HistoryThe Chois are said to be the descendants of the 5th son of King Wen of Zhou, Ji Du. Ji Du was awarded the title of marquis (''Chinese nobility#Fengjian and Zongfa of the Zhou Dynasty, hóu'') of the Cai (state), State of Cai (centered on what is now Shangcai, Zhumadian, Henan, China), and he was known as Cai Shu Du ("Uncle Du of Cai"). Together with Guan Shu and Huo Shu, they were known as the Three Guards. When King Wu died, his son King Cheng of Zhou, King Cheng was too young and his uncle, the Duke of Zhou, became regent. Seeing that the power of the Duke of Zhou was increasing, the Three Guards got jealous and rebelled against Zhou together with Wu Geng. The Duke of Zhou suppressed the rebellion, and Cai Shu was exiled. King Cheng reestablished Cai Shu's son Wu or Hu as the new Duke of Cai. Some 600 years later in the Warring States period, the Chu (state), State of Chu conquered Cai in 447 BC and was itself conquered by the Qin (state), Qin state which, in turn, formed the Qin Dynasty, Qin Empire, China's first empire. With the spread of family names to all social classes in the new empire, many people of the former state of Cai began to bear it as a surname. The Cai descendants have undertaken the following two major migrations. During the Huang Chao Rebellion (Anno Domini, AD 875) at the end of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Cai clan migrated to Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Another later migration occurred when Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga moved military officials surnamed Cai and their families to Taiwan in the 17th century. As a result, the surname is far more common in these areas and in areas settled by their descendants (e.g., Southeast Asia) than in other parts of China.
Transliteration and romanization
ChineseCai is written the same (蔡) in both Simplified Chinese character, simplified and Traditional Chinese character, traditional Chinese characters. In Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, the surname is transliteration, transliterated as Cài in pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin, Ts'ai in Wade-Giles, and Tsay in Gwoyeu Romatzyh. In Southern Min or Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese, it is Chhoà in Pe̍h-oē-jī. In Cantonese (Hong Kong and Macau), it is Coi3 in Jyutping and Choi in Yale romanization of Cantonese, Yale. (This should not be confused with the predominantly Korean people, Korean family name Choi (Korean name), Choi which has a different character [崔]). In Hakka language, Hakka it is Tshai in Pha̍k-fa-sṳ. (In Tongyong pinyin, it is Cai in Siyen Hakka and Ca̱i in Hoiliuk Hakka.) In Fuzhou dialect, it is Chái (in Bàng-uâ-cê).
Other languagesKoreans use Chinese-derived family names and in Korean language, Korean, Cai is 채 in Hangul, Chae in Revised romanization of Korean, Revised Romanization, and Ch'ae in McCune-Reischauer. Vietnamese people, Vietnamese also use Chinese-derived family names. In Vietnamese language, Vietnamese, the name is Thái. The Chinese name 蔡 is usually transliterated via Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Sino-Vietnamese as Thái but sometimes as Sái. Japanese people, Japanese do not use Chinese family names but for Chinese in Japan who carry the name, it is さい in Hiragana and Sai in the Romanization of Japanese, major romanization systems.
RomanizationCai is romanization, romanized as Cai in the People's Republic of China, Tsai (or occasionally Tsay or Chai for Mandarin) or Tsoa in the Taiwan, and Choi or Choy in Hong Kong and Malaysia. In Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, the most common forms are Chua or Chuah for Teochew dialect, Teochew and Hokkien speakers, Chai for Hakka Chinese, Hakka speakers, Choi or Tsoi for Cantonese speakers, and Toy or Toi for Taishanese speakers. In Indonesia, it is usually romanized as Tjoa/Tjhoa/Tjoea/Tjhoea (Hokkien & Teochew), Tjhoi (Cantonese) or Tjhai (Hakka) with Dutch spelling, or Tjua/Tjhua (Hokkien & Teochew) with old Indonesian spelling, or Chua (Hokkien & Teochew), Choy/Choi (Cantonese) or Chai (Hakka) with current Indonesian spelling. In the Philippines, it is Chua or Cua ( or ). Chua is pronounced in other Anglophone countries outside the Philippines. Other variations include Chye and Coi.
Derivative namesIn addition, some of the Chuas (Cais) who resided in the Philippines adopted Spanish names to avoid persecution by the Spanish rulers during the Philippines' History of the Philippines (1521–1898), Spanish colonial rule from the early 16th to late 19th century. Hispanicization, Hispanicized forms of the name include Chuachiaco, Chuakay, Chuapoco, Chuaquico, Chuacuco, Chuason, Chuateco, and Chuatoco.Hector Santos
Notable people* Cai Cheng, a Chinese politician * Cai Chusheng, an early Chinese film director * Cai E, a Chinese revolutionary and warlord in early 20th century * Cai Gongshi, a Chinese emissary killed by Japanese soldiers during the Jinan Incident * Cai Guo-Qiang, a Chinese contemporary artist and curator. * Cai Hesen, an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong * Cai Jing, a Song Dynasty official and a character in the Chinese literature classic the ''Water Margin'' * Liu Biao#Family, Lady Cai, the wife of Han dynasty provincial governor Liu Biao * Cai Lun, the inventor of paper in the Han dynasty * Cai Mao, a man of the gentry who served under Han dynasty provincial governor Liu Biao, cousin of Cai He and Cai Zhong * Cai Pei, a diplomat and politician in the Republic of China * Cai Qi, a Chinese politician * Cai Qian, a Chinese pirate in the Qing dynasty * Cai Shangjun, a Chinese film director and screenwriter * Cai Shu (athlete), Cai Shu, a Chinese high jumper * Cai Tingkai, a Chinese general during the Republican era * Cai Wenji, a Han dynasty poet and composer also known as Cai Yan, daughter of scholar Cai Yong * Cai Xiang, a calligrapher, scholar, official and poet during the Song dynasty also known as Cai Zhonghui * Cai Xitao, a Chinese botanist * Cai Xukun, a Chinese actor, singer and song composer, former leader and center of Chinese boy group Nine Percent * Cai Yong, a Han dynasty scholar and father of Cai Wenji * Cai Yuanpei, a chancellor of Peking University and first president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (''Academic Sinica'') * Cai Yun, a Chinese badminton player * Cai Zhuohua, a Chinese Christian preacher * Chae Ho-ki, a Korean poet * Chae Ji-hoon, a Korean speed skater * Chae Jung-an (stage name), a Korean actress and singer * Chae Man-shik, a Korean novelist * Chae Myung-shin, a Republic of Korea Army general * Chae Ri-na, a Korean singer * Chae Sang-byung a Korean baseball player * Chae Sang-woo, a Korean actor * Chae Seo-jin (stage name), a Korean actress * Chae Shi-ra, a Korean actress * Chae Soo-bin, a Korean actress * Chae Su-chan, a Korean politician and economist * Chae Sung-bae, a Korean heavyweight boxer * Chae Yeon (stage name), a Korean pop singer * Chai Trong-rong or Trong Chai, a Taiwanese politician * Ada Choi, Choi, Ada, a Hong Kong actress * Charlene Choi, Choi, Charlene, a Hong Kong singer, member of the Twins duo * Choi Chi-sum, a Hong Kong evangelist * Fátima Choi, Choi, Fátima, a Macanese government minister * Sandra Choi, Choi, Sandra, an English creative director and designer for shoemaker Jimmy Choo Ltd * Vin Choi, Choi, Vin, a Hong Kong actor * Choi York Yee, a Hong Kong footballer and sports commentator * Anna Choy, Choy, Anna, an Australian actress, TV presenter, and Australia Day Ambassador * Elizabeth Choy, Choy, Elizabeth, a North Borneo-born Singaporean World War II heroine * Choy So-yuk, a Hong Kong politician * Choy Weng Yang, a Singaporean artist * Alfrancis Chua, Chua, Alfrancis, a Filipino basketball coach * Amy Chua, Chua, Amy, an American academic and author of Filipino Chinese descent * Brent Chua, Chua, Brent, a Filipino model * Chua Ek Kay, a Singaporean artist * Chua En Lai, a Singaporean actor * Glen Chua, Chua, Glen, a Canadian film director, actor, and writer * Joi Chua, Chua, Joi (Joi Tsai), a Singaporean singer * Dino Carlo Chua, Chua, Carlo Dino, a Filipino former vice mayor of Cavite * Chua Jui Meng, a Malaysian health minister and prominent politician * Chua Lam, a Singaporean-born Hong Kong columnist and movie producer * Leon O. Chua, Chua, Leon O., an American professor and inventor of Chua's circuit * Chua Ling Fung Simon, Chua Ling Fung, Simon, a bodybuilder from Singapore * Death of Mark Chua, Chua, Mark, a Filipino murder victim * Paige Chua, Chua, Paige, a Singaporean model and actress * Paul Chua, Chua, Paul, a Singaporean bodybuilder * Chua Phung Kim, a Singaporean weightlifter * Robert Chua, Chua, Robert, a Singapore-born Asian television executive * Chua Sock Koong, a Singaporean telecom executive * Chua Soi Lek, a Malaysian health minister and prominent politician * Chua Soon Bui, a Malaysian politician * Tanya Chua, Chua, Tanya, a Singaporean singer * Chua Tee Yong, a Malaysian politician * Chua Tian Chang, or Tian Chua, a Malaysian politician * Tricia Chuah, Chuah, Tricia, a Malaysian squash player * Chuah Guat Eng, a Malaysian novelist * Hirokazu Nakaima, Nakaima, Hirkazu, Governor of Okinawa Prefecture; Nakaima is descended from a Chinese family with the surname of Cai, one of the 36 Han Chinese Kumemura families who moved to Okinawa in 1392.仲井真弘多後援會
See also*Cari (name) * Choa Chu Kang (蔡厝港 ''Càicuògǎng'', literally "Cai house harbor"), a suburban area in the West Region of Singapore * Choi Uk Tsuen (蔡屋村 ''Càiwùcūn'', literally "Cai house village"), a village in the Yuen Long district of Hong Kong * Choy Gar (蔡家拳 ''Càijiāquán'', literally "Cai family fist"), a Chinese martial art that was created by Choy Gau Yee (蔡九儀) * Choy Li Fut (蔡李佛拳 ''Càilǐfóquán'', literally "Cai, Li, and Buddha's fist"), a Chinese martial arts system named to honor the Buddhist monk Choy Fook (蔡褔) among others * Choy Yee Bridge stop (蔡意橋站), a MTR Light Rail stop in Hong Kong * 2240 Tsai, an asteroid named after Taiwanese astronomer Tsai Changhsien