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Texaco, Inc. ("The Texas
Texas
Company") is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel " Texaco
Texaco
with Techron". It also owns the Havoline
Havoline
motor oil brand. Texaco
Texaco
was an independent company until its refining operations merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001, at which time most of its station franchises were divested to the Shell Oil Company. It began as the Texas
Texas
Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, and Arnold Schlaet upon the discovery of oil at Spindletop. For many years, Texaco
Texaco
was the only company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 US states, as well as Canada, making it the most truly national brand among its competitors. It was also one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Its current logo features a white star in a red circle (a reference to the lone star of Texas), leading to the long-running advertising jingles "You can trust your car to the man who wears the star" and "Star of the American Road."[citation needed] The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, prior to the merger with Chevron.[citation needed] Texaco
Texaco
gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3. The Texaco
Texaco
brand is strong in the U.S., Latin America and West Africa. It has a presence in Europe as well; for example, it is a well-known retail brand in the UK, with around 850 Texaco-branded service stations.[2][citation needed]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1901–38: Beginnings 1.2 1939–63: The Texas
Texas
Company to Texaco, Inc. 1.3 1964–98: Various ventures 1.4 1999–present: Chevron Corporation

2 Corporate headquarters 3 In popular culture 4 Sponsorships 5 Environmental issues 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Gippsland Motor Garage, Old Gippstown, Moe, Victoria, Australia, with 1930s Texaco
Texaco
gasoline pump and signage

Antique Texaco
Texaco
advertising, Gippsland Motor Garage, Old Gippstown

Vintage Texaco
Texaco
petrol pump (1925)

1901–38: Beginnings[edit]

1939 Texaco
Texaco
tanker truck by Dodge
Dodge
on display at the Henry Ford Museum.

Texaco
Texaco
was founded in Beaumont, Texas
Beaumont, Texas
as the Texas
Texas
Fuel Company in 1901. In 1905, it established an operation in Antwerp, Belgium, under the name Continental Petroleum
Petroleum
Company, which it acquired control of in 1913.[3] The next year, Texaco
Texaco
moved to new offices in Houston on the corner of San Jacinto and Rusk. In 1928, Texaco
Texaco
became the first U.S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states (50 states after Alaska and Hawaii joined the Union in 1959)[citation needed]. In 1931, Texaco
Texaco
purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois. This expanded Texaco's refining and marketing base in the Midwest and also gave Texaco
Texaco
the rights to Indian's Havoline
Havoline
motor oil, which became a Texaco
Texaco
product. The next year, Texaco
Texaco
introduced Fire Chief
Fire Chief
gasoline nationwide, a so-called "super-octane" motor fuel touted as meeting or exceeding government standards for gasoline for fire engines and other emergency vehicles.[4] It was promoted through a radio program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn, called the Texaco
Texaco
Fire Chief. In 1936, the Texas
Texas
Corporation purchased the Barco oil concession
Barco oil concession
in Colombia, and formed a joint venture with Socony-Vacuum, now Mobil, to develop it. Over the next three years the company engaged in a highly challenging project to drill wells and build a pipeline to the coast across mountains and then through uncharted swamps and jungles.[5] During this time, Texaco
Texaco
also illegally supplied the fascist Gen. Franco faction in Spanish Civil War, despite a federal fine, with a total 3,500,000 barrels (560,000 m3) of oil.[6] Also in 1936, marketing operations east of Suez (including Asia, East Africa, and Australasia) were placed into a joint venture with Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Company of California
California
– Socal (Chevron) under the brand name Caltex, in exchange for Socal placing its Bahrain refinery
Bahrain refinery
and Arabian oilfields into the venture. The next year, Texaco
Texaco
commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague
Walter Dorwin Teague
to develop a modern service station design. In 1938, Texaco
Texaco
introduced Sky Chief
Sky Chief
gasoline, a premium fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just an ethylized regular product. In 1939, Texaco
Texaco
became one of the first oil companies to introduce a "Registered Rest Room" program to ensure that restroom facilities at all Texaco
Texaco
stations nationwide maintained a standard level of cleanliness to the motoring public. 1939–63: The Texas
Texas
Company to Texaco, Inc.[edit]

A Texaco
Texaco
fuel station in Miami Beach, Florida

A Texaco
Texaco
fuel dispenser in United Kingdom

After the onset of World War II in 1939, Texaco's rogue CEO, Torkild Rieber, an admirer of Hitler, hired pro-Nazi assistants who cabled Berlin “coded information about ships leaving New York for Britain and what their cargoes were.” This espionage easily enabled Hitler to destroy the ships.[7] In 1940, Rieber was forced to resign when his connections with German Nazism, and his illegal supply of oil to the fascist forces during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
were made public by the Herald Tribune through information produced by British Security Coordination.[8][9][10] Life Magazine portrayed Rieber's resignation as unfair, advocating that he only dined with Westrick, and lent him a company car. During the war, Texaco
Texaco
ranked 93rd among United States
United States
corporations in the value of military production contracts.[11] In 1947, Caltex expanded to include Texaco's European marketing operations. That same year, Texaco
Texaco
merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent; it gained full control of Regent in 1956,[12] but the Regent brand remained in use until 1968-9. In 1954, the company added the detergent additive Petrox to its "Sky Chief" gasoline, which was also souped up with higher octane to meet the antiknock needs of new cars with high-compression engines. The next year, Texaco
Texaco
became the sole sponsor of The Huntley-Brinkley Report
The Huntley-Brinkley Report
on NBC-TV. In 1959, the Texas
Texas
Company changed its corporate name to Texaco, Inc. to better reflect the value of the Texaco
Texaco
brand name, which represented the biggest selling gasoline brand in the U.S. and only marketer selling gasoline under one brand name in all 50 states. It also acquired McColl-Frontenac Oil Company Ltd. of Canada and changes its name to Texaco
Texaco
Canada Limited.[13] Around this time, Paragon Oil, a major fuel oil distribution company in the northeastern U.S, was acquired. 1964–98: Various ventures[edit]

Texaco
Texaco
gas pumps, Milford, Illinois
Milford, Illinois
1977

Texaco
Texaco
fuel station in Poá
Poá
(São Paulo), Brazil, 2009

In 1964, Texaco
Texaco
introduced the "Matawan" service station design at a station in Matawan, New Jersey.[14] Two years later, Texaco
Texaco
replaced the long-running banjo sign with a new hexagon logo that had previously been test-marketed with the "Matawan" station design introduced two years earlier. The new logo featured a red outline with TEXACO in black bold lettering and a small banjo logo with a red star and green T at bottom. The following year, the Regent name was replaced by Texaco
Texaco
at British petrol stations.[15] In 1970, in response to increasingly stringent federal emission standards that would ultimately lead to the mandating of unleaded gasoline in 1975 and later-model cars and trucks, Texaco
Texaco
introduced lead-free Texaco
Texaco
as the first regular-octane lead-free gasoline at stations in the Los Angeles area and throughout Southern California. Lead-free Texaco became available nationwide in 1974. On November 20, 1980, the Lake Peigneur/Jefferson Island disaster occurred. Two years later, a new service station design was introduced. Several product names were also changed with the advent of self-service including Lead-free Texaco
Texaco
to Texaco
Texaco
Unleaded, Fire Chief
Fire Chief
to Texaco
Texaco
Regular, and Super Lead-free Sky Chief to Texaco
Texaco
Super Unleaded. In 1982, Texaco
Texaco
Canada Limited merged with Texaco
Texaco
Explorations Canada Limited to form Texaco
Texaco
Canada Incorporated,[13] with head offices in Toronto. On November 19, 1985, Pennzoil
Pennzoil
won a US$10.53 billion verdict against Texaco
Texaco
in the largest civil verdict in US history. This was due to the fact that Texaco
Texaco
established a signed contract to buy Getty Oil
Getty Oil
after Pennzoil
Pennzoil
entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Gordon Getty.[16] In 1987, Texaco
Texaco
filed for bankruptcy. It was the largest in U.S. history until 2001.[17] In January 1989, Texaco
Texaco
and Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco
agreed to form a joint venture known as Star Enterprise in which Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco
would own a 50% share of Texaco's refining and marketing operations in the eastern U.S. and Gulf Coast.[18] In 1989, Texaco
Texaco
introduced System3 gasolines in all three grades of fuel, featuring the latest detergent additive technology to improve performance by reducing deposits that clog fuel injection systems. Toronto-based Texaco
Texaco
Canada Incorporated was sold to Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
with all Texaco
Texaco
Canada retail operations converted to Esso
Esso
brand. Two years later, the company was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[19] In 1991, non retail Canadian operations became Texaco
Texaco
Canada Petroleum
Petroleum
Incorporated with head office in Calgary, Alberta. In 1993, several dozen tribal leaders and residents from the Ecuadoran Amazon filed a billion-dollar class-action lawsuit against Texaco, as a result of massive ecological pollution of the area and rivers around Texaco's Ecuadorian offshore drilling sites, causing toxic contamination of approximately 30,000 residents.[20] In 1994, Texaco's System3 gasolines were replaced by new CleanSystem3 gasoline for improved engine performance. In 1995, Texaco
Texaco
merged its Danish and Norwegian downstream operations with those of Norsk Hydro under the new brand HydroTexaco. This joint venture was sold in 2007 to Norwegian retail interests as YX Energi, following the purchase of Hydro by Statoil. In 1996, Texaco
Texaco
paid over $170 million to settle racial discrimination lawsuits filed by black employees at the company. It was the largest racial discrimination lawsuit settlement in the U.S. at the time, and was particularly damaging to Texaco's public relations when tapes were released containing ethnic slurs used repeatedly by company officers at high-level corporate meetings. 1999–present: Chevron Corporation[edit]

A Texaco
Texaco
station in Watauga, Texas, taken on 28 April 2016.

A Texaco
Texaco
station in Lewisville, Texas, taken on June 10, 2017.

In 1999, the company formed the joint venture Equilon with Shell Oil Company, combining their Western and Midwestern U.S. refining and marketing.[21] This gave rise to the 2006 U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
antitrust case of Texaco
Texaco
Inc. v. Dagher, which cleared both Texaco
Texaco
and Shell of any antitrust liability concerning the pricing of Equilon's gasoline. That same year, another joint venture, Motiva, was formed with Shell Oil Company and Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco
in which the Star Enterprise operations were merged with the Eastern and Gulf Coast U.S. refining and marketing operations of Shell.[21] On February 8, 2002 Chevron Corporation merged with Texaco
Texaco
and Shell purchased Texaco's interest in the Equilon and Motiva
Motiva
joint ventures.[22][23] Shell began converting its Texaco
Texaco
stations to the Shell brand the next year.[24] In July 2004, Chevron regained non-exclusive rights to the Texaco brand name in the U.S.[25] The following year, in August, Texaco introduced the Techron additive into its fuels in the U.S. and parts of Latin America.[26] In 2007, Delek Benelux
Benelux
took over marketing activities for Chevron in Benelux, including 869 filling stations, mostly under the Texaco
Texaco
brand.[27] Chevron Corporation
Chevron Corporation
also sold its Conoco
Conoco
stations in Mississippi to the Texaco
Texaco
brand name. Texaco
Texaco
Canada Petroleum
Petroleum
Incorporated was dissolved in 2008 with Texaco
Texaco
exiting from the Canadian market. In 2010 Texaco
Texaco
ended retail operations in the Mid-Atlantic US, removing their brand from 450 stations in Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Washington, D.C.[28] Corporate headquarters[edit] Prior to the merger, Texaco's headquarters, a 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) building, were in Harrison, New York, near White Plains.[29][30][31] In 2002, Chevron sold the former Texaco headquarters to Morgan Stanley. Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
bought the building and the surrounding 107 acres (0.43 km2) for $42 million.[29] Texaco
Texaco
leased 14 floors of the Chrysler Building
Chrysler Building
in Midtown Manhattan, New York City
New York City
in the 1930s. As part of the leasing agreement with Texaco
Texaco
the building opened the Cloud Club, a restaurant area for executives. Texaco
Texaco
moved to Westchester County, New York, in 1977. This contributed to the closure of the Cloud Club in 1979.[32] In popular culture[edit] A location was used in the opening scene of Cheech & Chong's Next Movie at 6407 West Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, California, where the main characters Cheech and Chong siphon gasoline from a tow truck. A Jack in the Box
Jack in the Box
now stands at that location. In Back to the Future
Back to the Future
and Back to the Future
Back to the Future
Part II, a Texaco
Texaco
station in the center of Hill Valley is shown in 1955, 1985, and 2015. In Stephen King's science fiction short story "The Jaunt", Texaco exists in the future and has shifted from selling oil to water. Sponsorships[edit]

Racing driver Nigel Mansell
Nigel Mansell
driving in the 1993 CART IndyCar World Series

Kenny Irwin Jr.
Kenny Irwin Jr.
driving in the 1998 NASCAR
NASCAR
Winston Cup

The No.7 Eggenberger Motorsport
Eggenberger Motorsport
Ford Sierra RS500
Ford Sierra RS500
of Klaus Ludwig
Klaus Ludwig
and Klaus Niedzwiedz. Eggenberger Motorsport
Eggenberger Motorsport
won the 1987 WTCC Entrants Championship

Texaco
Texaco
is associated with the Havoline
Havoline
brand of motor oil and other automotive products. It was one of the sponsors of NASCAR
NASCAR
with many drivers, such as Davey Allison, Ernie Irvan, Dale Jarrett; Kenny Irwin, Jr.; Ricky Rudd, Jamie McMurray, Casey Mears, and Juan Pablo Montoya. Texaco
Texaco
recently sponsored the #42 Dodge
Dodge
driven by Montoya. Havoline
Havoline
continuously sponsored a car from the early 1980s to 2008. At the end of the 2008 season, Texaco
Texaco
/ Havoline
Havoline
officially ended their sponsorship with NASCAR
NASCAR
and Chip Ganassi Racing. This brought to a close a 20+-year relationship with the sport. Texaco
Texaco
has also been involved in open wheel racing, sponsoring the Texaco
Texaco
Grand Prix of Houston
Grand Prix of Houston
along with sponsoring drivers like Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis 500
winner Mario Andretti
Mario Andretti
and his son Michael. In Formula One, Texaco
Texaco
sponsored the Team Lotus
Team Lotus
in 1972 and 1973, and McLaren
McLaren
from 1974 to 1978. The company returned to Grand Prix racing at a smaller scale in 1997, with their brands appearing on the Stewart SF01 car. Their association with the team and its successor, Jaguar Racing, continued until the end of 2001. Texaco
Texaco
sponsored the Tom Walkinshaw Racing
Tom Walkinshaw Racing
Rover Vitesse
Rover Vitesse
factory team at the 1985 and 1986 European Touring Car Championship (ETCC) under their Bastos brand, and the Ford Sierra RS500
Ford Sierra RS500
factory cars entered by Eggenberger Motorsport
Eggenberger Motorsport
in the 1987 World Touring Car Championship (plus the 1988 ETCC and other European-based championships). Texaco also sponsored cars in the 1987 World Rally Championship. From 1987-1993, Texaco
Texaco
was the major sponsor (through their Australian Caltex
Caltex
offshoot) Colin Bond Racing in Australian touring car racing, first with the Alfa Romeo 75
Alfa Romeo 75
turbo in 1987, then the Ford Sierra RS500 from 1988-1992 and then Toyota's in 1993. From 2000 until 2007, it was title sponsor of Stone Brothers Racing
Stone Brothers Racing
with Russell Ingall
Russell Ingall
winning the 2005 championship. In 2016, Caltex
Caltex
became title sponsor of the Triple Eight Race Engineering car of Craig Lowndes, having previously been an associate sponsor of the team. Texaco
Texaco
was long associated with the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
as sole sponsor of its radio broadcasts for 63 years. It was identified as well with such entertainment legends as Ed Wynn, Fred Allen
Fred Allen
and Milton Berle (many of their shows were originally sponsored by Texaco
Texaco
– see Texaco
Texaco
Star Theatre, which includes the sponsorship lyrics of the opening theme: "We're the men of Texaco, We work from Maine to Mexico..."). Berle's program was broadcast in the same time slot as Fulton J. Sheen's religious program for a while, thus leading to Berle's oft-quoted quip, "We both have the same boss – Sky Chief!" From 1984 to 1998, Texaco
Texaco
were the title sponsors of the main One Day International cricket tournament in England, the Texaco
Texaco
Trophy. It also sponsored the Texaco
Texaco
Cup, a football tournament for clubs of the British Isles. Environmental issues[edit] Main article: Lago Agrio oil field From 1965–1993, Texaco
Texaco
participated in a consortium to develop the Lago Agrio oil field
Lago Agrio oil field
in Ecuador. It has been accused of extensive environmental damage from these operations, and faces legal claims from both private plaintiffs and the government of Ecuador. The case has been widely publicized by environmental activists and is the subject of Crude, a 2009 documentary film by Joe Berlinger. Chevron claims that it is being unfairly targeted as a deep pocket defendant, when the actual responsibility lies with the government and its national oil company, Petroecuador.[citation needed] The NiMH chemistry used in modern hybrid vehicles was invented by ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
founder, Stan Ovshinsky, and Dr. Masahiko Oshitani of the Yuasa Company[33][34] In 1994, General Motors
General Motors
acquired a controlling interest in Ovonics's battery development and manufacturing. On October 10, 2001, Texaco
Texaco
purchased GM's share in GM Ovonics, and Chevron completed its acquisition of Texaco
Texaco
six days later. In 2003, Texaco
Texaco
Ovonics
Ovonics
Battery Systems was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) Ovonics.[35] Chevron's influence over Cobasys extends beyond a strict 50/50 joint venture. Chevron holds a 19.99% interest in ECD Ovonics.[36] In addition, Chevron maintains the right to seize all of Cobasys' intellectual property rights in the event that ECD Ovonics does not fulfill its contractual obligations.[37] On September 10, 2007, Chevron filed a legal claim that ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
has not fulfilled its obligations. ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
disputes this claim.[38] Since that time, the arbitration hearing was repeatedly suspended while the parties negotiate with an unknown prospective buyer. No agreement has been reached with the potential buyer.[39] Cobasys's patents relating to NiMH batteries expired in 2015. In Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America, published in February 2007, Sherry Boschert argues that large-format NiMH batteries are commercially viable but that Cobasys refuses to sell or license them to small companies or individuals.[40] Boschert argues that Cobasys accepts only very large orders for these batteries. When Boschert conducted her research, major auto makers showed little interest in large orders for large-format NiMH batteries. However, Toyota
Toyota
employees complained about the difficulty in getting smaller orders of large format NiMH batteries to service the existing 825 RAV-4EVs. Because no other companies were willing to make large orders, Cobasys was not manufacturing nor licensing any large format NiMH battery technology for automotive purposes. Boschert concludes that "it's possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it's possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles."[41] In an interview with the Economist, Ovshinsky subscribed to the former view. "I think we at ECD we made a mistake of having a joint venture with an oil company, frankly speaking. And I think it’s not a good idea to go into business with somebody whose strategies would put you out of business, rather than building the business.[42]" In December 2006, Cobasys and General Motors
General Motors
announced that they had signed a contract under which Cobasys provides NiMH batteries for the Saturn Aura hybrid sedan.[43] In March 2007, GM announced that it would use Cobasys NiMH batteries in the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu hybrid as well. In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services, Inc. and Innovative Transportation Systems AG filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for refusing to fill a large, previously agreed-upon order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the electric Innovan.[39] In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International Inc. filed suit against Cobasys claiming that Cobasys isn’t delivering the batteries it agreed to build for Mercedes-Benz’s planned hybrid SUV.[44] Cobasys was sold[45] in 2009 to SB Li Motive, which is a joint venture formed by Bosch and Samsung to develop lithium ion batteries for automotive applications. The sale price was not disclosed. The German-Korean company will integrate Cobasys as the North American branch of the company. Cobasys will supply batteries to the new Mercedes ML450 hybrid. See also[edit]

Hudson Valley portal Texas
Texas
portal Companies portal Energy portal

Chevron Corporation Caltex
Caltex
– joint venture between Texaco
Texaco
and Chevron, now a major international brand name of Chevron Corporation

References[edit]

^ "History of Texaco
Texaco
- Texaco
Texaco
With Techron".  ^ " Texaco
Texaco
UK About Us". texaco.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ News of the Week: Union Oil of Delaware, Business Digest and Investment Weekly, Volume 26, Issue 5, Arthur Fremont Rider (editor), 1920, p. 95 (retrieved August 2, 2010 from Google Books) ^ "Depend on the Gasoline Fire Engines Depend On! Texaco
Texaco
Fire Chief Super-Octane Gasoline," Albany Democrat-Herald, May 27, 1932, pg. 4. (Ad.) ^ "U.S. Business Opens the Great New Barco Oil Fields in Colombia". LIFE. Time Inc. 7 (20): 15ff. 1939-11-13. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 2013-07-24.  ^ Tierney, Dominic (2007). "American Men, American Oil, American Arms". FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America. Duke University Press. p. 68. Retrieved June 11, 2010.  ^ "‘Spain in Our Hearts,’ by Adam Hochschild," Book Review by Michael Kazin, New York Times, March 29, 2016. ^ Dominic Tierney (2007). FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America (in French). p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8223-4076-8.  ^ Noam Chomsky (2001). Understanding Power (PDF). p. 159, Chapter 5 footnotes 61–64. ISBN 1-56584-703-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17.  ^ The Secret History of British Intelligence in the Americas, 1940-1945 pp56-57 ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School
p.619 ^ Report by the Monopolies Commission on the Supply of Petrol to Retailers in the United Kingdom, 1965 ^ a b " Texaco
Texaco
Canada Inc". The Canadian Encyclopedia ^ Texaco: Service Stations, accessed November 23, 2006 ^ "News and Views: Regent become Texaco". Autocar. Vol. 127 no. 3746. November 30, 1967. p. 48.  ^ " Texaco
Texaco
Inc. American corporation". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ "Largest corporate bankruptcies" (PDF). Bankruptcydata.com.  ^ "Saudi- Texaco
Texaco
Joint Venture". The New York Times. January 3, 1989. p. 11. Retrieved June 10, 2009.  ^ Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
Archived 2010-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Why A Lawsuit?". Archived from the original on December 2, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2010.  ^ a b Aspects of the Refining/Marketing Joint Ventures of Shell Oil, Star Enterprises, and Texaco
Texaco
Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on June 10, 2009. ^ "TEXACO INC.Company ProfileVault.com". Vault. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ "Shell to brand new U.S. gas stations". Houston Business Journal. February 8, 2002.  ^ Nerad, Jack (May 8, 2002). "Trust Your Car to the Man who Wears the... Shell". Driving Today. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  ^ "Chevron Texaco
Texaco
Welcomes Back the Texaco
Texaco
Retail Brand in the U.S." (Press release). ChevronTexaco. Jul 1, 2004. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081026092940/http://www.texaco.com/about/news_press_081505.asp. Archived from the original on October 26, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2009.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Delek Petroleum, Ltd. Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron". December 7, 2009.  ^ a b Brenner, Elsa. "IN BUSINESS; Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Seals Deal on Texaco Headquarters." The New York Times. Sunday March 31, 2002. Retrieved on October 3, 2009. ^ "Harrison village, New York[permanent dead link]." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 3, 2009. ^ ""Contact Us."". Archived from the original on December 5, 1998. Retrieved 2017-03-29. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Texaco. December 5, 1998. Retrieved on October 3, 2009. ^ McGrath, Charles. "A Lunch Club for the Higher-Ups". The New York Times. May 26, 2005. Retrieved on September 19, 2014. ^ Olvera, Jennifer (07/03/2008). "5 Things You Need to Know About Nickel-Metal-Hybrid Batteries". GreenCar.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "Stanford Ovshinsky : Amorphous semiconductor materials". Inventor of the Week. March 2000.  ^ Roberson, J. (March 14, 2007) "Supplier Cobasys exploring more hybrid batteries" Archived 2010-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. Detroit Free Press ^ ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
Definitive Proxy Statement Archived 2012-04-19 at the Wayback Machine. of January 15, 2003 ^ ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
Amended General Statement of Beneficial Ownership Archived 2009-07-29 at the Wayback Machine. of December 2, 2004 ^ ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
10-Q Quarterly Report Archived 2009-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. for the period ending September 30, 2007 ^ a b ECD Ovonics
Ovonics
10-Q Quarterly Report Archived 2009-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. for the period ending March 31, 2008 ^ http://www.newsociety.com/bookid/3934 ^ Boschert, S (2007). Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4.  ^ Greenberg, Joel (October 14, 2008). "The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy [Video Interview Part 1]". The Energy Roadmap.  ^ Abuelsamid, S. (December 6, 2006) " Cobasys providing NiMH batteries for Saturn Aura hybrid" Autobloggreen.com ^ "Mercedes sues Cobasys over battery deal" Automotive News Europe ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-07-27). "Bosch-Samsung battery venture buys Cobasys". green.autoblog.com. Retrieved August 15, 2011. 

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