Approaches to French-language Comic Strip_. Intellect Books. ISBN 978-1-84150-177-2 . * Peeters, Benoît (1989). _ Tintin
Tintin
and the World of Hergé_. London: Methuen Children's Books. ISBN 978-0-416-14882-4 . * Peeters, Benoît (2012) . _Hergé: Son of Tintin_. Tina A. Kover (translator). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0454-7 . * Sadoul, Numa (1975). _ Tintin
Tintin
et moi: entretiens avec Hergé_ (in French). Tournai: Casterman. ISBN 978-2-08-080052-7 . * Screech, Matthew (2005). _Masters of the Ninth Art: Bandes Dessinées and Franco-Belgian Identity_. Liverpool University Press . ISBN 978-0-85323-938-3 . * Thompson, Harry (1991). _Tintin: Hergé and his Creation_. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-52393-3 . * Tisseron, Serge (1990). _ Tintin
Tintin
et les Secrets de Famille_. Paris: Editions Aubier-Montaigne. ISBN 978-2-7007-2168-3 . * Tisseron, Serge (1993). _ Tintin
Tintin
et les Secrets d\'Hergé_. Paris: Editions Hors collection. ISBN 978-2-258-03753-3 .

NEWS ARTICLES

* Adair, Gilbert (10 October 1993). "A quiff history of time". _The Sunday Times_. London. * Armitstead, Claire; Sprenger, Richard (25 October 2011). "Anybody who is constructing a comic strip would be crazy not to learn from Hergé". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original (video) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. John Fardell talks about the influence of Hergé's drawing style on his own work. * Beckford, Martin (12 July 2007). "Ban \'racist\' Tintin
Tintin
book, says CRE". _The Telegraph_. London. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2013. * Billington, Michael (15 December 2005). "Hergé\'s Adventures of Tintin". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. * Bostock, Sarah; Brennan, Jon (10 January 2007). " Talk
Talk
of the toon". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Bright, Martin (3 January 1999). "This life: That's Tintin
Tintin
on the far right A battle is raging for Tintin's soul. Is he a French hero or a fascist propaganda tool?". _The Observer_. London. p. 4. * Buswell, Sue (27 November 1988). "(Unknown title)". _The Mail on Sunday_. London. * Conrad, Peter (7 March 2004). "He\'ll never act his age". _The Observer_. London. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Cendrowicz, Leo (4 May 2010). "Tintin: Heroic Boy Reporter or Sinister Racist?". _Time_. New York City. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Clements, Tom (9 July 2006). " Tintin
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and the enigma of academic obsession". _The Telegraph_. London. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Coxhead, Gabriel (7 May 2007). "Tintin\'s new adventures". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Da., A. (3 January 2003). " Tintin
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en pleine forme" . _Le Parisien_ (in French). Paris. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2009. * Fischer, Russ (25 October 2011). " Peter Jackson Confirms He Will Make the Next \'Tintin\' Film After \'The Hobbit\'". _Slash Film_. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013. * Junkers, Dorothee (22 May 2007). "Centennial of Tintin\'s Hergé noted". _Taipei Times_. Taipei. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * Kenneally, Christopher (29 September 1991). "Comics Characters Beloved by Brussels". _The New York Times_. New York City. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Kennedy, Maev (19 November 2003). "Museum aims to draw crowds with cartoon boy wonder aged 75". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Lichfield, John (27 December 2006). "Tintin\'s big art adventure". _The Independent_. London. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Macintyre, Ben (29 December 2006). "Blistering barnacles! Tintin is a Pop Art idol". _The Times_. London. Retrieved 3 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * McCarthy, Tom (1 July 2006). "Review: From zero to hero". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Mulard, Claudine (7 November 2012). "Hollywood, porte d\'entrée de Tintin
Tintin
pour séduire l\'Amérique" . _Le Monde_ (in French). Paris. Retrieved 4 May 2013. Spielberg said he found a 'soul mate' in the person of Hergé. * Perl-Rosenthal, Nathan (2 February 2010). "In and Out of History". _The New Republic_. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * Pignal, Stanley (7 May 2010). "Fans of Tintin
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cry foul". _Financial Times_. London. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Pollard, Lawrence (22 May 2007). "Belgium honours Tintin\'s creator". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * Samuel, Henry (18 October 2011). " Tintin
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\'racist\' court case nears its conclusion after four years". _The Telegraph_. London. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2013. * Soumous, Frederic (1 April 2004). " Tintin
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et l\'exposition de la ville, Bruxelles" . _Le Soir_ (in French). Brussels. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Smurthwaite, Nick (13 December 2007). "Hergé\'s Adventure of Tintin". _The Stage_. London. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Vrielink, Jogchum (14 May 2012). "Effort to ban Tintin
Tintin
comic book fails in Belgium". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Wagner, Erica (9 December 2006). " Tintin
Tintin
at the top". _The Times_. London. Retrieved 11 March 2011. (Subscription required (help)). * Walker, Andrew (16 December 2005). "Faces of the week". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. * "Belgian to Ban \'Racist\' _ Tintin
Tintin
in the Congo_". London: BBC News. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2013. * "Bid to ban \'racist\' Tintin
Tintin
book". London: BBC News. 12 July 2007. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Book
Book
chain moves \'racist\' Tintin". London: BBC News. 17 July 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Le Centre Pompidou décolle avec Tintin" . _Le Figaro_ (in French). Paris. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. * "Confused by the cult of Tintin? You\'re not alone". London: BBC News. 9 January 2009. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Dalai Lama honours Tintin
Tintin
and Tutu". London: BBC News. 2 June 2006. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Drawing room: The Belgian Comic Strip Center: Tintin". _The Independent_. London. 15 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Euro coin honours Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy". London: BBC News. 8 January 2004. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Great blistering barnacles". _The Economist_. London. 28 January 1999. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2011. * "The Hergé museum: Totally Tintin". _The Economist_. London. 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * "In pictures: Tintin
Tintin
exhibition". London: BBC News. 29 March 2004. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * "Kuifje maakt opmerkelijke entree op West End" . _Het Laatste Nieuws_ (in Dutch). Brussels. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. * "Les tintinophiles fêtent les 100 ans d\'Hergé" (in French). Geneva: Radio Télévision Suisse. 28 June 2010. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Lewd Tintin
Tintin
shocks Belgium". London: BBC News. 14 February 2001. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Obituary: Georges Remi, creator of comic figure Tintin". _The New York Times_. New York City. 5 March 1983. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2006. * "Obituary: Michael Turner: Tintin
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translator and publisher". _The Times_. London. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * "Paris:"Mille Sabords!" exhibition at the Marine\'s Museum". Paris: Sipa Press. 3 January 2001. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * "Telegraph obituary: Michael Turner". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. 14 August 2009. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2010. * " Tintin
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Among The Geriatrics: Kitty Holland celebrates the 70th birthday of Belgium\'s favourite son, and France\'s beloved adoptee, Tintin". _The Irish Times_. Dublin. 9 January 1999. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * " Tintin
Tintin
and Snowy Go to the Museum: Pompidou Center Pays Homage to Hergé". _Der Spiegel_. Hamburg. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * " Tintin
Tintin
creator\'s centenary". _The Age_. Melbourne. 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Tintin
Tintin
fait une entrée remarquée sur le Broadway londonien" . _Le Devoir_ (in French). Montréal. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Tintin
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Finds His Way to America\'s HBO". _The Baltimore Sun_. Baltimore, Maryland. 16 November 1991. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2010. * " Tintin
Tintin
\'frees\' Tibet". London: BBC News. 22 May 2002. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "_ Tintin
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and I_ PBS
PBS
Premiere". Arlington, Virginia: POV/PBS. July 2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Tintin in the Congo not racist, court rules". London: BBC News. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2013. * " Tintin
Tintin
on trial". London: BBC News. 4 February 1999. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Tintin
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praises volunteer efforts" (PDF). Brussels: Dyslexia International. September 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Tintin\'s 70 years of adventure". London: BBC News. 10 January 1999. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * "Tutu and Tintin
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to be honoured by Dalai Lama". Washington, D.C.: International Campaign for Tibet. 17 May 2006. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2011.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

* Corn, Howard (December 1989). " Tintin
Tintin
comic". _Eagle Times_. 2 (4). * Farr, Michael (March 2004). "Thundering Typhoons". _History Today_. 54 (3): 62. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * Mills, T.F. (November 1983). "America Discovers Tintin". _The Comics Journal_. 1 (86): 60–68. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * Pain, Stephanie (April 2004). "Welcome to the moon, Mr Armstrong". _New Scientist_. 182 (2441): 48–49. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). * Sadoul, Numa ; Didier, Michel (February 2003). "The Hergé Interview: Extracts from _Entretiens avec Hergé_". _The Comics Journal_. 1 (250): 180–205. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)). English translation: 2003, copyediting: Kim Thompson. * Thompson, Kim (February 2003). "Hergé: His Life and Work". _The Comics Journal_. 1 (250): 176–179. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013. (Subscription required (help)).

WEBSITES

* Ahl, David H. (28 August 2011). " Hergé ~ Tintin
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Philately: Stamps, Souvenir Sheets and Covers". _SwapMeetDave _. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * Cadambi, Abra (2006). " Hergé & Tintin—A Guide: Tintin
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Live!". _ Hergé & Tintin
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– A Guide to all things Hergé _. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013. * Cadambi, Abra (2006). " Hergé & Tintin—A Guide: Tintin
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– A Guide to all things Hergé _. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2013. * Chiha, Sofiane (2 January 2007). "Célébrations sur toute la planète pour le créateur de Tintin" . _L'Humanité_ (in French). Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Christensen, Claus (November 2003). "Boy Scout with Strange Dreams—" Tintin
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et moi"". Danish Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2006. * Ewing, Garen (1995). "In Defence of Hergé". _Tintinologist.org / Vicious magazine_. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2006. * Gravett, Paul (20 April 2008). " Hergé & The Clear Line: Part 1". PaulGravett.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * Hodgson, Leda (17 April 2008). "Leda Hodgson". _Theatre Maketa_. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Tintin
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and the Black Island adapted by Geoffrey Case from Hergé. Unicorn Theatre Company 1980. * de Koning Gans, Wim (28 January 2005). "Comic Strip Murals in Brussels". _PBase.com—Wim de Koning Gans _. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Lorenzi, Anthony (28 August 2011). " Tintin
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in stamps". _TintinMilou.free.fr _. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * Mills, T.F. (1 February 1996). "The Adventures of Tintin: A History of the Anglo-American Editions". _Le site d'Hergé_. Archived from the original on 10 July 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006. * Moura, Carlos Gustavo (1999). " Hergé et la ligne claire" . _Hergé: l'homme et l'oeuvre_ (in French). Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Owens, Chris (25 February 2004). "Tintin: 60 Years Of Adventure". Tintinologist.org. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * Owens, Chris (10 July 2004). "Interview with Michael Turner and Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper". Tintinologist.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2006. * Owens, Chris (1 October 2004). " Tintin
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Audio Releases". Tintinologist.org. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013. Tintin: Le Temple du Soleil. Tabas&Co 5005, 2002. ( Charleroi
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FURTHER READING

BOOKS LISTEN TO THIS ARTICLE (info/dl )

_ This audio file was created from a revision of the "The Adventures of Tintin" article dated 2006-02-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES

* Goddin, Philippe (2010). The Art of Hergé, Inventor of Tintin: Volume 2, 1937–1949_. Michael Farr (translator). San Francisco: Last Gasp. ISBN 978-0-86719-724-2 . * Goddin, Philippe (2011). _The Art of Hergé, Inventor of Tintin: Volume 3: 1950–1983_. Michael Farr (translator). San Francisco: Last Gasp. ISBN 978-0-86719-763-1 . * Taylor, Raphaël (8 November 2012). _Hergé: The Genius of Tintin: A Biography_. London: Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-84831-275-3 .

NEWS ARTICLES

* Dowling, Stephen (9 January 2004). "Boy reporter still a global hero". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Jessel, Stephen (29 November 1998). "Crazy for Tintin". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * Pandey, Geeta (28 September 2005). " Tintin
Tintin
ventures into India\'s rural markets". London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * " Tintin
Tintin
conquers China". London: BBC News. 23 May 2001. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012.

WEBSITES

* Østergaard, Anders (2003). "_ Tintin
Tintin
et Moi_ (Entire documentary)". Vimeo.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013. * Curran, James (17 October 2011). "Unofficial title sequence for _The Adventures of Tintin_, featuring elements from each of the 24 books". Vimeo.com. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2013.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to TINTIN _.

* Official website * Tintinologist.org, the oldest and largest English-language Tintin fan site

* v * t * e

_The Adventures of Tintin_ by Hergé

The Adventures of Tintin
Tintin

* _ Tintin in the Land of the Soviets _ (1930) * _ Tintin in the Congo _ (1931) * _ Tintin in America _ (1932) * _ Cigars of the Pharaoh _ (1934) * _ The Blue Lotus _ (1936) * _ The Broken Ear _ (1937) * _ The Black Island
The Black Island
_ (1938)

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