A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which
is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an
online magazine). Magazines are generally published on a regular
schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed
by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a
combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a
collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it
is a collection of written articles. This explains why magazine
publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery
magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as
2.1 Paid circulation
2.2 Non-paid circulation
2.3 Controlled circulation
3.4 United States
3.4.1 Late 19th century
3.4.2 Progressive Era: 1890s–1920s
3.4.3 21st century
4 Women's magazines
5 Religious magazines
6 See also
8 Further reading
8.1 United States
9 External links
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By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page
three, with the standard sizing being 8 3/8 × 10 7/8 inches.[citation
needed] However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous
pagination throughout a volume. Thus Business Week, which starts each
issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business
Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and
continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous
year, is a journal. Some professional or trade publications are also
peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic
or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are generally
professional magazines. That a publication calls itself a journal does
not make it a journal in the technical sense; The Wall Street Journal
is actually a newspaper.
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improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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German print magazines
Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by
newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution
at selected pick-up locations. The subscription business models for
distribution fall into three main categories.
In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on
a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly
price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation
allows for defined readership statistics.
This means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for
example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products
or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to
unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of
issues distributed, and not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines (industry-based
periodicals) distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free
and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs (e.g.,
printing and postage) associated with the medium of print, publishers
may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one
(unqualified leads); instead, they operate under controlled
circulation, deciding who may receive free subscriptions based on each
person's qualification as a member of the trade (and likelihood of
buying, for example, likelihood of having corporate purchasing
authority, as determined from job title). This allows a high level of
certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's
target audience, and it avoids wasted printing and distribution
expenses. This latter model was widely used before the rise of the
World Wide Web
World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in
the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this
Computer Weekly and Computing, and in finance, Waters
Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge
Front cover of 1 October 1892 issue of The
Illustrated London News
The earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths
Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, which was launched
in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in
1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward
Cave, who edited
The Gentleman's Magazine
The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus
Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a
military storehouse. Founded by
Herbert Ingram in 1842, The
Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine.
The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine,
which was first published in 1739, though multiple changes in
ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that
Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop
in 1734; and though it's on-line platform is still updated daily it
has not been published as a magazine since 2013 after 274 years
Despite being among the first mass media outlets to venture from the
bible, periodicals still remained rooted in the naturalized class and
gender system held by European and American society.
Manufacturing of the early magazines were done via an archaic form of
the printing press, using large hand-engraved wood blocks for
printing. When production of magazines increased, entire production
lines were created to manufacture these wooden blocks.
History of French journalism
History of French journalism and History of journalism
La Gazette, 26 December 1786
Under the ancien regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de
France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, and
Gazette de France, founded in 1631.
Jean Loret was one of France's
first journalists. He disseminated the weekly news of music, dance and
Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a
gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique
(1650, 1660, 1665). The French press lagged a generation behind the
British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the
newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working
Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris. They
were not totally quiescent politically—often they criticized Church
abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and
they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution.
During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as
propaganda organs for various factions.
Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793)
was the most prominent editor. His
L'Ami du peuple
L'Ami du peuple advocated
vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of
the people Marat hated; it closed when he was assassinated. After 1800
Napoleon reimposed strict censorship.
Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in
Paris and most emphasized literature, poetry and stories. They served
religious, cultural and political communities. In times of political
crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership
and thereby were major elements in the changing political culture.
For example, there were eight Catholic periodicals in 1830 in Paris.
None were officially owned or sponsored by the Church and they
reflected a range of opinion among educated Catholics about current
issues, such as the 1830 July Revolution that overthrew the Bourbon
monarchy. Several were strong supporters of the Bourbon kings, but all
eight ultimately urged support for the new government, putting their
appeals in terms of preserving civil order. They often discussed the
relationship between church and state. Generally, they urged priests
to focus on spiritual matters and not engage in politics. Historian M.
Patricia Dougherty says this process created a distance between the
Church and the new monarch and enabled Catholics to develop a new
understanding of church-state relationships and the source of
The Moniteur Ottoman was a gazette written in French and first
published in 1831 on the order of Mahmud II. It was the first official
gazette of the Ottoman Empire, edited by Alexandre Blacque at the
expense of the Sublime Porte. Its name perhaps referred to the French
newspaper Le Moniteur Universel. It was issued weekly. Takvim-i vekayi
was published a few months later, intended as a translation of the
Moniteur into Ottoman Turkish. After having been edited by former
Consul for Denmark "M. Franceschi", and later on by "Hassuna de
Ghiez", it was lastly edited by Lucien Rouet. However, facing the
hostility of embassies, it was closed in the 1840s.
Satirical magazines of Turkey have a long tradition, with the first
magazine (Diyojen) published in 1869. There are currently around 20
satirical magazines; the leading ones are
Penguen (70,000 weekly
circulation), LeMan (50,000) and Uykusuz. Historical examples include
Oğuz Aral's magazine
Gırgır (which reached a circulation of 500,000
in the 1970s) and Marko Paşa (launched 1946). Others include L-Manyak
History of American journalism
History of American journalism and
Mass media and
Late 19th century
Harper's Monthly, a literary and political force in the late 19th
In the mid-1800s, monthly magazines gained popularity. They were
general interest to begin, containing some news, vignettes, poems,
history, political events, and social discussion. Unlike
newspapers, they were more of a monthly record of current events along
with entertaining stories, poems, and pictures. The first periodicals
to branch out from news were Harper's and The Atlantic, which focused
on fostering the arts. Both Harper's and
The Atlantic persist to
this day, with Harper's being a cultural magazine and The Atlantic
focusing mainly on world events. Early publications of Harper's even
held famous works such as early publications of Moby Dick or famous
events such as the laying of the world's first transatlantic telegraph
cable; however, the majority of early content was trickle down from
The development of the magazines stimulated an increase in literary
criticism and political debate, moving towards more opinionated pieces
from the objective newspapers. The increased time between prints
and the greater amount of space to write provided a forum for public
arguments by scholars and critical observers.
The early periodical predecessors to magazines started to evolve to
modern definition in the late 1800s. Works slowly became more
specialized and the general discussion or cultural periodicals were
forced to adapt to a consumer market which yearned for more
localization of issues and events.
Progressive Era: 1890s–1920s
Mass media and American politics
Mass circulation magazines became much more common after 1900, some
with circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Some
passed the million-mark in the 1920s. It was an age of mass media.
Because of the rapid expansion of national advertising, the cover
price fell sharply to about 10 cents. One cause was the heavy
coverage of corruption in politics, local government and big business,
especially by Muckrakers. They were journalists who wrote for popular
magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. They
relied on their own investigative journalism reporting; muckrakers
often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political
corruption. Muckraking magazines–notably McClure's–took on
corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising
public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions,
and social issues like child labor.
The journalists who specialized in exposing waste, corruption, and
scandal operated at the state and local level, like Ray Stannard
Baker, George Creel, and Brand Whitlock. Other like Lincoln Steffens
exposed political corruption in many large cities;
Ida Tarbell went
after John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Samuel Hopkins Adams
in 1905 showed the fraud involved in many patent medicines, Upton
Sinclair's 1906 novel
The Jungle gave a horrid portrayal of how meat
was packed, and, also in 1906,
David Graham Phillips
David Graham Phillips unleashed a
blistering indictment of the U.S. Senate. Roosevelt gave these
journalists their nickname when he complained they were not being
helpful by raking up all the muck.
In 2011, 152 magazines ceased operations and in 2012, 82 magazines
were closed down. Between the years of 2008 to 2015, Oxbridge
communications announced that 227 magazines launched and 82 magazines
closed in 2012 in North America. Furthermore, according to
MediaFinder.com, 93 new magazines launched between the first six
months of 2014 and just 30 closed. The category that produced new
publications was "Regional interest", six new magazines were launched,
including 12th & Broad and Craft Beer & Brewing. However,
two magazines had to change their print schedules. Johnson
Publishing's Jet stopped printing regular issues making the transition
to digital format, however still print an annual print edition.
Ladies Home Journal, stopped their monthly schedule and home delivery
for subscribers to become a quarterly newsstand-only special interest
Magazine stand, Sweden 1941
According to statistics from the end of 2013, subscription levels for
22 of the top 25 magazines declined from 2012 to 2013, with just Time,
ESPN The Magazine gaining numbers.
Main article: Flapper
Immortalized in movies and magazines, young women's fashions of the
1920s set both a trend and social statement, a breaking-off from the
rigid Victorian way of life. Their glamorous life style was celebrated
in the feature pages and in the advertisements, where they learned the
brands that best exemplified the look they sought. These young,
rebellious, middle-class women, labeled "flappers" by older
generations, did away with the corset and donned slinky knee-length
dresses, which exposed their legs and arms. The hairstyle of the
decade was a chin-length bob, which had several popular variations.
Cosmetics, which, until the 1920s, were not typically accepted in
American society because of their association with prostitution,
became, for the first time, extremely popular.
In the 1920s new magazines appealed to young German women with a
sensuous image and advertisements for the appropriate clothes and
accessories they would want to purchase. The glossy pages of Die Dame
and Das Blatt der Hausfrau displayed the "Neue Frauen," "New Girl" -
what Americans called the flapper. She was young and fashionable,
financially independent, and was an eager consumer of the latest
fashions. The magazines kept her up to date on fashion, arts, sports,
and modern technology such as automobiles and telephones.
Religious groups have used magazines for spreading and communicating
religious doctrine for over 100 years. The Watchtower publication was
Charles Taze Russell
Charles Taze Russell on July 1879 under the title Zion's
Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. The Watchtower—Public
Edition is the most widely circulated magazine in the world, with an
average circulation of approximately 62 million copies every two
months in 200 languages.[not in citation given]The Plough
Quarterly was started in 1920 as the magazine of the Bruderhof, and
has continued publication to this day, despite Nazi persecution.
The Catholics have several titles, including First Things.
History of journalism
British boys' magazines
Fantasy fiction magazines
Horror fiction magazines
Science fiction magazines
Shelter magazines (home design and decorating)
List of 18th-century British periodicals
List of 19th-century British periodicals
List of architecture magazines
List of art magazines
List of fashion magazines
List of health and fitness magazines
List of magazines by circulation
Lists of magazines by country
List of men's magazines
List of online magazine archives
List of political magazines
List of railroad-related periodicals
List of satirical magazines
List of science magazines
List of travel magazines
List of teen magazines
List of women's magazines
^ Periodical Publishers Association (UK): "Controlled & Paid
^ "History of magazines".
Magazine Designing. 26 March 2013. Retrieved
10 October 2013.
^ a b "The History of Magazines". Magazines.com.
^ OED, s.v. "Magazine", and "
Magazine - A Dictionary of the English
Language - Samuel Johnson - 1755". johnsonsdictionaryonline.com.
^ Gardner, Jared. The Rise and Fall of Early American Magazine
Culture. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2012. 224 pp.
Reviewed by Edward Cahill Fordham University. Web.
^ a b Martin, Michèle (March 1, 2014). "Nineteenth Century Wood
Engravers at Work: Mass Production of
(1840-1880)". Journal of historical sociology 27, 1.
^ Stephen Botein, Jack R. Censer, and Harriet Ritvo, "The periodical
press in eighteenth-century English and French society: a
cross-cultural approach." Comparative Studies in Society and History
23#3 (1981): 464-490.
^ Jack Censer, The French press in the age of Enlightenment (2002).
^ Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, eds., Revolution in Print: the
Press in France, 1775–1800 (1989)
^ Keith Michael Baker, et al., The French Revolution and the Creation
of Modern Political Culture: The transformation of the political
culture, 1789–1848 (1989).
^ M. Patricia Dougherty, "The French Catholic press and the July
Revolution." French History 12#4 (1998): 403-428.
^ Straubhaar, LaRose, Davenport. Media Now: Understanding Media,
Culture, and Technology (Nelson Education, 2015)
^ a b c Biagi, Shirley. Media Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media,
2013 Update. Cengage Publishing, 2013. Textbook.
^ "Harper's Magazine". Retrieved 2015-11-16.
^ a b Frank L. Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1865–1885
^ Peter C. Holloran et al. eds. (2009). The A to Z of the Progressive
Era. Scarecrow Press. p. 266. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
^ Herbert Shapiro, ed., The muckrakers and American society (Heath,
1968), contains representative samples as well as academic commentary.
^ Robert Miraldi, ed. The Muckrakers: Evangelical Crusaders (Praeger,
^ Harry H. Stein, "American
Muckrakers and Muckraking: The 50-Year
Scholarship," Journalism Quarterly, (1979) 56#1 pp 9–17
^ Christopher Zara (22 December 2012). "In Memoriam: Magazines We Lost
In 2012". IBT. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
^ "Number of magazine launches and closures in North America 2015
Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
^ Erik, Sass (July 1, 2014). "93 Magazines Launch in First Half of
2014". Retrieved 6 May 2016.
Magazine to Shift to Digital Publishing Next Month Johnson
Publishing Company". www.johnsonpublishing.com. Retrieved
^ Cohen, Noam (2014-04-24). "Ladies' Home Journal to Become a
Quarterly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
^ "A Brief History of Magazines and Subscriptions".
^ Carolyn Kitch, The Girl on the
Magazine Cover (University of North
Carolina Press, 2001). pp. 122–23.
^ Nina Sylvester, "Before Cosmopolitan: The Girl in German women's
magazines in the 1920s." Journalism Studies 8#4 (2007): 550-554.
^ "Read the Watchtower and Awake! Magazines Online". JW.ORG. Retrieved
^ "About Us". Plough. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
Angeletti, Norberto, and Alberto Oliva. Magazines That Make History:
Their Origins, Development, and Influence (2004), covers Time, Der
Spiegel, Life, Paris Match, National Geographic, Reader's Digest,
¡Hola!, and People
Brooker, Peter, and Andrew Thacker, eds. The Oxford Critical and
Cultural History of Modernist Magazines: Volume I: Britain and Ireland
Buxton, William J., and Catherine McKercher. "Newspapers, magazines
and journalism in Canada: Towards a critical historiography."
Acadiensis (1988) 28#1 pp. 103–126 in JSTOR; also online
Cox, Howard and Simon Mowatt. Revolutions from Grub Street: A History
Magazine Publishing in Britain (2015) excerpt
Würgler, Andreas. National and Transnational News Distribution
1400–1800, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European
History (2010) retrieved: December 17, 2012.
Baughman, James L. Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News
Media (2001) excerpt and text search
Brinkley, Alan. The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century,
Alfred A. Knopf (2010) 531 pp.
Magazine Master Builder" Book review by Janet Maslin, The New York
Times, April 19, 2010
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in
the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880–1910
Elson, Robert T. Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Publishing
Enterprise, 1923–1941 (1968); vol. 2: The World of Time Inc.: The
Intimate History, 1941–1960 (1973), official corporate history
Endres, Kathleen L. and Therese L. Lueck, eds. Women's Periodicals in
the United States: Consumer Magazines (1995) online
Haveman, Heather A. Magazines and the Making of America:
Modernization, Community, and Print Culture, 1741–1860 (Princeton
Johnson, Ronald Maberry and Abby Arthur Johnson. Propaganda and
Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the
Twentieth Century (1979) online
Mott, Frank Luther. A History of American Magazines (five volumes,
1930–1968), detailed coverage of all major magazines, 1741 to 1930
by a leading scholar.
Nourie, Alan and Barbara Nourie. American Mass-Market Magazines
(Greenwood Press, 1990) online
Rooks, Noliwe M. Ladies' Pages: African American Women's Magazines and
the Culture That Made Them (Rutgers UP, 2004) online
Summer, David E. The
Magazine Century: American Magazines Since 1900
(Peter Lang Publishing; 2010) 242 pages. Examines the rapid growth of
magazines throughout the 20th century and analyzes the form's current
Tebbel, John, and Mary Ellen Zuckerman. The
Magazine in America,
1741–1990 (1991), popular history
Wood, James P. Magazines in the United States: Their Social and
Economic Influence (1949) online
Zuckerman, Mary Ellen. A History of Popular Women's Magazines in the
United States, 1792–1995 (Greenwood Press, 1998) online
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Magazines.
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