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_THE GUARDIAN_ is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as _THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN_. Along with its sister papers _The Observer _ and _ The Guardian Weekly _, _The Guardian_ is part of the _ Guardian Media Group _, owned by _The Scott Trust Limited _. The Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of _The Guardian_ in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of _The Guardian_ free from commercial or political interference." _The Scott Trust_ became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for _The Guardian_. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders.

The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "_Guardian_ reader" and "Guardianista" as often (but not always) pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning, earnest or politically correct tendencies.

_The Guardian_ is edited by Katharine Viner , who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, _The Guardian_'s print edition had an average daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind _ The Daily Telegraph _ and _ The Times _. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, _Guardian Australia _ (founded in 2013) and _ Guardian US _ (founded in 2011). The newspaper's online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers.

Notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal , in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowler 's phone. The investigation led to the closure of the UK's biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, the _ News of the World _. The newspaper also released news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by US President Barack Obama 's administration in June 2013, and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden . In 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers , exposing the then British Prime Minister David Cameron 's links to offshore bank accounts .

_The Guardian_ has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards , the most recent in 2014 for reporting on government surveillance. The paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of _The Grauniad_, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1821 to 1972

* 1.1.1 Early years * 1.1.2 C. P. Scott * 1.1.3 Spanish Civil War * 1.1.4 Post-war

* 1.2 1972 to 2000

* 1.2.1 Northern Ireland conflict * 1.2.2 Sarah Tisdall * 1.2.3 First Gulf War * 1.2.4 Alleged penetration by Russian intelligence * 1.2.5 Jonathan Aitken * 1.2.6 Kosovo War

* 1.3 Since 2000

* 1.3.1 Accusations of anti-Semitism and bias in coverage of Israel * 1.3.2 Clark County * 1.3.3 Guardian America * 1.3.4 Gagged from reporting Parliament * 1.3.5 Edward Snowden leaks and intervention by the UK government

* 2 Ownership and finances

* 2.1 "Membership" subscription scheme

* 3 Political stance and editorial opinion * 4 Controversy

* 5 Circulation and format

* 5.1 Publication history

* 5.2 Moving to the Berliner paper format

* 5.2.1 Reception

* 5.3 Tabloid format from 2018

* 6 Regular content and features

* 6.1 _G2_ and other supplements * 6.2 Regular cartoon strips

* 7 Online media * 8 GuardianFilms * 9 References in popular culture

* 10 Awards

* 10.1 Received * 10.2 Given

* 11 Editors * 12 Notable regular contributors (past and present) * 13 Guardian News "> Manchester Guardian Prospectus, 1821

_The Manchester Guardian_ was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle , a group of non-conformist businessmen. They launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical _ Manchester Observer _, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the _ Manchester Observer_, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand.

The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, and all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.

The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the _British Volunteer_ and was known as _THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN AND BRITISH VOLUNTEER_ until 1828.

The working-class _ Manchester and Salford Advertiser_ called the _ Manchester Guardian_ "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The _ Manchester Guardian_ was generally hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The _ Manchester Guardian_ dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. They live on strife "

_The Manchester Guardian_ was highly critical of Abraham Lincoln 's conduct during the American Civil War , writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty "

C. P. Scott

C. P. Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised. He was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylor's son in 1907. Under Scott, the paper's moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886, and opposing the Second Boer War against popular opinion. Scott supported the movement for women\'s suffrage , but was critical of any tactics by the Suffragettes that involved direct action : "The really ludicrous position is that Mr Lloyd George is fighting to enfranchise seven million women and the militants are smashing unoffending people's windows and breaking up benevolent societies' meetings in a desperate effort to prevent him." Scott thought the Suffragettes' "courage and devotion" was "worthy of a better cause and saner leadership". It has been argued that Scott's criticism reflected a widespread disdain, at the time, for those women who "transgressed the gender expectations of Edwardian society ".

Scott commissioned J. M. Synge and his friend Jack Yeats to produce articles and drawings documenting the social conditions of the west of Ireland (pre-First World War), and these pieces were published in 1911 in the collection _Travels in Wicklow, West Kerry and Connemara_.

Scott's friendship with Chaim Weizmann played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1917 , and in 1948 _The Manchester Guardian_ was a supporter of the new State of Israel .

In June 1936 ownership of the paper passed to the _ Scott Trust _ (named after the last owner, John Russell Scott, who was the first chairman of the Trust). This move ensured the paper's independence.

Spanish Civil War

Traditionally affiliated with the centrist to centre-left Liberal Party , and with a northern, non-conformist circulation base, the paper earned a national reputation and the respect of the left during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). George Orwell writes in _Homage to Catalonia _: "Of our larger papers, the Manchester Guardian is the only one that leaves me with an increased respect for its honesty". With the pro-Liberal _ News Chronicle _, the Labour -supporting _Daily Herald _, the Communist Party 's _Daily Worker _ and several Sunday and weekly papers, it supported the Republican government against General Francisco Franco 's insurgent nationalists.

Post-war

The paper so loathed Labour's left-wing champion Aneurin Bevan "and the hate-gospellers of his entourage" that it called for Attlee 's post-war Labour government to be voted out of office. The newspaper opposed the creation of the National Health Service as it feared the state provision of healthcare would "eliminate selective elimination" and lead to an increase of congenitally deformed and feckless people.

_The Manchester Guardian_ strongly opposed military intervention during the 1956 Suez Crisis : "The Anglo-French ultimatum to Egypt is an act of folly, without justification in any terms but brief expediency. It pours petrol on a growing fire. There is no knowing what kind of explosion will follow."

1972 TO 2000

Northern Ireland Conflict

When 13 civil rights demonstrators in Northern Ireland were killed by British soldiers on 30 January 1972 (known as Bloody Sunday ), _The Guardian_ said that "Neither side can escape condemnation." Of the protesters, they wrote, "The organizers of the demonstration, Miss Bernadette Devlin among them, deliberately challenged the ban on marches. They knew that stone throwing and sniping could not be prevented, and that the IRA might use the crowd as a shield ." Of the army, they wrote, "there seems little doubt that random shots were fired into the crowd, that aim was taken at individuals who were neither bombers nor weapons carriers and that excessive force was used".

Many Irish people believed that the Widgery Tribunal 's ruling on the killings was a whitewash, a view that was later supported with the publication of the Saville inquiry in 2010, but in 1972 _The Guardian_ declared that "Widgery's report is not one-sided" (20 April 1972). At the time the paper also supported internment without trial in Northern Ireland: " Internment without trial is hateful, repressive and undemocratic. In the existing Irish situation, most regrettably, it is also inevitable... .To remove the ringleaders, in the hope that the atmosphere might calm down, is a step to which there is no obvious alternative." Before then, _The Guardian_ had called for British troops to be sent to the region: British soldiers could "present a more disinterested face of law and order," but only on condition that "Britain takes charge."

Sarah Tisdall

In 1983 the paper was at the centre of a controversy surrounding documents regarding the stationing of cruise missiles in Britain that were leaked to _The Guardian_ by civil servant Sarah Tisdall . The paper eventually complied with a court order to hand over the documents to the authorities, which resulted in a six-month prison sentence for Tisdall, though she served only four. "I still blame myself," said Peter Preston , who was the editor of _The Guardian_ at the time, but he went on to argue that the paper had no choice because it "believed in the rule of law".

First Gulf War

In the lead-up to the first Gulf War , between 1990 and 1991, _The Guardian_ expressed doubts about military action against Iraq: "Frustration in the Gulf leads temptingly to the invocation of task forces and tactical bombing, but the military option is no option at all. The emergence yesterday of a potential hostage problem of vast dimensions only emphasised that this is far too complex a crisis for gunboat diplomacy. Loose talk of 'carpet bombing' Baghdad should be put back in the bottle of theoretical but unacceptable scenarios." First Gulf War Plaque, Stafford War Memorial

But on the eve of the war, the paper rallied to the war cause: "The simple cause, at the end, is just. An evil regime in Iraq instituted an evil and brutal invasion. Our soldiers and airmen are there, at UN behest, to set that evil to rights. Their duties are clear. ... Let the momentum, and the resolution, be swift." After the event, journalist Maggie O\'Kane conceded that she and her colleagues had been a mouthpiece for war propaganda: "... we, the media, were harnessed like 2,000 beach donkeys and led through the sand to see what the British and US military wanted us to see in this nice clean war".

Alleged Penetration By Russian Intelligence

In 1994, KGB defector Oleg Gordievsky identified _Guardian_ literary editor Richard Gott as "an agent of influence". While Gott denied that he received cash, he admitted he had lunch at the Soviet Embassy and taken benefits from the KGB on overseas visits. Gott resigned from his post.

Gordievsky commented on the newspaper: "The KGB loved _The Guardian_. It was deemed highly susceptible to penetration."

Jonathan Aitken

In 1995, both the Granada Television programme _ World In Action _ and _The Guardian_ were sued for libel by the then cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken , for their allegation that Harrods owner Mohamed Al Fayed had paid for Aitken and his wife to stay at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris, which would have amounted to accepting a bribe on Aitken's part. Aitken publicly stated that he would fight with "the simple sword of truth and the trusty shield of British fair play". The court case proceeded, and in 1997 _The Guardian_ produced evidence that Aitken's claim of his wife paying for the hotel stay was untrue. In 1999, Aitken was jailed for perjury and perverting the course of justice .

Kosovo War

The paper supported NATO 's military intervention in the Kosovo War in 1998–1999. Though the United Nations Security Council did not support the action, _The Guardian_ stated that "the only honourable course for Europe and America is to use military force". Mary Kaldor 's piece was headlined "Bombs away! But to save civilians, we must get in some soldiers too."

SINCE 2000

_ The Guardian_ senior news writer Esther Addley interviewing Ecuadorian foreign minister Ricardo Patiño for an article relating to Julian Assange in 2014.

In the early 2000s, _The Guardian_ challenged the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Treason Felony Act 1848 . In October 2004, _The Guardian_ published a humorous column by Charlie Brooker in its entertainment guide, which appeared to call for the assassination of George W. Bush . This caused some controversy and the paper was forced to issue an apology and remove the article from its website. Following the 7 July 2005 London bombings , _The Guardian_ published an article on its comment pages by Dilpazier Aslam , a 27-year-old British Muslim and journalism trainee from Yorkshire . Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir , an Islamist group, and had published a number of articles on their website. According to the paper, it did not know that Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir when he applied to become a trainee, though several staff members were informed of this once he started at the paper. The Home Office has claimed the group's "ultimate aim is the establishment of an Islamic state (Caliphate), according to Hizb ut-Tahrir via non-violent means". _The Guardian_ asked Aslam to resign his membership of the group and, when he did not do so, terminated his employment. In early 2009, the paper started a tax investigation into a number of major UK companies, including publishing a database of the tax paid by the FTSE 100 companies. Internal documents relating to Barclays Bank 's tax avoidance were removed from _The Guardian_ website after Barclays obtained a gagging order . The paper played a pivotal role in exposing the depth of the _News of the World_ phone hacking affair . _ The Economist _'s _Intelligent Life _ magazine opined that...

“ As Watergate is to the _Washington Post _, and thalidomide to the _Sunday Times _, so phone-hacking will surely be to the _Guardian_: a defining moment in its history. ”

Accusations Of Anti-Semitism And Bias In Coverage Of Israel

In recent decades _The Guardian_ has been accused of biased criticism of Israeli government policy and of bias against the Palestinians. In December 2003, columnist Julie Burchill cited "striking bias against the state of Israel" as one of the reasons she left the paper for _The Times_. A leaked report from the European Monitoring Centre on Racism cited _The Economist_'s claim that for "many British Jews," the British media's reporting on Israel "is spiced with a tone of animosity, 'as to smell of anti-Semitism ' ... This is above all the case with the _Guardian_ and _ The Independent _". The EU said the report, dated February 2003, was not published because it was insubstantial in its current state and lacking sufficient evidence.

Responding to these accusations, a _Guardian_ editorial in 2002 condemned anti-Semitism and defended the paper's right to criticise the policies and actions of the Israeli government, arguing that those who view such criticism as inherently anti-Jewish are mistaken. Harriet Sherwood, then _The Guardian's_ foreign editor, later its Jerusalem correspondent, has also denied that _The Guardian_ has an anti- Israel bias, saying that the paper aims to cover all viewpoints in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict .

On 6 November 2011, Chris Elliott, the _Guardian_'s readers' editor, wrote that "Guardian reporters, writers and editors must be more vigilant about the language they use when writing about Jews or Israel," citing recent cases where _The Guardian_ received complaints regarding language chosen to describe Jews or Israel. Elliott noted that, over nine months, he upheld complaints regarding language in certain articles that were seen as anti-Semitic, revising the language and footnoting this change.

_The Guardian_'s style guide section referred to Tel Aviv as the capital of Israel in 2012. The Guardian later clarified: "In 1980, the Israeli Knesset enacted a law designating the city of Jerusalem, including East Jerusalem, as the country's capital. In response, the UN security council issued resolution 478, censuring the "change in character and status of the Holy City of Jerusalem" and calling on all member states with diplomatic missions in the city to withdraw. The UN has reaffirmed this position on several occasions, and almost every country now has its embassy in Tel Aviv. While it was therefore right to issue a correction to make clear Israel's designation of Jerusalem as its capital is not recognised by the international community, we accept that it is wrong to state that Tel Aviv – the country's financial and diplomatic centre – is the capital. The style guide has been amended accordingly."

On 11 August 2014 the print edition of _The Guardian_ published a pro-Israeli advocacy advert during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict featuring Elie Wiesel , headed by the words "Jews rejected child sacrifice 3,500 years ago. Now it's Hamas' turn." _The Times_ had decided against running the ad, although it had already appeared in major American newspapers. One week later, Chris Elliott expressed the opinion that the newspaper should have rejected the language used in the advert and should have negotiated with the advertiser on this matter.

Clark County

In August 2004, for the US presidential election , the daily _G2_ supplement launched an experimental letter-writing campaign in Clark County, Ohio , an average-sized county in a swing state . The editor of the _G2_ supplement Ian Katz bought a voter list from the county for $25 and asked readers to write to people listed as undecided in the election, giving them an impression of the international view and the importance of voting against President George W. Bush. The paper scrapped "Operation Clark County" on 21 October 2004 after first publishing a column of responses—nearly all of them outraged—to the campaign under the headline "Dear Limey assholes." The public's dislike of the campaign likely contributed to Bush's victory in Clark County.

Guardian America

In 2007, the paper launched _Guardian America_, an attempt to capitalise on its large online readership in the United States, which at the time stood at more than 5.9 million. The company hired former _ American Prospect _ editor, _New York _ magazine columnist and _New York Review of Books _ writer Michael Tomasky to head the project and hire a staff of American reporters and web editors. The site featured news from _The Guardian_ that was relevant to an American audience: coverage of US news and the Middle East, for example.

Tomasky stepped down from his position as editor of _Guardian America_ in February 2009, ceding editing and planning duties to other US and London staff. He retained his position as a columnist and blogger, taking the title editor-at-large.

In October 2009, the company abandoned the _Guardian America_ homepage, instead directing users to a US news index page on the main Guardian website. The following month, the company laid off six American employees, including a reporter, a multimedia producer and four web editors. The move came as Guardian News and Media opted to reconsider its US strategy amid a huge effort to cut costs across the company. In subsequent years, however, _The Guardian_ has hired various commentators on US affairs including Ana Marie Cox , Michael Wolff , Naomi Wolf , Glenn Greenwald and George W. Bush's former speechwriter Josh Treviño . Treviño's first blog post was an apology for a controversial tweet posted in June 2011 over the second Gaza flotilla, the controversy which had been revived by the appointment.

_ Guardian US _ launched in September 2011, led by editor-in-chief Janine Gibson , which replaced the previous _Guardian America_ service. After a period during which Katharine Viner served as the US editor-in-chief before taking charge of Guardian News and Media as a whole, Viner's former deputy, Lee Glendinning, was appointed to succeed her as head of the American operation at the beginning of June 2015.

Gagged From Reporting Parliament

In October 2009, _The Guardian_ reported that it was forbidden to report on a parliamentary matter – a question recorded in a Commons order paper, to be answered by a minister later that week. The paper noted that it was being "forbidden from telling its readers why the paper is prevented—for the first time in memory—from reporting parliament. Legal obstacles, which cannot be identified, involve proceedings, which cannot be mentioned, on behalf of a client who must remain secret. The only fact the _Guardian_ can report is that the case involves the London solicitors Carter-Ruck ." The paper further claimed that this case appears "to call into question privileges guaranteeing free speech established under the 1688 Bill of Rights ". The only parliamentary question mentioning Carter-Ruck in the relevant period was by Paul Farrelly MP, in reference to legal action by Barclays and Trafigura . The part of the question referencing Carter-Ruck relates to the latter company's September 2009 gagging order on the publication of a 2006 internal report into the 2006 Côte d\'Ivoire toxic waste dump scandal, which involved a class action case that the company only settled in September 2009 after _The Guardian_ published some of the commodity trader's internal emails. The reporting injunction was lifted the next day, as Carter-Ruck withdrew it before _The Guardian_ could challenge it in the High Court. Alan Rusbridger credited the rapid back-down of Carter-Ruck to Twitter, as did a BBC article.

Edward Snowden Leaks And Intervention By The UK Government

In June 2013, the newspaper broke news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by Barack Obama 's administration and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden . The newspaper was subsequently contacted by the British government's Cabinet Secretary, Sir Jeremy Heywood , under instruction from Prime Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, who ordered that the hard drives containing the information be destroyed. _The Guardian_'s offices were then visited in July by agents from the UK's GCHQ , who supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden. In June 2014 _ The Register _ reported that the information the government sought to suppress by destroying the hard drives related to the location of a "beyond top secret" internet monitoring base in Seeb , Oman , and the close involvement of BT and Cable _ The Observer _ Sunday newspaper, _ The Guardian Weekly _ international newspaper, and new media—_Guardian Abroad_ website, and _guardian.co.uk _. All the aforementioned were owned by _The Scott Trust _, a charitable foundation existing between 1936 and 2008, which aimed to ensure the paper's editorial independence in perpetuity, maintaining its financial health to ensure it did not become vulnerable to take overs by for-profit media groups. At the beginning of October 2008, the _Scott Trust's_ assets were transferred to a new limited company, _The Scott Trust Limited_, with the intention being that the original trust would be wound up. Dame Liz Forgan , chair of the _Scott Trust_, reassured staff that the purposes of the new company remained the same as under the previous arrangements. _ The Guardian_'s headquarters in London

_The Guardian_'s ownership by the _Scott Trust_ is probably a factor in its being the only British national daily to conduct (since 2003) an annual social, ethical and environmental audit in which it examines, under the scrutiny of an independent external auditor, its own behaviour as a company. It is also the only British national daily newspaper to employ an internal ombudsman (called the "readers' editor") to handle complaints and corrections.

_The Guardian_ and its parent groups participate in Project Syndicate , established by George Soros , and intervened in 1995 to save the _ Mail & Guardian _ in South Africa. However, Guardian Media Group sold the majority of its shares of the _Mail ">

_The Guardian_ has been consistently loss-making. The National Newspaper division of GMG, which also includes _The Observer_, reported operating losses of £49.9m in 2006, up from £18.6m in 2005. The paper was therefore heavily dependent on cross-subsidisation from profitable companies within the group.

The continual losses made by the National Newspaper division of the Guardian Media Group caused it to dispose of its Regional Media division by selling titles to competitor _ Trinity Mirror _ in March 2010. This included the flagship _ Manchester Evening News _, and severed the historic link between that paper and _The Guardian_. The sale was in order to safeguard the future of _The Guardian_ newspaper as is the intended purpose of the _Scott Trust_.

In June 2011 Guardian News and Media revealed increased annual losses of £33m and announced that it was looking to focus on its online edition for news coverage, leaving the print edition to contain more comments and features. It was also speculated that _The Guardian_ might become the first British national daily paper to be fully online.

For the three years up to June 2012, the paper lost £100,000 a day, which prompted _Intelligent Life_ to question whether _The Guardian_ could survive.

Between 2007 and 2014 The Guardian Media Group sold all their side businesses, of regional papers and online portals for classifieds and consolidated, into _The Guardian_ as sole product. The sales let them acquire a capital stock of £838.3m as of July 2014, supposed to guarantee the independence of _The Guardian_ in perpetuity. In the first year, the paper made more losses than predicted, and in January 2016 the publishers announced, that _The Guardian_ will cut 20 per cent of staff and costs within the next three years.

"MEMBERSHIP" SUBSCRIPTION SCHEME

In 2014, _The Guardian_ launched a membership scheme. The scheme aims to reduce the financial losses incurred by _The Guardian_ without introducing a paywall , thus maintaining open access to the website. Website readers can pay a monthly subscription, with three tiers available.

POLITICAL STANCE AND EDITORIAL OPINION

Founded by textile traders and merchants, _The Guardian_ had a reputation as "an organ of the middle class", or in the words of C. P. Scott's son Ted, "a paper that will remain bourgeois to the last". Associated at first with the Little Circle and hence with classical liberalism as expressed by the Whigs and later by the Liberal Party , its political orientation underwent a decisive change after World War II , leading to a gradual alignment with Labour and the political left in general.

The _ Scott Trust _ describes one of its "core purposes" to be "to secure the financial and editorial independence of the _Guardian_ in perpetuity: as a quality national newspaper without party affiliation; remaining faithful to its liberal tradition". The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion: a MORI poll taken between April and June 2000 showed that 80 per cent of _Guardian_ readers were Labour Party voters; according to another MORI poll taken in 2005, 48 per cent of _Guardian_ readers were Labour voters and 34 per cent Liberal Democrat voters. The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing opinions has led to the use of the epithets "_Guardian_ reader" and "Guardianista" for people holding such views, or as a negative stereotype of such people as middle class, earnest and politically correct .

Although the paper is often considered to be "linked inextricably" to the Labour Party, three of _The Guardian_'s four leader writers joined the more centrist Social Democratic Party on its foundation in 1981. The paper was enthusiastic in its support for Tony Blair in his successful bid to lead the Labour Party, and to be elected Prime Minister. On 19 January 2003, two months before the 2003 invasion of Iraq , _The Guardian_ reported: "Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers. But if we want a lasting peace it may be the only option. War with Iraq may yet not come, but, conscious of the potentially terrifying responsibility resting with the British Government, we find ourselves supporting the current commitment to a possible use of force."

Then _Guardian_ features editor Ian Katz asserted in 2004 that "it is no secret we are a centre-left newspaper". In 2008, _Guardian_ columnist Jackie Ashley said that editorial contributors were a mix of "right-of-centre libertarians , greens, Blairites, Brownites, Labourite but less enthusiastic Brownites, etc," and that the newspaper was "clearly left of centre and vaguely progressive". She also said that "you can be absolutely certain that come the next general election, _The Guardian_'s stance will not be dictated by the editor, still less any foreign proprietor (it helps that there isn't one) but will be the result of vigorous debate within the paper". The paper's comment and opinion pages, though often written by centre-left contributors such as Polly Toynbee , have allowed some space for right-of-centre voices such as Sir Max Hastings and Michael Gove . Since an editorial in 2000, _The Guardian_ has favoured abolition of the British monarchy. "I write for the _Guardian_," said Max Hastings in 2005, "because it is read by the new establishment," reflecting the paper's then-growing influence.

In the run-up to the 2010 general election , following a meeting of the editorial staff, the paper declared its support for the Liberal Democrats, due in particular, to the party's stance on electoral reform . The paper suggested tactical voting to prevent a Conservative victory, given Britain's first-past-the-post electoral system. At the 2015 election , the paper switched its support to the Labour Party . The paper argued that Britain needed a new direction and Labour "speaks with more urgency than its rivals on social justice, standing up to predatory capitalism, on investment for growth, on reforming and strengthening the public realm, Britain's place in Europe and international development".

Assistant Editor Michael White, in discussing media self-censorship in March 2011, says: "I have always sensed liberal, middle class ill-ease in going after stories about immigration, legal or otherwise, about welfare fraud or the less attractive tribal habits of the working class, which is more easily ignored altogether. Toffs, including royal ones, Christians, especially popes, governments of Israel, and US Republicans are more straightforward targets."

In a 2013 interview for NPR , the Guardian's Latin America correspondent Rory Carroll stated that many editors at _The Guardian_ believed and continue to believe that they should support Hugo Chávez "because he was a standard-bearer for the left".

In the 2015 Labour Party leadership election , _The Guardian_ supported Yvette Cooper and was critical of left-winger Jeremy Corbyn , the successful candidate. Although the majority of political columnists in _The Guardian_ were against Corbyn winning, Owen Jones , Seumas Milne and George Monbiot wrote supportive articles about him.

CONTROVERSY

Journalist Glenn Greenwald of _The Intercept_, a former contributor to _The Guardian_, has accused _The Guardian_ of falsifying the words of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in a report about the interview he gave to Italian newspaper _La Repubblica._ Greenwald wrote: "This article is about how those false claims — fabrications, really — were spread all over the internet by journalists, causing hundreds of thousands of people (if not millions) to consume false news." _The Guardian_ later retracted its article about Assange.

Randeep Ramesh, Social Affairs Editors of The Guardian, has expressed his support for controversial charity CAGE , a support organisation for people investigated due to terrorist connections.

After publishing a story on 13 January 2017 claiming that WhatsApp had a "backdoor allows snooping on messages", more than 70 professional cryptographers signed on to an open letter calling for The Guardian to retract the article. Security researchers also criticized the story, including Moxie Marlinspike who called it "false". The article and the follow-up articles affirming The Guardian's position remain on the site, largely unchanged.

CIRCULATION AND FORMAT

_The Guardian_ had a certified average daily circulation of 204,222 copies in December 2012 — a drop of 11.25 per cent on January 2012 — as compared to sales of 547,465 for _The Daily Telegraph_, 396,041 for _The Times_, and 78,082 for _The Independent_. In March 2013, its average daily circulation had fallen to 193,586, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. Circulation has continued to decline and stood at 161,091 in December 2016, a decline of 2.98 per cent year-on-year.

PUBLICATION HISTORY

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_ The Guardian_'s Newsroom visitor centre and archive (No 60), with an old sign with the name _The Manchester Guardian_

The first edition was published on 5 May 1821, at which time _The Guardian_ was a weekly, published on Saturdays and costing 7d ; the stamp duty on newspapers (4d per sheet) forced the price up so high that it was uneconomic to publish more frequently. When the stamp duty was cut in 1836, _The Guardian_ added a Wednesday edition and with the abolition of the tax in 1855 it became a daily paper costing 2d.

In 1952, the paper took the step of printing news on the front page, replacing the adverts that had hitherto filled that space. Then-editor A. P. Wadsworth wrote: "It is not a thing I like myself, but it seems to be accepted by all the newspaper pundits that it is preferable to be in fashion."

In 1959, the paper dropped "Manchester" from its title, becoming simply _The Guardian_, and in 1964 it moved to London, losing some of its regional agenda but continuing to be heavily subsidised by sales of the more downmarket but more profitable _ Manchester Evening News_. The financial position remained extremely poor into the 1970s; at one time it was in merger talks with _The Times_. The paper consolidated its centre-left stance during the 1970s and 1980s. It was both shocked and revitalised by the launch of _The Independent_ in 1986 which competed for a similar readership and provoked the entire broadsheet industry into a fight for circulation.

On 12 February 1988, _The Guardian_ had a significant redesign; as well as improving the quality of its printers' ink, it also changed its masthead to a juxtaposition of an italic Garamond "_The_", with a bold Helvetica "GUARDIAN", that remained in use until the 2005 redesign.

In 1992, _The Guardian_ relaunched its features section as _G2_, a tabloid-format supplement. This innovation was widely copied by the other "quality" broadsheets and ultimately led to the rise of "compact" papers and _The Guardian_'s move to the Berliner format . In 1993 the paper declined to participate in the broadsheet price war started by Rupert Murdoch 's _The Times_. In June 1993, _The Guardian_ bought _The Observer_ from Lonrho , thus gaining a serious Sunday sister newspaper with similar political views.

Its international weekly edition is now titled _ The Guardian Weekly_, though it retained the title _ Manchester Guardian Weekly_ for some years after the home edition had moved to London. It includes sections from a number of other internationally significant newspapers of a somewhat left-of-centre inclination, including _ Le Monde _ and _The Washington Post _. _ The Guardian Weekly_ was also linked to a website for expatriates, _Guardian Abroad_, which was launched in 2007 but had been taken offline by 2012.

MOVING TO THE BERLINER PAPER FORMAT

_The Guardian_ is printed in full colour, and was the first newspaper in the UK to use the Berliner format for its main section, while producing sections and supplements in a range of page sizes including tabloid, approximately A4, and pocket-size (approximately A5).

In 2004, _The Guardian_ announced plans to change to a Berliner or "midi " format, similar to that used by _ Die Tageszeitung _ in Germany, _ Le Monde _ in France and many other European papers. At 470×315 mm, this is slightly larger than a traditional tabloid . Planned for the autumn of 2005, this change followed moves by _The Independent_ and _ The Times _ to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. On Thursday, 1 September 2005, _The Guardian_ announced that it would launch the new format on Monday 12 September 2005. Sister Sunday newspaper _The Observer_ also changed to this new format on 8 January 2006.

The advantage _The Guardian_ saw in the Berliner format was that, though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The new presses mean that printing can go across the strip down the middle of the centre page, known as the "gutter", allowing the paper to print striking double-page pictures. The new presses also made it the first UK national paper to print in full colour on every page.

The format switch was accompanied by a comprehensive redesign of the paper's look. On Friday, 9 September 2005, the newspaper unveiled its newly designed front page, which débuted on Monday 12 September 2005. Designed by Mark Porter , the new look includes a new masthead for the newspaper, its first since 1988. A typeface family designed by Paul Barnes and Christian Schwartz was created for the new design. With just over 200 fonts, it is "one of the most ambitious custom type programs ever commissioned by a newspaper". Especially notable is Guardian Egyptian , a highly legible slab serif that is used in various weights for both text and headlines and is central to the redesign.

The switch cost Guardian Newspapers £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses in east London and Manchester. This was necessary because, before _The Guardian_'s move, no printing presses in Britain could produce newspapers in the Berliner format. There were additional complications, as one of the paper's presses was part-owned by _Telegraph Newspapers _ and _Express Newspapers _, contracted to use the plant until 2009. Another press was shared with the Guardian Media Group's north-western tabloid local papers, which did not wish to switch to the Berliner format.

Reception

The new format was generally well received by _Guardian_ readers, who were encouraged to provide feedback on the changes. The only controversy was over the dropping of the _ Doonesbury _ cartoon strip. The paper reported thousands of calls and emails complaining about its loss; within 24 hours the decision was reversed and the strip was reinstated the following week. _G2_ supplement editor Ian Katz, who was responsible for dropping it, apologised in the editors' blog saying, "I'm sorry, once again, that I made you—and the hundreds of fellow fans who have called our helpline or mailed our comments' address—so cross." However, some readers were dissatisfied as the earlier deadline needed for the all-colour sports section meant coverage of late-finishing evening football matches became less satisfactory in the editions supplied to some parts of the country.

The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. In December 2005, the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6 per cent higher than the figure for December 2004. (However, as of December 2012, circulation had dropped to 204,222.) In 2006, the US-based Society for News Design chose _The Guardian_ and Polish daily _Rzeczpospolita _ as the world's best-designed newspapers—from among 389 entries from 44 countries.

TABLOID FORMAT FROM 2018

In June 2017, Guardian Media Group (GMG) announced that The Guardian and The Observer will relaunch in tabloid format from early 2018.

GMG also signed a contract with Trinity Mirror —the publisher of the Daily Mirror , Sunday Mirror , and Sunday People , to outsource printing of The Guardian and The Observer .

David Pemsel, the Chief Executive Officer of GMG said:

“ This is an important step in our three-year transformation plan.

More people are reading and supporting our journalism than ever before, but the print industry continues to evolve, and we must evolve with it.

We plan to continue the Guardian’s record of producing bold, brilliantly designed award-winning journalism . ”

Katharine Viner , the Editor-in-Chief of The Guardian said:

“ The Berliner is a beautiful format , which has served our readers brilliantly for 12 years, but we know that it is our award-winning , quality , independent journalism that our readers value most, rather than the shape or the size of the newspapers .

We are going to create a new-look tabloid Guardian and Observer that are bold, striking, and beautiful – and which still contain the agenda-setting journalism for which we’re renowned. ”

The move to outsource is expected to generate millions of pounds in savings annually.

REGULAR CONTENT AND FEATURES

Each weekday _The Guardian_ comes with the _G2_ supplement containing feature articles, columns, television and radio listings, and a quick crossword. Since the change to the Berliner format, there is a separate daily Sports section. Other regular supplements during the week are shown below.

Before the redesign in 2005, the main news section was in the large broadsheet format, but the supplements were all in the half-sized tabloid format, with the exception of the glossy _Weekend_ section, which was a 290×245 mm magazine, and _The Guide_, which was in a small 225×145 mm format.

With the change of the main section to the Berliner format, the specialist sections are now printed as Berliner, as is a now-daily Sports section, but _G2_ has moved to a "magazine-sized" demi-Berliner format. A Thursday Technology section and daily science coverage in the news section replaced Life and Online. _Weekend_ and _The Guide_ are still in the same small formats as before the change.

On Monday to Thursday prior to the recession, the supplements carried substantial quantities of recruitment advertising, as well as editorial on their specialised topics. However, this has diminished since the onset of recession, to the point that the supplements have been seriously contracted or no longer appear as independent sections. The formerly sixty-page-thick _Society_ supplement (Wednesday) is now no more and has been absorbed into the main part of the paper.

_G2_ AND OTHER SUPPLEMENTS

_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2016)_

The following sections are in _G2_ every day from Monday to Friday: Arts, TV and Radio, Puzzles. Monday

In _G2_:

* Charlie Brooker 's column * Ask Hadley: fashion advice from Hadley Freeman

MediaGuardian:

* Media Monkey: gossip from the media sector

Tuesday

EducationGuardian Wednesday

In _G2_:

* The Digested Read, by John Crace

SocietyGuardian (covers the British public sector and related issues) Thursday

In _G2_:

* Private Lives * Notes & Queries (readers' answers to reader's questions on almost any topic)

Formerly TechnologyGuardian (print version ceased to appear from 17 December 2009)

* The "Free Our Data" campaign

Friday

In _G2_:

* Lost in Showbiz by Marina Hyde

Film ">'s Katine website was awarded for its outstanding new media output at the One World Media awards. Again in 2008, GuardianFilms' undercover video report revealing vote rigging by Robert Mugabe 's Zanu PF party during the 2007 Zimbabwe election won best news programme of the year at the Broadcast Awards.

REFERENCES IN POPULAR CULTURE

The paper's nickname _THE GRAUNIAD_ (sometimes abbreviated as "Graun") originated with the satirical magazine _Private Eye _. This anagram played on _The Guardian's_ early reputation for frequent typographical errors , including misspelling its own name as _The Gaurdian_.

The very first issue of the newspaper contained a number of errors, perhaps the most notable being a notification that there would soon be some goods sold at _atction_ instead of _auction_. Fewer typographical errors are seen in the paper since the end of hot-metal typesetting . One Guardian writer, Keith Devlin , suggested that the high number of observed misprints was due more to the quality of the readership than the misprints' greater frequency. The fact that the newspaper was printed in Manchester until 1961 and the early, more error-prone, prints were sent to London by train may have contributed to this image as well. When John Cole was appointed news editor by Alastair Hetherington in 1963, he sharpened the paper's comparatively "amateurish" setup.

AWARDS

RECEIVED

_The Guardian_ has been awarded the National Newspaper of the Year in 1998, 2005, 2010 and 2013 by the British Press Awards , and Front Page of the Year in 2002 ("A declaration of war", 12 September 2001). It was also co-winner of the World's Best-designed Newspaper as awarded by the Society for News Design (2006).

_Guardian_ journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including:

* Reporter of the Year ( Nick Davies , 1999; Paul Lewis , 2009; Rob Evans * Foreign Reporter of the Year (James Meek , 2003; Ghaith Abdul-Ahad , 2007); * Scoop of the Year (Millie Dowler phone hacked, 2011) * Young Journalist of the Year ( Emma Brockes , 2000; Patrick Kingsley, 2013); * Columnist of the Year ( Polly Toynbee , 2006; Charlie Brooker , 2008); * Critic of the Year (Marina O\'Loughlin , 2015); * Feature Writer of the Year ( Emma Brockes , 2001; Tanya Gold , 2009; Amelia Gentleman, 2010); * Cartoonist of the Year (Steve Bell , 2002); * Political Journalist of the Year ( Patrick Wintour , 2006; Andrew Sparrow, 2010); * Science * Business Simon Goodley, 2014); * Interviewer of the Year ( Decca Aitkenhead , 2008); * Sports Reporter of the Year (David Lacey, 2002); * Sports Photographer of the Year (Tom Jenkins, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2015); * Website of the Year (guardian.com/uk, 1999, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2015); * Digital Journalist of the Year (Dan Milmo, 2001; Sean Smith, 2007; Dave Hill, 2008) * Supplement of the Year (_Guardian's Guides to..._, 2006; _Weekend Magazine_, 2015) * Special Supplement of the Year (_World Cup 2010 Guide_, 2010)

Other awards include:

* Bevins Prize for investigative journalism (Paul Lewis , 2010); * Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism ( Nick Davies , 1999; Chris McGreal , 2003; Ghaith Abdul-Ahad , 2005; Ian Cobain , 2009).

The _guardian.co.uk_ website won the Best Newspaper category three years running in 2005, 2006 and 2007 Webby Awards , beating (in 2005) _ The New York Times _, _The Washington Post_, _The Wall Street Journal _ and _Variety _. It has been the winner for six years in a row of the British Press Awards for Best Electronic Daily Newspaper. The site won an _Eppy _ award from the US-based magazine _Editor ">

In 2007 the newspaper was ranked first in a study on transparency that analysed 25 mainstream English-language media vehicles, which was conducted by the International Center for Media and the Public Agenda of the University of Maryland . It scored 3.8 out of a possible 4.0.

_The Guardian_ and _The Washington Post_ shared the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for public service reporting for their coverage of the NSA's and GCHQ's worldwide electronic surveillance program and the document leaks by whistleblower Edward Snowden.

GIVEN

_The Guardian_ is the sponsor of two major literary awards: The Guardian First Book Award , established in 1999 as a successor to the Guardian Fiction Award , which had run since 1965, and the Guardian Children\'s Fiction Prize , founded in 1967. In recent years the newspaper has also sponsored the Hay Festival in Hay-on-Wye .

The annual Guardian Student Media Awards , founded in 1999, recognise excellence in journalism and design of British university and college student newspapers , magazines and websites.

In memory of Paul Foot , who died in 2004, _The Guardian_ and _Private Eye_ jointly set up the Paul Foot Award , with an annual £10,000 prize fund, for investigative or campaigning journalism.

EDITORS

* John Edward Taylor (1821–44) * Jeremiah Garnett (1844–61) (jointly with Russell Scott Taylor in 1847–1848) * Edward Taylor (1861–72) * Charles Prestwich Scott (1872–1929) * Ted Scott (1929–32) * William Percival Crozier (1932–44) * Alfred Powell Wadsworth (1944–56) * Alastair Hetherington (1956–75) * Peter Preston (1975–95) * Alan Rusbridger (1995–2015) * Katharine Viner (2015–present)

NOTABLE REGULAR CONTRIBUTORS (PAST AND PRESENT)

Columnists and journalists

* David Aaronovitch * James Agate * Ian Aitken * Decca Aitkenhead * Brian Aldiss * Tariq Ali * Araucaria * John Arlott * Mark Arnold-Forster * Jackie Ashley * Dilpazier Aslam * Harriet Baber * Nancy Banks-Smith * Leonard Barden * Laura Barton * Catherine Bennett * Marcel Berlins * Michael Billington * Heston Blumenthal * Sidney Blumenthal * Boutros Boutros-Ghali * Frankie Boyle * Mark Boyle * Lloyd Bradley * Russell Brand * Emma Brockes * Charlie Brooker * Guy Browning * Alex Brummer * Inayat Bunglawala * Madeleine Bunting * Julie Burchill * Simon Callow * James Cameron * Duncan Campbell * Neville Cardus * Damian Carrington * Alexander Chancellor * Felicity Cloake * Kira Cochrane * Mark Cocker * Alistair Cooke * G. D. H. Cole * John Cole * Rosalind Coward * Gavyn Davies * Robin Denselow * Beth Ditto * Tim Dowling * Terry Eagleton * Larry Elliott * Matthew Engel * Edzard Ernst * Harold Evans * Evelyn Flinders * Paul Foot * Liz Forgan * Brian J. Ford * Dawn Foster * Michael Frayn * Jonathan Freedland * Hadley Freeman

* Timothy Garton Ash * Tanya Gold * Ben Goldacre * Victor Gollancz * Richard Gott * A. C. Grayling * Roy Greenslade * Germaine Greer * A. Harry Griffin * Ben Hammersley * Clifford Harper * Patrick Haseldine * Max Hastings * Roy Hattersley * David Hencke * Georgina Henry * Isabel Hilton * L. T. Hobhouse * J. A. Hobson * Tom Hodgkinson * Will Hodgkinson * Simon Hoggart * Stewart Holden * Clare Hollingworth * Will Hutton * Marina Hyde * C. L. R. James * Erwin James (pseudonym) * Waldemar Januszczak * Simon Jenkins * Stanley Johnson * Owen Jones * Alex Kapranos * Saeed Kamali Dehghan * Victor Keegan * Martin Kelner * Emma Kennedy * Maev Kennedy * Martin Kettle * Arthur Koestler * Aleks Krotoski * Mark Lawson * David Leigh * Rod Liddle * Sue Limb (as _Dulcie Domum_) * Maureen Lipman * Joris Luyendijk * John Maddox * Derek Malcolm * Johnjoe McFadden * Dan McDougall * Neil McIntosh * David McKie * Gareth McLean * Anna Minton * George Monbiot * C. E. Montague * Suzanne Moore * Malcolm Muggeridge

* James Naughtie * Richard Norton-Taylor * Maggie O\'Kane * Susie Orbach * Greg Palast * David Pallister * Michael Parkinson * ' Salam Pax ' * Jim Perrin * Melanie Phillips * Helen Pidd * John Pilger * Anna Politkovskaya * Peter Preston * Tim Radford * Arthur Ransome * Adam Raphael * Andrew Rawnsley * Brian Redhead * James H Reeve * Gillian Reynolds * Jon Ronson * Mike Selvey * Norman Shrapnel * Frank Sidebottom * Michael Simkins * Posy Simmonds * Howard Spring * Jean Stead * David Steel * Jonathan Steele * Mary Stott * Allegra Stratton * John Sutherland * R. H. Tawney * A. J. P. Taylor * Simon Tisdall * Arnold Toynbee * Polly Toynbee * Jill Tweedie * Bibi van der Zee * F. A. Voigt * Ed Vulliamy * Hank Wangford * Jonathan Watts * Brian Whitaker * Michael White * Ann Widdecombe * Zoe Williams * Ted Wragg * Hugo Young * Gary Younge * Xue Xinran * Tony Zappone * Slavoj Žižek * Victor Zorza

Cartoonists

* David Austin * Steve Bell * Joe Berger * Berger ">'s first photographer, July 1908) * Eamonn McCabe * Sean Smith

GUARDIAN NEWS & MEDIA ARCHIVE

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

_The Guardian_ and its sister newspaper _The Observer_ opened _The Newsroom_, an archive and visitor centre in London, in 2002. The centre preserved and promoted the histories and values of the newspapers through its archive, educational programmes and exhibitions. The Newsroom's activities were all transferred to Kings Place in 2008. Now known as the Guardian News ">'s Education Centre provides a range of educational programmes for students and adults. _The Guardian_'s exhibition space was also moved to Kings Place, and has a rolling programme of exhibitions that investigate and reflect upon aspects of news and newspapers and the role of journalism. This programme often draws on the archive collections held in the GNM Archive.

NOTES AND REFERENCES

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FURTHER READING

* Ayerst, David. _The Manchester Guardian: biography of a newspaper_ (Cornell University Press, 1971). * Merrill, John C., and Harold A. Fisher. _The World's Great Dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers_ (1980), pp. 143–50.

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