The THAMIRABARANI RIVER (PORUNAI) (TAMIL :
தாமிரபரணி(பொருனை)) is a perennial river
that originates over there . It flows through
Tuticorin districts of the
* 1 Etymology * 2 History
* 3 Hydrology
* 3.1 Origin * 3.2 Course and tributaries * 3.3 Drain
* 4 Irrigation * 5 Pollution and exploitation * 6 Fishes
* 7 List of Fishes found on the river
* 7.1 Snakehead * 7.2 Catfish * 7.3 Alligator Gar * 7.4 Eels * 7.5 Carp * 7.6 Roaches, Plecos, and Loaches. * 7.7 Others
* 8 References * 9 External links
From the Tamilakam era, the area of the
Tamraparni river, in
Tirunelveli , Tamil Nadu, has had name modifications, from the
original Tan Porunai river to Tamira Porunai, from
Tambraparni and now called "Thamirabarani River". A meaning for the
term following its derivation became "copper-colored leaf", from the
words Thamiram (copper /red) in Tamil/
Thamirabarani river in dawn
Its many name derivations of Tan Porunai include Tampraparani,
Tamraparni, Tamiravaruni. Tan Porunai nathi finds mention by classical
Tamil poets in ancient Sangam Tamil literature
Thamirabarani River originates from the peak of the Pothigai
hills on the eastern slopes of the
Western Ghats at an elevation of
1,725 metres (5,659 ft) above sea-level. The river is joined by its
headwater tributaries Peyar, Ullar, Pambar before it flows into the
COURSE AND TRIBUTARIES
The river flows on the plains eastwards from
Papanasam . The first
tributary to join Thamirabarani in the plains is the Manimuthar River
, which originating from Manjolai hills and joins Thamirabarani near
Aladiyoor village. The towns
located respectively on the left and right banks of Thamiraparani,
after which the river meets the tributary
Gadananathi River at
Tiruppudaimaruthur. Before the Gadananathi's entry into the
Gadananathi River is joined by the rivers Kallar,
Karunaiyar and Veeranathi or Varahanathi which joins the river
Gadananathi about 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) north-east of Kila Ambur.
Gadananathi is fed by the Jambunathi and Ramanathi Rivers . The
Pachaiyar River which originates from the Kalakkadu reserve forests at
about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) above sea level joins the Thamirabarani
near Tharuvai village in
Palayamkottai Taluk. The river bisects the
Palayamkottai before meeting its major and
affluent tributary Chithar (Chitranathi) which arises in the Kutralam
hills and receives supply from the rivers Gundar, Hanumanathi and
Karuppanathi(vairavangkulam kadayanallur) .The
Chittar River runs
almost parallel to Thamirabarani till it joins the main river near
Sivalaperi. Thamirabarani passes through the taluks of
Tirunelveli district and
Srivaikundam and Tiruchendur
TRIBUTARIES LENGTH ORIGIN JOINS AT LENGTH OF COURSE OF THAMIRABARANI DAMS ON THE RIVER
Mundanthurai reserve forests Karaiyar Dam 6 kilometres (4 mi) Karaiyar Dam
Mundanthurai reserve forests Papanasam Reservoir 22 kilometres (14 mi)
Manimuthar River 9 kilometres (6 mi) Manjolai hills Aladiyoor 36 kilometres (22 mi) Manimuthar Dam
Pachaiyar River 32 kilometres (20 mi) Kalakkadu reserve forests Tharuvai 61 kilometres (38 mi)
Chittar River 80 kilometres (50 mi) Kutralam Hills Sivalaperi 73 kilometres (45 mi)
Map showing the river
The river drains into Gulf of Mannar near Punnaikayal in Tiruchendur taluk of Tuticorin district. The river drains with its tributaries an area of about 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi). As most of its extensive catchment areas lie in the Western Ghats, the river enjoys the full benefit of both the monsoons, which make the river perennial. Since all its tributaries are arising from the Western ghats, the river is prone to heavy floods especially during the northeast monsoon . In 1992, there was an unexpected flood in Thamirabarani, which claimed hundreds of lives as the dam water was let out so massively and suddenly that the river and its channels could not bear the excess water inflow. It flooded again in 2015 with water entering the Kurukuthurai Murugan Temple .
River Thamirabarani from Authoor bridge
The many anicuts , dams and reservoirs on the Thamirabarani river, along with those on the Manimuthar River , provide a large proportion of the water for irrigation and power generation for Tirunelveli district. It is fed by both the monsoons – the south west and the north-eastern and is seen in full spate twice a year if the monsoons do not fail. The Gadananathi River has 6 anicuts and a reservoir of 9,970,000 cubic metres (8,080 acre·ft), and irrigates 38.87 square kilometres (15.01 sq mi) of wetlands. The Ramanadhi has 7 anicuts, a reservoir of 4,300,000 cubic metres (3,500 acre·ft), and irrigates 20.23 square kilometres (7.81 sq mi) of wetlands. Pachaiyar River has 12 anicuts and irrigates 61.51 square kilometres (23.75 sq mi) of wet and dry lands.
The important irrigation channels branching off from both the banks of the river Thamirabarani are, South Kodaimelalagian channel, North Kodaimelalagian channel (Kodaimelalagian anicut), Nathiyunni channel (Nathiyunni anicut), Kannadian channel (Kannadian anicut), Kodagan channel (Ariyanayagipuram anicut), Palayam (Palavur anicut) channel, Tirunelveli channel (Suthamalli anicut), Marudur Melakkal, Marudur Keelakkal (Marudur anicut), South Main Channel and North Main Channel ( Srivaikundam anicut). Of these the first seven anicuts were constructed during the period of ancient and medieval rulers and the last anicut namely the Srivaikundam anaicut was constructed and completed by the British in 1869.
LIST OF DAMS ACROSS THAMIRABARANI RIVER:
* Kodaimelaalagain anicut, 1,281.67 hectares (3,167.1 acres) * Nathiyunni anicut, 1,049.37 hectares (2,593.0 acres) * Kannadian anicut, 2,266.69 hectares (5,601.1 acres) * Ariyanayagipuram anicut, 4,767.30 hectares (11,780.3 acres) * Palavur anicut, 3,557.26 hectares (8,790.2 acres) * Suthamalli anicut, 2,559.69 hectares (6,325.1 acres) * Marudur anicut, 7,175.64 hectares (17,731.4 acres)
LIST OF CHANNELS:
* South Kodaimelalagain channel * North Kodaimelalagain channel * Nathiyunni channel * Kannadian channel * Kodagan channel * Palayam channel * Tirunelveli channel * Marudur Melakkal
POLLUTION AND EXPLOITATION
* Mixing of sewage, industrial effluents, dumping etc into the river is a worrying aspect.
* Sand mining in this river was banned in 2010 but it still continues illegally.
* Illegal encroachments of its banks is also a growing concern.
* Pepsi and cola companies bottling facility plants are also exploiting the river water.
* Many industries have come in the banks of the river in and around Srivaikuntam that injudicially use the river water and discharge untreated sewer.
* Religious practices like letting your clothes along the river at Papanasam as an act to wash sins after a bath has also clogged up the river..
* After the Sorimuthu Aiyanar Temple yearly festival upstream in the forests near Karayar dam the bacteria level in the river increases as thousands and thousands of people bath at one go..
As water flows non-stop throughout the year, it is one of the most fish-rich river in the world where the river is dominated by more than 16 native Snakehead species.
it is estimated that nearly 669 fish species found in the river.
Fish ecosystem is flourished in the river and fishes present in this river are vibrant in color and healthy in nature.
LIST OF FISHES FOUND ON THE RIVER
Various types of snakehead fish species like
Thamirabarani River is largest reservoir of Snakehead in the world with 17 types of Snakegeads present in this river.
Snakehead fishes are locally called as Viral aka Viraal (விரால்) in Tamil and all the species are consumed as food around the regions of Thamirabarani River when they enter paddy fields as locals not involve in mass fishing.
Following Snakehead , Catfish are also vastly found on Thamirabarani River. African Catfish are announced as Invasive Species that first caught on this river in 2009 near Aruvankulam area of Tirunelveli district. The most common catfish species found are Blue Catfish , Channel Catfish , Flathead Catfish , Mystus guli Catfish, Pangas Catfish , P. hodgarti , Goonch catfish , Pseudolaguvia Catfish.
13 species of Catfish species found throughout this river.
Alligator Gar is not native to the river but caught sometimes. this was the result of releasing aquarium fish into the wild. on 2015, over 100 Juvenile alligator gar fishes caught and handed over to local authority. Because of the presence of huge number of native Snakehead fishes, the Alligator Gar invasion is not spreading and under control.
Eels found in this river mainly belongs to
Carp fishes found in large numbers throughout the river. Three type of carp fishes are silver carp , grass carp , common carp . These three species of carp form 75% of carp fish population in Thamirabarani River.
ROACHES, PLECOS, AND LOACHES.
Large number of species of sucker fishes found throughout the river. the most common one is Acanthocobitis botia and Horseface loach .
Other fishes belong to genus
* ^ "Gauging Station - Data Summary". ORNL. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
* ^ Leelananda Prematilleka, Sudharshan Seneviatne - 1990:
Perspectives in archaeology: "The names Tambapanni and Tamra- parni
are in fact the Prakrit and