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The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians
Christians
in the Holy Land
Holy Land
and the Baltics
Baltics
during the Middle Ages. Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
still confers limited honorary knighthoods.[3] The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, a Protestant
Protestant
chivalric order, is descended from the same medieval military order and also continues to award knighthoods and perform charitable work.[4]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Timeline 2.2 Foundation 2.3 Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary 2.4 Prussia 2.5 Livonia 2.6 Against Lithuania 2.7 Against Poland 2.8 Height of power 2.9 Decline 2.10 Medieval organisation

2.10.1 Administrative structure about 1350 2.10.2 Universal leadership

2.10.2.1 Generalkapitel 2.10.2.2 Hochmeister 2.10.2.3 Großgebietiger

2.10.3 National leadership

2.10.3.1 Landmeister

2.10.4 Regional leadership 2.10.5 Local leadership

2.10.5.1 Komtur

2.10.6 Special
Special
offices

3 Modern organization

3.1 Catholic religious order

3.1.1 Honorary Knights

3.2 Protestant
Protestant
Bailiwick of Utrecht

4 Insignia 5 Influence on German and Polish nationalism 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Name[edit] The full name of the Order in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or in Latin
Latin
Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum (engl. "Order of the House of St. Mary of the Germans
Germans
in Jerusalem"). Thus, the term 'Teutonic' refers to the German origins of the order in Latin.[5] It is commonly known in German as the Deutscher Orden (official short name, engl. "German Order"), historically also as Deutscher Ritterorden ("German Order of Knights"), Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden ("Order of the German Knights") or "Die Herren im weißen Mantel" ("The lords in white capes"). The Teutonic Knights have been known as Zakon Krzyżacki in Polish ("Order of the Cross") and as Kryžiuočių Ordinas in Lithuanian, Vācu Ordenis in Latvian, Saksa Ordu or, simply, Ordu ("The Order") in Estonian, as well as various names in other languages. History[edit]

Extent of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in 1300.

Formed in the year 1190[6] in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer
Outremer
(the general name for the Crusader states), controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania
Transylvania
in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
against the Kipchaks. The Knights were expelled by force of arms by King Andrew II of Hungary
Andrew II of Hungary
in 1225, after attempting to place themselves under papal instead of the original Hungarian sovereignty and thus to become independent.[7] In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia
Konrad I of Masovia
launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia
Prussia
intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Knights had quickly taken steps against their Polish hosts and with the Holy Roman Emperor's support, had changed the status of Chełmno Land
Chełmno Land
(also Ziemia Chelminska or Kulmerland), where they were invited by the Polish prince, into their own property. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians' territory, and subsequently conquered Livonia. Over time, the kings of Poland
Poland
denounced the Order for expropriating their lands, specifically Chełmno Land
Chełmno Land
and later the Polish lands of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(also Pomorze Gdańskie or Pomerania), Kujawy, and Dobrzyń Land. The Order theoretically lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianization of Lithuania. However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
(after assimilating the Livonian Order). The Teutonic Knights had a strong economic base which enabled them to hire mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, and they also became a naval power in the Baltic Sea. In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg). However, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was successfully defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse. In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I made a marriage alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter, the empire did not support the Order against Poland. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia
Prussia
as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost Livonia
Livonia
and its holdings in the Protestant
Protestant
areas of Germany.[8] The Order did keep its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany
Germany
until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. However, the Order continued to exist as a charitable and ceremonial body. It was outlawed by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in 1938,[9] but re-established in 1945.[10] Today it operates primarily with charitable aims in Central Europe. The Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross. A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Germany
Germany
as the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
and Pour le Mérite. The motto of the Order was: "Helfen, Wehren, Heilen" ("Help, Defend, Heal").[11]

The Order's Marienburg Castle, Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, now Malbork, Poland

Timeline[edit]

Reliquary
Reliquary
made in Elbing
Elbing
in 1388 for Teutonic komtur Thiele von Lorich, military Trophy of Polish king Wladislaus in 1410.

1198 Formation 1218 Siege of Damietta 1228–1229 The Sixth Crusade 1237 absorption of The Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1242 The Battle on the Ice 1242–1249 First Prussian Uprising 1249 Treaty of Christburg with the pagan Prussians signed on February 9 1249 Battle of Krücken 1260 Battle of Durbe 1260–1274 Great Prussian Uprising 1262 Siege of Königsberg 1263 Battle of Löbau 1264 Siege of Bartenstein 1270 Battle of Karuse 1271 Battle of Pagastin 1279 Battle of Aizkraukle 1308–1309 Teutonic takeover of Danzig
Teutonic takeover of Danzig
and Treaty of Soldin 1326–1332 First Polish-Teutonic War, for Kuyavia, with involvement of Lithuania and Hungary 1331 Battle of Płowce 1343 Treaty of Kalisz, exchange of Kuyavia
Kuyavia
for Kulm and other territories 1343–1345 St. George's Night Uprising 1346 Purchase of Duchy of Estonia
Estonia
from Denmark 1348 Battle of Strėva 1370 Battle of Rudau 1409–1411 Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War, the Teutonic knights are defeated by Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Lithuanian Grand duke Vytautas the Great
Vytautas the Great
at the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(Tannenberg) (1410) 1414 Hunger War 1422 Gollub War
Gollub War
ending with the Treaty of Melno 1431–1435 Second Polish-Teutonic War 1454–1466 Thirteen Years' War 1466 Second Peace of Thorn (1466) 1467–1479 War of the Priests 1519–1521 Third Polish-Teutonic War 1525 Order loses State of the Teutonic Order
State of the Teutonic Order
due to the Prussian Homage, it becomes Ducal Prussia

Foundation[edit] In 1143 Pope
Pope
Celestine II ordered the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
to take over management of a German hospital in Jerusalem, which, according to the chronicler Jean d’Ypres, accommodated the countless German pilgrims and crusaders who could neither speak the local language nor Latin (patriæ linguam ignorantibus atque Latinam).[12] Although formally an institution of the Hospitallers, the pope commanded that the prior and the brothers of the domus Theutonicorum (house of the Germans) should always be Germans
Germans
themselves, so a tradition of a German-led religious institution could develop during the 12th century in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.[13]

Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
served as the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1209 to 1239).

After the loss of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1187, some merchants from Lübeck
Lübeck
and Bremen
Bremen
took up the idea and founded a field hospital for the duration of the Siege of Acre in 1190, which became the nucleus of the order; Celestine III
Celestine III
recognized it in 1192 by granting the monks Augustinian Rule. However, based on the model of the Knights Templar, it was transformed into a military order in 1198 and the head of the order became known as the Grand Master (magister hospitalis). It received papal orders for crusades to take and hold Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for Christianity and defend the Holy Land
Holy Land
against the Muslim
Muslim
Saracens. During the rule of Grand Master Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
(1209–1239) the Order changed from being a hospice brotherhood for pilgrims to primarily a military order. The Order was founded in Acre, and the Knights purchased Montfort (Starkenberg), northeast of Acre, in 1220. This castle, which defended the route between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Mediterranean Sea, was made the seat of the Grand Masters in 1229, although they returned to Acre after losing Montfort to Muslim
Muslim
control in 1271. The Order also had a castle at Amouda
Amouda
in Armenia Minor. The Order received donations of land in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(especially in present-day Germany
Germany
and Italy), Frankish Greece, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Emperor Frederick II elevated his close friend Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
to the status of Reichsfürst, or "Prince of the Empire", enabling the Grand Master to negotiate with other senior princes as an equal. During Frederick's coronation as King of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1225, Teutonic Knights served as his escort in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; von Salza read the emperor's proclamation in both French and German. However, the Teutonic Knights were never as influential in Outremer
Outremer
as the older Templars and Hospitallers. Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary[edit]

Tannhäuser
Tannhäuser
in the habit of the Teutonic Knights, from the Codex Manesse

In 1211, Andrew II of Hungary
Andrew II of Hungary
accepted the services of the Teutonic Knights and granted them the district of Burzenland
Burzenland
in Transylvania. Andrew had been involved in negotiations for the marriage of his daughter with the son of Hermann, Landgrave of Thuringia, whose vassals included the family of Hermann von Salza. Led by a brother called Theoderich, the Order defended the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
against the neighbouring Cumans. They settled new German peasants among the existing inhabitants, who were known as the Transylvanian Saxons. In 1224, the Knights petitioned Pope
Pope
Honorius III to be placed directly under the authority of the Papal See, rather than that of the King of Hungary. Angered and alarmed at their growing power, Andrew responded by expelling the Teutonic Knights in 1225, although he allowed the commoners and peasants (the Transyvanian Saxons) to remain. Prussia[edit] Main article: Prussian Crusade In 1226, Konrad I, Duke of Masovia
Masovia
in north-eastern Poland, appealed to the Knights to defend his borders and subdue the pagan Baltic Prussians, allowing the Teutonic Knights use of Chełmno Land (Culmerland) as a base for their campaign. This being a time of widespread crusading fervor throughout Western Europe, Hermann von Salza considered Prussia
Prussia
a good training ground for his knights for the wars against the Muslims in Outremer.[14] With the Golden Bull of Rimini, Emperor Frederick II bestowed on the Order a special imperial privilege for the conquest and possession of Prussia, including Chełmno Land, with nominal papal sovereignty. In 1235 the Teutonic Knights assimilated the smaller Order of Dobrzyń, which had been established earlier by Christian, the first Bishop of Prussia.

Frederick II allows the order to invade Prussia, by P. Janssen

The conquest of Prussia
Prussia
was accomplished with much bloodshed over more than fifty years, during which native Prussians who remained unbaptised were subjugated, killed, or exiled. Fighting between the Knights and the Prussians was ferocious; chronicles of the Order state the Prussians would "roast captured brethren alive in their armour, like chestnuts, before the shrine of a local god".[15] [citation needed] The native nobility who submitted to the crusaders had many of their privileges affirmed in the Treaty of Christburg. After the Prussian uprisings of 1260–83, however, much of the Prussian nobility emigrated or were resettled, and many free Prussians lost their rights. The Prussian nobles who remained were more closely allied with the German landowners and gradually assimilated.[16] Peasants in frontier regions, such as Samland, had more privileges than those in more populated lands, such as Pomesania.[17] The crusading knights often accepted baptism as a form of submission by the natives.[18] Christianity
Christianity
along western lines slowly spread through Prussian culture. Bishops were reluctant to have Prussian religious practices integrated into the new faith,[19] while the ruling knights found it easier to govern the natives when they were semi-pagan and lawless.[20] After fifty years of warfare and brutal conquest, the end result meant that most of the Prussian natives were either killed or deported.[21]

Map of the Teutonic state in 1260

The Order ruled Prussia
Prussia
under charters issued by the Pope
Pope
and the Holy Roman Emperor as a sovereign monastic state, comparable to the arrangement of the Knights Hospitallers in Rhodes
Rhodes
and later in Malta. To make up for losses from the plague and to replace the partially exterminated native population, the Order encouraged immigration from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(mostly Germans, Flemish, and Dutch) and from Masovia
Masovia
(Poles), the later Masurians. These included nobles, burghers, and peasants, and the surviving Old Prussians
Old Prussians
were gradually assimilated through Germanization. The settlers founded numerous towns and cities on former Prussian settlements. The Order itself built a number of castles (Ordensburgen) from which it could defeat uprisings of Old Prussians, as well as continue its attacks on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, with which the Order was often at war during the 14th and 15th centuries. Major towns founded by the Order included Allenstein (Olsztyn), Elbing
Elbing
(Elbląg), Klaipėda (Memel), and Königsberg, founded in 1255 in honor of King Otakar II of Bohemia
Bohemia
on the site of a destroyed Prussian settlement. In 1236 the Knights of Saint Thomas, an English order, adopted the rules of the Teutonic Order. A contingent of Teutonic Knights of indeterminate number is traditionally believed to have participated at the Battle of Legnica
Battle of Legnica
in 1241 against the Mongols. However, recent analysis of the 15th century Annals of Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz
by Labuda suggests that the German crusaders may have been added to the text (listing the Allied Army) after the chronicler Długosz had completed the work.[22] Legnica is the furthest west the Mongol expansion would reach in Poland. Livonia[edit] Main article: Livonian Crusade

Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
castle in Paide, Estonia

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
were absorbed by the Teutonic Knights in 1237, after the former had suffered a devastating defeat in the Battle of Saule. The Livonian branch subsequently became known as the Livonian Order.[23] Attempts to expand into Kievan Rus failed when the knights suffered a major defeat in 1242 in the Battle of the Ice at the hands of Prince Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
of Novgorod. Over the next decades the Order focused on the subjugation of the Curonians
Curonians
and Semigallians. In 1260 it suffered a disastrous defeat in the Battle of Durbe against Samogitians, which inspired rebellions throughout Prussia
Prussia
and Livonia. After the Teutonic Knights won a crucial victory in the Siege of Königsberg
Königsberg
from 1262 to 1265, the war had reached a turning point. The Curonians
Curonians
were finally subjugated in 1267 and the Semigallians
Semigallians
in 1290.[23] The Order suppressed a major Estonian rebellion in 1343-1345, and in 1346 purchased the Duchy of Estonia from Denmark. Against Lithuania[edit] The Teutonic Knights began to direct their campaigns against pagan Lithuania (see Lithuanian mythology), due to the aim to have all the world be Christian, especially after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at Acre in 1291. The knights moved their headquarters to Venice, from which they planned the recovery of Outremer.[24] Because "Lithuania Propria" remained non-Christian until the end of the 14th century, much later than the rest of eastern Europe, many knights from western European countries, such as England and France, journeyed to Prussia
Prussia
to participate in the seasonal campaigns (reyse) against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Some of them campaigned against pagans to obtain remission for their sins, while others fought to gain military experience. In 1348, the Order won a great victory over the Lithuanians in the Battle of Strėva, severely weakening them. The Teutonic Knights won a decisive victory over Lithuania in the Battle of Rudau in 1370. Warfare between the Order and the Lithuanians was especially brutal. Non- Christians
Christians
were seen as lacking rights possessed by Christians. Because enslavement of non- Christians
Christians
was seen as acceptable at the time and the subdued native Prussians demanded land or payment, the Knights often used captured pagan Lithuanians for forced labor. The contemporary Austrian poet Peter Suchenwirt described treatment he witnessed of pagans by the Knights:

Women and children were taken captive; What a jolly medley could be seen: Many a woman could be seen, Two children tied to her body, One behind and one in front; On a horse without spurs Barefoot had they ridden here; The heathens were made to suffer: Many were captured and in every case, Were their hands tied together They were led off, all tied up — Just like hunting dogs.[25]

It was a total war in every sense of the word, lasting over 200 years, with its front line along both banks of the Neman River, with as many as twenty forts and castles between Seredžius
Seredžius
and Jurbarkas
Jurbarkas
alone, creating an absolutely desolated wasteland. This struggle was so deeply etched into Lithuanian culture and mentality that even now it is a prominent source of national pride and self-identity.[citation needed] Against Poland[edit] Main article: Teutonic takeover of Danzig

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Pommerellen) while part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights

A dispute over the succession to the Duchy of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
embroiled the Order in further conflict at the beginning of the 14th century. The Margraves of Brandenburg had claims to the duchy that they acted upon after the death of King Wenceslaus of Poland
Poland
in 1306. Duke Władysław I the Elbow-high of Poland
Poland
also claimed the duchy, based on inheritance from Przemysław II, but he was opposed by some Pomeranians nobles. They requested help from Brandenburg, which subsequently occupied all of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
except for the citadel of Danzig (Gdańsk) in 1308. Because Władysław was unable to come to the defense of Danzig, the Teutonic Knights, then led by Hochmeister Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, were hired to expel the Brandenburgers. The Order, under Prussian Landmeister Heinrich von Plötzke, evicted the Brandenburgers from Danzig in September 1308 but then refused to yield the town to the Poles
Poles
and massacred the town's inhabitants. In the Treaty of Soldin, the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
purchased Brandenburg's supposed claim to the castles of Danzig, Schwetz (Świecie), and Dirschau (Tczew) and their hinterlands from the margraves for 10,000 marks on 13 September 1309.[citation needed] Control of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
allowed the Order to connect their monastic state with the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Crusading reinforcements and supplies could travel from the Imperial territory of Hither Pomerania
Pomerania
through Pomerelia
Pomerelia
to Prussia, while Poland's access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was blocked. While Poland
Poland
had mostly been an ally of the knights against the pagan Prussians and Lithuanians, the capture of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
turned the kingdom into a determined enemy of the Order.[26] The capture of Danzig marked a new phase in the history of the Teutonic Knights. The persecution and abolition of the powerful Knights Templar, which began in 1307, worried the Teutonic Knights, but control of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
allowed them to move their headquarters in 1309 from Venice
Venice
to Marienburg (Malbork) on the Nogat River, outside the reach of secular powers. The position of Prussian Landmeister was merged with that of the Grand Master. The Pope
Pope
began investigating misconduct by the knights, but the Order was defended by able jurists. Along with the campaigns against the Lithuanians, the knights faced a vengeful Poland
Poland
and legal threats from the Papacy.[27] The Treaty of Kalisz of 1343 ended open war between the Teutonic Knights and Poland. The Knights relinquished Kuyavia
Kuyavia
and Dobrzyń Land to Poland, but retained Culmerland and Pomerelia
Pomerelia
with Danzig. Height of power[edit]

Map of the Teutonic state in 1410

In 1337, Emperor Louis IV allegedly granted the Order the imperial privilege to conquer all Lithuania and Russia. During the reign of Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode
Winrich von Kniprode
(1351–1382), the Order reached the peak of its international prestige and hosted numerous European crusaders and nobility. King Albert of Sweden
Albert of Sweden
ceded Gotland
Gotland
to the Order as a pledge (similar to a fiefdom), with the understanding that they would eliminate the pirating Victual Brothers
Victual Brothers
from this strategic island base in the Baltic Sea. An invasion force under Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen conquered the island in 1398 and drove the Victual Brothers
Victual Brothers
out of Gotland
Gotland
and the Baltic Sea. In 1386, Grand Duke Jogaila
Jogaila
of Lithuania was baptised into Christianity
Christianity
and married Queen Jadwiga of Poland, taking the name Władysław II Jagiełło and becoming King of Poland. This created a personal union between the two countries and a potentially formidable opponent for the Teutonic Knights. The Order initially managed to play Jagiello and his cousin Vytautas
Vytautas
against each other, but this strategy failed when Vytautas
Vytautas
began to suspect that the Order was planning to annex parts of his territory. The baptism of Jagiello began the official conversion of Lithuania to Christianity. Although the crusading rationale for the Order's state ended when Prussia
Prussia
and Lithuania had become officially Christian, the Order's feuds and wars with Lithuania and Poland
Poland
continued. The Lizard Union was created in 1397 by Prussian nobles in Culmerland to oppose the Order's policy. In 1407, the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
reached its greatest territorial extent and included the lands of Prussia, Pomerelia, Samogitia, Courland, Livonia, Estonia, Gotland, Dagö, Ösel, and the Neumark, pawned by Brandenburg in 1402. Decline[edit]

Battle of Grunwald, by Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko
(1878)

In 1410, at the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(German: Schlacht bei Tannenberg) — known in Lithuanian as the Battle of Žalgiris — a combined Polish-Lithuanian army, led by Vytautas and Jogaila, decisively defeated the Order in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen
Ulrich von Jungingen
and most of the Order's higher dignitaries fell on the battlefield (50 out of 60). The Polish-Lithuanian army then began the Siege of Marienburg, the capital of the Order, but was unable to take Marienburg owing to the resistance of Heinrich von Plauen. When the First Peace of Thorn was signed in 1411, the Order managed to retain essentially all of its territories, although the Knights' reputation as invincible warriors was irreparably damaged. While Poland
Poland
and Lithuania were growing in power, that of the Teutonic Knights dwindled through infighting. They were forced to impose high taxes to pay a substantial indemnity but did not give the cities sufficient requested representation in the administration of their state. The authoritarian and reforming Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen was forced from power and replaced by Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg, but the new Grand Master was unable to revive the Order's fortunes. After the Gollub War
Gollub War
the Knights lost some small border regions and renounced all claims to Samogitia
Samogitia
in the 1422 Treaty of Melno. Austrian and Bavarian knights feuded with those from the Rhineland, who likewise bickered with Low German-speaking Saxons, from whose ranks the Grand Master was usually chosen. The western Prussian lands of the Vistula
Vistula
River Valley and the Brandenburg Neumark
Neumark
were ravaged by the Hussites during the Hussite
Hussite
Wars.[28] Some Teutonic Knights were sent to battle the invaders, but were defeated by the Bohemian infantry. The Knights also sustained a defeat in the Polish-Teutonic War (1431-1435).

Map of the Teutonic state in 1466

In 1454, the Prussian Confederation, consisting of the gentry and burghers of western Prussia, rose up against the Order, beginning the Thirteen Years' War. Much of Prussia
Prussia
was devastated in the war, during the course of which the Order returned Neumark
Neumark
to Brandenburg in 1455. In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the defeated Order recognized the Polish crown's rights over western Prussia
Prussia
(subsequently Royal Prussia) while retaining eastern Prussia
Prussia
under nominal Polish overlordship. Because Marienburg Castle was handed over to mercenaries in lieu of their pay, the Order moved its base to Königsberg
Königsberg
in Sambia. After the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–1521), the Order was completely ousted from Prussia
Prussia
when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg converted to Lutheranism
Lutheranism
in 1525. He secularized the Order's remaining Prussian territories and assumed from his uncle Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland, the hereditary rights to the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
as a vassal of the Polish Crown, the Prussian Homage. The Protestant
Protestant
Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
was thus a fief of Catholic Poland. Although it had lost control of all of its Prussian lands, the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
retained its territories within the Holy Roman Empire and Livonia, although the Livonian branch retained considerable autonomy. Many of the Imperial possessions were ruined in the German Peasants' War from 1524 to 1525 and subsequently confiscated by Protestant
Protestant
territorial princes.[29] The Livonian territory was then partitioned by neighboring powers during the Livonian War; in 1561 the Livonian Master Gotthard Kettler
Gotthard Kettler
secularized the southern Livonian possessions of the Order to create the Duchy of Courland, also a vassal of Poland. After the loss of Prussia
Prussia
in 1525, the Teutonic Knights concentrated on their possessions in the Holy Roman Empire. Since they held no contiguous territory, they developed a three-tiered administrative system: holdings were combined into commanderies that were administered by a commander (Komtur). Several commanderies were combined to form a bailiwick headed by a Landkomtur. All of the Teutonic Knights' possessions were subordinate to the Grand Master, whose seat was in Bad Mergentheim.

Castle of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in Bad Mergentheim.

There were twelve German bailiwicks:

Thuringia; Alden Biesen (in present-day Belgium); Hesse; Saxony; Westphalia; Franconia; Koblenz; Alsace-Burgundy; An der Etsch
An der Etsch
und im Gebirge (in Tyrol); Utrecht; Lorraine; and Austria.

Outside of German areas were the bailiwicks of

Sicily; Apulia; Lombardy; Bohemia; "Romania" (in Greece); and Armenia-Cyprus.

The Order gradually lost control of these holdings until, by 1810, only the bailiwicks in Tyrol and Austria
Austria
remained. Following the abdication of Albert of Brandenburg, Walter von Cronberg became Deutschmeister in 1527, and later Administrator of Prussia
Prussia
and Grand Master in 1530. Emperor Charles V combined the two positions in 1531, creating the title Hoch- und Deutschmeister, which also had the rank of Prince of the Empire.[30] A new Grand Magistery was established in Mergentheim in Württemberg, which was attacked during the German Peasants' War. The Order also helped Charles V against the Schmalkaldic League. After the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
in 1555, membership in the Order was open to Protestants, although the majority of brothers remained Catholic.[31] The Teutonic Knights became tri-denominational, with Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed bailiwicks. The Grand Masters, often members of the great German families (and, after 1761, members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine), continued to preside over the Order's considerable holdings in Germany. Teutonic Knights from Germany, Austria, and Bohemia
Bohemia
were used as battlefield commanders leading mercenaries for the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy during the Ottoman wars in Europe. The military history of the Teutonic Knights ended in 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered their dissolution and the Order lost its remaining secular holdings to Napoleon's vassals and allies. Medieval organisation[edit] Administrative structure about 1350[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generalkapitel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ratsgebietiger

 

Hochmeister

 

Kanzlei des Hochmeisters

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Großkomtur (Magnus Commendator)

 

Ordensmarschall (Summus Marescalcus)

 

 

Großspittler (Summus Hospitalarius)

 

Ordenstressler (Summus Thesaurarius)

 

Ordenstrappier (Summus Trappearius)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Großschäffer (Marienburg)

 

 

Großschäffer (Königsberg)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Komtur
Komtur
(Preußen)

 

Komtur
Komtur
(Preußen)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Landmeister in Livland
Livland
(Magister Livoniae)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Komtur
Komtur
(Livland)

 

Komtur
Komtur
(Livland)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Landkomtur

 

Landkomtur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Komtur
Komtur
(in the Holy Empire)

 

Komtur
Komtur
(in the Holy Empire)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hauskomtur

 

Pfleger

 

Vogt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Karwansherr Trappierer Kellermeister Küchenmeister Wachhauptmann Gesindemeister Fischmeister

[32][33] Universal leadership[edit] Generalkapitel[edit] The Generalkapitel (general chapter) was the collection of all the priests, knights and half-brothers (German: Halbbrüder). Because of the logistical problems in assembling the members, who were spread over large distances, only deputations of the bailiwicks and commandries gathered to form the General chapter. The General chapter was designed to meet annually, but the conventions were usually limited to the election of a new Grandmaster. The decisions of the Generalkapitel had a binding effect on the Großgebietigers of the order. Hochmeister[edit] Main article: Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order The Hochmeister (Grandmaster) was the highest officer of the order. Until 1525, he was elected by the Generalkapitel. He had the rank of an ecclesiastic imperial state leader and was sovereign prince of Prussia
Prussia
until 1466. Despite this high formal position, practically, he only was a kind of first among equals. Großgebietiger[edit] The Großgebietiger were high officers with competence on the whole order, appointed by the Hochmeister. There were five offices.

The Großkomtur (Magnus Commendator), the deputy of the Grandmaster The Treßler, the treasurer The Spitler (Summus Hospitalarius), responsible for all hospital affairs The Trapier, responsible for dressing and armament The Marschall (Summus Marescalcus), the chief of military affairs

National leadership[edit] Landmeister[edit] The order was divided in three national chapters, Prussia, Livland
Livland
and the territory of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation. The highest officer of each chapter was the Landmeister (country master). They were elected by the regional chapters. In the beginning, they were only substitutes of the Grandmaster but were able to create a power of their own so that, within their territory, the Grandmaster could not decide against their will. At the end of their rule over Prussia, the Grandmaster was only Landmeister of Prussia. There were three Landmeisters:

The Landmeister in Livland, the successor of the Herrenmeister (lords master) of the former Livonian Brothers of the Sword. The Landmeister of Prussia, after 1309 united with the office of the Grandmaster, who was situated in Prussia
Prussia
from then. The Deutschmeister, the Landsmeister of the Holy Roman Empire. When Prussia
Prussia
and Livland
Livland
were lost, the Deutschmeister also became Grandmaster.

Regional leadership[edit] Because the properties of the order within the rule of the Deutschmeister did not form a contiguous territory, but were spread over the whole empire and parts of Europe, there was an additional regional structure, the bailiwick. Kammerbaleien were governed by the Grandmaster himself. Some of these bailiwicks had the rank of imperial states

Deutschordensballei Thuringia
Thuringia
(Zwätzen) Deutschordensballei Hesse
Hesse
(Marburg) Deutschordensballei Saxonia (Lucklum) Brandenburg Deutschordensballei Westfalia (Deutschordenskommende Mülheim) Deutschordensballei Franconia (Ellingen) Kammerballei Koblenz Deutschordensballei Swabia-Alsace-Burgundy (Rouffach) Deutschordensballei at the Etsch and in the Mountains (south Tyrol) (Bozen) Utrecht Lorraine (Trier) Kammerballei Austria Deutschordensballei Alden Biesen Sicily Deutschordensballei Apulia
Apulia
(San Leonardo) Lombardy
Lombardy
(also called Lamparten) Kammerballei Bohemia Deutschordensballei Romania (Achaia, Greece) Armenien-Zyprus

Local leadership[edit] Komtur[edit] The smallest administrative unit of the order was the Kommende. It was ruled by a Komtur, who had all administrative rights and controlled the Vogteien (district of a reeve) and Zehnthöfe (tithe collectors) within his rule. In the commandry, all kinds of brothers lived together in a monastic way. Noblemen served as Knight-brothers or Priest-brothers. Other people could serve as Sariantbrothers, who were armed soldiers, and as Half-brothers, who were working in economy and healthcare. Special
Special
offices[edit]

The Kanzler (chancellor) of the Grandmaster and the Deutschmeister. The chancellor took care of the keys and seals and was also the recording clerk of the chapter. The Münzmeister (master of the mint) of Thorn. In 1246, the order received the right to produce its own coins - the Moneta Dominorum Prussiae – Schillingen. The Pfundmeister (customs master) of Danzig. The Pfund was a local customs duty. The Generalprokurator the representative of the order at the Holy See. The Großschäffer, a trading representative with special authority.

Modern organization[edit] Catholic religious order[edit] The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
order continued to exist in Austria, out of Napoleon's reach. From 1804 until 1923 (when Archduke Eugen of Austria resigned the grandmastership), the order was headed by members of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty. All the subsequent Grand Masters were priests. In 1929, that branch of the Teutonic knights was converted to a purely spiritual Roman Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
and renamed the Deutscher Orden ("German Order").[citation needed] After Austria's annexation by Nazi Germany
Germany
in 1938, the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was suppressed throughout the Großdeutsches Reich until defeat of that regime, although the Nazis used imagery of the medieval Teutonic knights for propagandistic purposes.[34] The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
order survived in Italy, however, and was reconstituted in Germany
Germany
and Austria
Austria
in 1945. By the end of the 20th century, this part of the Order had developed into a charitable organization and established numerous clinics, as well as sponsoring excavation and tourism projects in Israel. In 2000, the German chapter of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
declared bankruptcy and its upper management was dismissed; an investigation by a special committee of the Bavarian parliament in 2002 and 2003 to determine the cause was inconclusive. The Catholic branch now consists of approximately 1,000 members, including 100 Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priests, 200 nuns, and 700 associates. While the priests are organized into six provinces (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and predominantly provide spiritual guidance, the nuns primarily care for the ill and the aged. Associates are active in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Italy. Many of the priests care for German-speaking communities outside of Germany
Germany
and Austria, especially in Italy
Italy
and Slovenia; in this sense the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
has returned to its 12th-century roots: the spiritual and physical care of Germans in foreign lands.[35] The current General Abbot
Abbot
of the Order, who also holds the title of Grand Master, is Bruno Platter. The current seat of the Grand Master is the Deutschordenskirche ("Church of the German Order") in Vienna.[36] Near the Stephansdom
Stephansdom
in the Austrian capital is the Treasury of the Teutonic Order, which is open to the public, and the Order's Central Archive. Since 1996, there has also been a museum dedicated to the Teutonic Knights at their former castle in Bad Mergentheim
Bad Mergentheim
in Germany, which was the seat of the Grand Master from 1525–1809. Honorary Knights[edit] See also: Category:Honorary Knights of the Teutonic Order Honorary Knights of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
include Otto von Habsburg, Konrad Adenauer, and others. Protestant
Protestant
Bailiwick of Utrecht[edit] A portion of the Order retains more of the character of the knights during the height of its power and prestige. Der Balije van Utrecht (" Bailiwick of Utrecht") of the Ridderlijke Duitsche Orde ("Chivalric German [i.e., 'Teutonic'] Order") became Protestant
Protestant
at the Reformation, and it remained an aristocratic society. The relationship of the Bailiwick of Utrecht to the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Deutscher Orden resembles that of the Protestant
Protestant
Bailiwick of Brandenburg to the Roman Catholic Order of Malta: each is an authentic part of its original order, though differing from and smaller than the Roman Catholic branch.[37] Insignia[edit] The Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross, granted by Innocent III in 1205. A cross pattée was sometimes used.[year needed] The motto of the Order was "Helfen, Wehren, Heilen" ("Help, Defend, Heal").[year needed][11] The coat of arms representing the grand master (Deutschmeisterwappen)[38] is shown with a golden cross fleury or cross potent superimposed on the black cross, with the imperial eagle as a central inescutcheon. The golden cross fleury overlaid on the black cross became widely used in the 15th century. A legendary account attributes its introduction to Louis IX of France, who on 20 August 1250 granted the master of the order this cross as a variation of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
cross, with the fleur-de-lis symbol attached to each arm. While this legendary account cannot be traced back further than the early modern period (Christoph Hartknoch, 1684), there is some evidence that the design does indeed date to the mid 13th century.[39] The black cross pattée was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Germany
Germany
as the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
and Pour le Mérite.

Cross of the Teutonic Order

14th-century brass stamp with the shield insignia.

In the 16th century, officers of the order would quarter their family arms with the order's arms.[40]

Example of the Deutschmeisterwappen on the gate of the Bad Mergentheim residence

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, Grand Master from 1761 to 1780.

Modern (20th century) medal

Procession
Procession
in honour of Saint Liborius of Le Mans
Liborius of Le Mans
with Knights of the Holy Sepulchre together with Teutonic Knights in Paderborn, Germany.

v t e

Christian cross
Christian cross
variants

In modern use

Anchored/St. Clement's Cross Anuradhapura cross Cross of the Archangels Archiepiscopal cross Armenian Cross Arrow/Barby Cross Bolnisi cross Cross bottony Branch cross Byzantine cross Calvary cross Canterbury cross Catherine wheel Caucasian Albanian Cross Celtic cross Cercelée Cross of St. Chad Coptic cross Cross crosslet Cross crosslet fitchy Cross and Crown Crucifix Cruciform halo Double cross Cross of the Evangelists Cross fitchy Cross fleury Cross fleury
Cross fleury
fitchy St. Florian Cross Forked cross Cross fourchy Fylfot St. George's Cross Globus cruciger Gnostic cross Grapevine/St. Nino's Cross Greek cross Huguenot cross St. James/Santiago Cross Jerusalem/Crusaders' cross Jerusalem
Jerusalem
cross (variant) Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
cross Cross of St. John Latin/Roman cross Macedonian Cross Maltese cross Marian Cross Maronite Cross Cross moline Nordic Cross Cross of Novgorod Occitan cross Orthodox cross
Orthodox cross
(Bulgarian) Orthodox cross
Orthodox cross
(Greek) Orthodox cross
Orthodox cross
(Slavic) Papal cross Cross patonce St. Patrick's Saltire Cross pattée Cross pattée
Cross pattée
fitchée Patriarchal cross Cross of St. Peter Cross of St. Philip Pommy cross Portate cross/Cross of St. Gilbert Cross potent Ringed cross Cross quadrate Cross of Salem Saltire/St. Andrew's Cross Serbian cross Tau/St. Anthony's Cross St. Thomas Cross Syriac cross

Historical

Avellane cross Avis cross Brigid's cross Carolingian cross Consecration crosses Coptic cross Cross and Crown Cuthbert's pectoral cross Early Coptic cross Engrailed cross Cross erminée Gammadion Crux gemmata Saint Julian's cross Lazarus' cross Lorraine cross Cross of Neith Cross of Peñalba Pierced cross Pierced cross quarterly Knights Templar
Knights Templar
cross Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
cross Two-barred cross Victory Cross Voided cross

By function

Altar cross Blessing cross Conciliation cross Crosses in heraldry

Nordic Pisan

High cross Market cross Mercat cross Memorial cross Mission cross Monumental cross Pectoral cross Plague cross Processional cross Rood/Triumphal cross Summit cross Wayside cross

Christograms, Chrismons

Chi Rho Christogram IX monogram Labarum Signum manus Staurogram/Monogrammatic cross/ Tau
Tau
Rho

See also

Ankh Armenian eternity sign Balkenkreuz Irminsul Kolovrat Mjölnir Odinic fylfot Rose Cross Sauwastika Scientology cross Shamrock Shield of the Trinity Sunwheel swastika Sun cross Swastika Triskelion/Triskele

Influence on German and Polish nationalism[edit]

A German National People's Party
German National People's Party
poster from 1920 showing a Teutonic knight being attacked by Poles
Poles
and socialists. The caption reads "Save the East".

Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany
Germany
posed for a photo in 1902 in the garb of a monk from the Teutonic Order, climbing the stairs in the reconstructed Marienburg Castle as a symbol of Imperial German policy.[41][unreliable source?] The German historian Heinrich von Treitschke
Heinrich von Treitschke
used imagery of the Teutonic Knights to promote pro-German and anti-Polish rhetoric. Many middle-class German nationalists adopted this imagery and its symbols. During the Weimar Republic, associations and organisations of this nature contributed to laying the groundwork for the formation of Nazi Germany.[41][unreliable source?] Before and during World War II, Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
and ideology made frequent use of the Teutonic Knights' imagery, as the Nazis sought to depict the Knights' actions as a forerunner of the Nazi conquests for Lebensraum. Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
tried to idealise the SS as a 20th-century re-incarnation of the medieval Order.[42] Yet, despite these references to the Teutonic Order's history in Nazi propaganda, the Order itself was abolished in 1938 and its members were persecuted by the German authorities. This occurred mostly due to Hitler's and Himmler's belief that, throughout history, Roman Catholic military-religious orders had been tools of the Holy See
Holy See
and as such constituted a threat to the Nazi regime.[43] The converse was true for Polish nationalism (see: Sienkiewicz
Sienkiewicz
"The Knights of the Cross"), which used the Teutonic Knights as symbolic shorthand for Germans
Germans
in general, conflating the two into an easily recognisable image of the hostile. Similar associations were used by Soviet propagandists, such as the Teutonic knight villains in the 1938 Sergei Eisenstein
Sergei Eisenstein
film Aleksandr Nevskii. See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal Crusades
Crusades
portal

Teutonic Knights in popular culture Iron Cross

Notes[edit]

^ "The Grand Masters". Teutonic Order, Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital
Hospital
in Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-01-30. Abbot
Abbot
Dr. Bruno Platter 2000–  ^ Van Duren, Peter (1995). Orders of Knighthood
Knighthood
and of Merit. C. Smythe. p. 212. ISBN 0-86140-371-1.  ^ Redazione. "La Santa Sede e gli Ordini Cavallereschi: doverosi chiarimenti (Seconda parte)".  ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan Simon Christopher (1999). The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192853646. Teutonic knights are still to be found only in another interesting survival, Ridderlijke Duitse Orde Balije van Utrecht (The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order). Like the Hospitaller Bailiwick of Brandenburg, this commandery turned itself into a noble Protestant confraternity at the time of the Reformation.  ^ Innes-Parker 2013, p. 102. ^ "The Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital
Hospital
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
- 1190-2017". www.imperialteutonicorder.com.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ American Historical Association, National Board for Historical Service, National Council for the Social Studies – 1918 : Historical outlook: a journal for readers, students and teachers ^ "History of the German Order". Teutonic Order, Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital
Hospital
in Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-01-30. The 15th and early 16th century brought hard times for the Order. Apart from the drastic power loss in the East as of 1466, the Hussite
Hussite
attacks imperilled the continued existence of the bailwick of Bohemia. In Southern Europe, the Order had to renounce important outposts – such as Apulia
Apulia
and Sicily. After the coup d’état of Albrecht von Brandenburg, the only territory of the Order remained were the bailwicks in the empire.  ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
of Holy Mary in Jerusalem". Almanach de la Cour. www.chivalricorders.org. Retrieved 2011-01-30. This tradition was further perverted by the Nazis who, after the occupation of Austria
Austria
suppressed it by an act of 6 September 1938 because they suspected it of being a bastion of pro-Habsburg legitimism.  ^ "Restart of the Brother Province in 1945". Teutonic Order, Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital
Hospital
in Jerusalem. deutscher-orden.de. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-01-30.  ^ a b Demel, Bernhard (1999). Friedrich Vogel, eds. Der Deutsche Orden Einst Und Jetzt: Aufsätze Zu Seiner Mehr Als 800jahrigen Geschichte. Europäische Hochschulschriften: Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften. 848. Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany: Peter Lang. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-631-34999-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Monumenta Germaniae Historica, SS Bd. 25, S. 796. ^ Kurt Forstreuter. "Der Deutsche Orden am Mittelmeer". Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens, Bd II. Bonn
Bonn
1967, S. 12f. ^ Seward, p. 100 ^ Seward, p. 104 ^ Christiansen, pp. 208–09 ^ Christiansen, pp. 210–11 ^ Barraclough, p. 268 ^ Urban, p. 106 ^ Christiansen, p. 211 ^ The German Hansa P. Dollinger, page 34, 1999 Routledge ^ The Battle of Liegnitz (Legnica), 1241, AllEmpires.com. Accessed July 17, 2015. ^ a b Plakans, Andrejs (2011). A Concise History of the Baltic States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9780521833721.  ^ Christiansen, p. 150 ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
of Holy Mary in Jerusalem". Chivalric Orders. Retrieved 6 June 2006.  ^ Urban, p. 116 ^ Christiansen, p. 151 ^ Westermann, p. 93 ^ Christiansen, p. 248 ^ Seward, p. 137 ^ Urban, p. 276 ^ Dieter Zimmerling: Der Deutsche Orden, S. 166 ff. ^ Der Deutschordensstaat ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
of Holy Mary in Jerusalem". Almanach de la Cour. www.chivalricorders.org. Retrieved 2011-01-30. [T]he nazis...after the occupation of Austria
Austria
suppressed [the Order] by an act of 6 September 1938 because they suspected it of being a bastion of pro- Habsburg
Habsburg
legitimism. On occupying Czechoslovakia the following year, it was also suppressed in Moravia
Moravia
although the hospitals and houses in Yugoslavia and south Tyrol were able to continue a tenuous existence. The Nazis, motivated by Himmler's fantasies of reviving a German military elite then attempted to establish their own "Teutonic Order" as the highest award of the Third Reich. The ten recipients of this included Reinhard Heydrich and several of the most notorious Nazi criminals. Needless to say, although its badge was modeled on that of the genuine Order, it had absolutely nothing in common with it.  ^ Urban, p. 277 ^ Deutschordenskirche, Wien 1 – an explanatory pamphlet (in German) of the Order available in the Deutschordenskirche, by Franz R. Vorderwinkler, 1996, published by Kirche & Kultur Verlag mediapress, A-4400, Steyr. ^ Official website of the Bailiwick of Utrecht, accessed March 15, 2010 ^ The offices of Hochmeister (grand master, head of the order) and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg
Walter von Cronberg
in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister. Bernhard Peter (2011) ^ Helmut Nickel, "Über das Hochmeisterwappen des Deutschen Ordens im Heiligen Lande", Der Herold 4/1990, 97–108 (mgh-bibliothek.de). Marie-Luise Heckmann, "Überlegungen zu einem heraldischen Repertorium an Hand der Hochmeisterwappen des Deutschen Ordens" in: Matthias Thumser, Janusz Tandecki, Dieter Heckmann (eds.) Edition deutschsprachiger Quellen aus dem Ostseeraum (14.-16. Jahrhundert), Publikationen des Deutsch-Polnischen Gesprächskreises für Quellenedition. Publikacje Niemiecko-Polskiej Grupy Dyskusyjnej do Spraw Edycij Zrodel 1, 2001, 315–346 (online edition). "Die zeitgenössische Überlieferung verdeutlicht für dieses Wappen hingegen einen anderen Werdegang. Der Modelstein eines Schildmachers, der unter Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza
zwischen 1229 und 1266 auf der Starkenburg (Montfort) im Heiligen Land tätig war, und ein rekonstruiertes Deckengemälde in der Burgkapelle derselben Festung erlaubten der Forschung den Schluss, dass sich die Hochmeister schon im 13. Jahrhundert eines eigenen Wappens bedient hätten. Es zeigte ein auf das schwarze Ordenskreuz aufgelegtes goldenes Lilienkreuz mit dem bekannten Adlerschildchen. Die Wappensiegel des Elbinger Komturs von 1310 bzw. 1319, ein heute in Innsbruck aufbewahrter Vortrageschild des Hochmeisters Karl von Trier von etwa 1320 und das schlecht erhaltene Sekretsiegel desselben Hochmeisters von 1323 sind ebenfalls jeweils mit aufgelegtem goldenem Lilienkreuz ausgestattet." ^ In this example (dated 1594), Hugo Dietrich von Hohenlandenberg, commander of the bailiwick of Swabia-Alsace-Burgundy, shows his Landenberg
Landenberg
family arms quartered with the order's black cross. ^ a b (in Polish) Mówią wieki. "Biała leganda czarnego krzyża Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine.". Accessed 6 June 2006. ^ Christiansen, p. 5 ^ Desmond Seward, Mnisi Wojny, Poznań 2005, p. 265.

References[edit]

Christiansen, Erik (1997). The Northern Crusades. London: Penguin Books. p. 287. ISBN 0-14-026653-4.  Seward, Desmond (1995). The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. London: Penguin Books. p. 416. ISBN 0-14-019501-7.  Urban, William (2003). The Teutonic Knights: A Military History. London: Greenhill Books. p. 290. ISBN 1-85367-535-0.  Selart, Anti (2015). Livonia, Rus’ and the Baltic Crusades
Crusades
in the Thirteenth Century. Leiden: Brill. p. 400. ISBN 978-9-00-428474-6.  Innes-Parker, Catherine (2013). Anchoritism in the Middle Ages: Texts and Traditions. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-7083-2601-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Teutonic Order.

The order's homepage in Germany
Germany
(in German) The order's homepage in Austria
Austria
(in German) The order's homepage in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(in Czech) Shop of the Province of Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in Germany Current photos and history of the order´s towns and castles in Eastern Europe (in German) Chivalric Orders.org Territorial extent of the Teutonic Knights in Europe (map) An Historical Overview of the Crusade
Crusade
to Livonia, by William Urban "The Early Years of the Teutonic Order", by William Urban The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, by Guy Stair Sainty Museum in the residential castle of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in Bad Mergentheim (in German) Zwaetzen and the German Order in Central Germany
Germany
(in German) History of Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
(in German) Memorialisation and the witnes testimonies in the trials between Poland
Poland
and the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
(in English) Shlomo Lotan, Between the Latin
Latin
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
and Burzenland
Burzenland
in Medieval Hungary – The Teutonic Military Order status and rule in the poles of Christianity, Mirabilia 10, 2010, pp. 184–195. An illustrated timeline of the Teutonic Order Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
Interactive Museum in Działdowo, Poland

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(Beth Gibelin) Beit She'an
Beit She'an
Belvoir Fortress
Belvoir Fortress
Burgata
Burgata
Caesarea Cafarlet
Cafarlet
Château Pèlerin
Château Pèlerin
Destroit Givat Titora Ein Hemed
Ein Hemed
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Haifa
Haifa
(Caypha) Margaliot
Margaliot
(Château Neuf) Mi'ilya
Mi'ilya
(Castellum Regis) Migdal Afek
Migdal Afek
(Mirabel) Montfort Qalansawe
Qalansawe
(Calanson) Qaqun
Qaqun
(Caco) Qastal (Beauverium) Qula
Qula
Safed
Safed
Taibe Tel Afek Tel Hanaton Tell es-Safi
Tell es-Safi
(Blanche Garde) Tel Tzova
Tzova
(Belmont) Yavne
Yavne
(Ibelin) Tiberias
Tiberias
Sepphoris
Sepphoris
(La Sephorie) Umm Khalid Khirbat Jiddin
Khirbat Jiddin
(Jodin)

Associations  Kingdom of Jerusalem Knights Hospitaller Order of the Holy Sepulchre Knights Templar Order of Saint Lazarus Teutonic Order

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Orders, decorations, and medals of Austria-Hungary

Ancient

Order of the Braid

Empire (Male head)

Order of the Golden Fleece Military Order of Maria Theresa Order of Saint Stephen
Order of Saint Stephen
of Hungary

Order of Leopold Order of the Iron Crown Order of Franz Joseph Teutonic Order

Empire (Female head)

Order of Elizabeth
Order of Elizabeth
and Theresa (but male recipients)

Empire (Female head)

Order of the Slaves of the Virtue Order of the Starry Cross Order of Love of the Neighbour

Order of Elizabeth

Category:Orders, decorations, and medals of Austria-Hungary

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Orders of the Italian States before unification (1871)

Kingdom of Sardinia

Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus Military Order of Savoy Civil Order of Savoy

Republic of Genoa

Military Order of Saint George
Saint George
(Red-coloured cross)

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian orders)

Order of the Golden Fleece Order of Saint Stephen
Order of Saint Stephen
of Hungary Military Order of Maria Theresa Order of the Iron Crown Order of Leopold Order of Franz Joseph Order of the Starry Cross Order of Elizabeth
Order of Elizabeth
and Theresa

Republic of Venice

Order of Saint Mark Company of the Hose Order of the Golden Stole

Duchy of Lucca

Order of Saint George
Saint George
for Military Merit Order of Saint Louis for Civil Merit

Duchy of Parma

Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of Saint Louis for Civil Merit

Duchy of Modena and Reggio

Order of the Eagle of Este Cross of Seniority of Service

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Order of Saint Stephen Order of Saint Joseph Order of the Civil and Military Merit

Papal States

Holy See

Supreme Order of Christ Order of the Golden Spur Order of Pope
Pope
Pius IX Order of Saint Gregory the Great Order of Saint Sylvester

Protected by the Holy See

Order of the Holy Sepulchre Teutonic Order

See also

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Order of Saint Januarius Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit Royal Order of the Two-Sicilies Order of Saint George
Saint George
and Reunion Royal Order of Francis I

See also: Template:Italian orders, decorations, and medals

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Orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See

Orders of the Holy See

Supreme Order of Christ Order of the Golden Spur Order of Pope
Pope
Pius IX Order of St. Gregory the Great Order of Saint Sylvester

Orders under protection of the Holy See (with distinctions)

Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
( Order pro merito Melitensi, Medal of the Order pro Merito Melitensi) Order of the Holy Sepulchre
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
( Palm of Jerusalem, Pilgrim Shell, Cross of Merit) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
( Honorary Knights)

Other distinctions

Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice Benemerenti medal Golden Rose Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Pilgrim's Cross

Defunct/dormant distinctions (1870, 1954, 1977)

Order of Saint John of the Lateran Order of Saint Cecilia (1870) Order of the Moor (1870) Order of Saint Sylvester
Order of Saint Sylvester
and the Militia Aurata (1905) Advocates of Saint Peter (1909) Blessed sword and hat
Blessed sword and hat
(1823) Medal of Military Merit Fidei et Virtuti Pro Petri Sede Lauretan Cross (middle part of the 20th Century) Papal Lateran Cross
Papal Lateran Cross
(1977)

See also

Papal Household Swiss Guard Other Catholic orders of chivaly Catholic ecclesiastical decorations

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133732800 LCCN: n50068830 GND: 1017688-3 SUDOC: 028198271 BNF:

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