The tetragrammaton (/ˌtɛtrəˈɡræmətɒn/; from Greek
Τετραγράμματον, meaning "[consisting of] four letters"),
יהוה in Hebrew and YHWH in
Latin script, is the four-letter
biblical name of the
God of Israel. The books of the
the rest of the
Hebrew Bible (with the exception of Esther, and Song
of Songs) contain this Hebrew name. Religiously observant
those who follow conservative Jewish traditions do not pronounce
יהוה, nor do they read aloud transliterated forms such as
Yahweh; instead the word is substituted with a different term, whether
used to address or to refer to the
God of Israel. Common substitutions
for Hebrew forms are hakadosh baruch hu ("The Holy One, Blessed Be
Adonai ("The Lord"), or HaShem ("The Name").
1 Four letters
2.1 YHWH and Hebrew script
2.4 Theophoric names
3 Textual evidence
3.1 Mesha Stele
3.2 Scholarly texts of the Hebrew Bible
3.3 Leningrad Codex
3.4 Dead Sea Scrolls
3.4.1 The occurrence of the
Tetragrammaton in some manuscripts at
3.5 Magical papyri
Septuagint and other Greek translations
3.7 New Testament
3.8 Patristic writings
4 Usage in religious traditions
4.1.1 Verbal prohibitions
4.1.2 Written prohibitions
4.3.1 Christian translations
4.3.2 Eastern Orthodoxy
5 See also
The letters, properly read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew),
[w], or placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel (see mater lectionis)
[h] (or often a silent letter at the end of a word)
The pronunciation as it is vowel pointed in the Masoretic Text. The
vast majority of scholars do not hold the pronunciation to be correct.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
YHWH and Hebrew script
Main article: Mater lectionis
Biblical Hebrew orthography, Hebrew diacritics, Tiberian
vocalization, and Niqqud
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE
Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The letters YHWH are consonantal semi-vowels. In unpointed Biblical
Hebrew, most vowels are not written and the rest are written only
ambiguously, as certain consonants can double as vowel markers
(similar to the
Latin use of V to indicate both U and V). These are
referred to as matres lectionis ("mothers of reading"). Therefore, it
is, in general, difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced only from
its spelling, and the tetragrammaton is a particular example: two of
its letters can serve as vowels, and two are vocalic place-holders,
which are not pronounced. Thus the first-century Jewish historian and
Josephus said that the sacred name of
God consists of
The original consonantal text of the
Hebrew Bible was, several
centuries later, provided with vowel marks by the
Masoretes to assist
reading. In places that the consonants of the text to be read (the
qere) differed from the consonants of the written text (the ketiv),
they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be
read. In such a case the vowels of the qere were written on the ketiv.
For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are
called qere perpetuum.
One of the frequent cases was the tetragrammaton, which according to
later Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai"
("My Lord"), or, if the previous or next word already was Adonai, as
"Elohim" ("God"). The combination produces יְהֹוָה and
יֱהֹוִה respectively, non-words that would spell "Yehovah"
and "Yehovih" respectively.
The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic
Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the
Aleppo Codex and the
Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century, mostly write
יְהוָה (yhwah), with no pointing on the first h. It could be
because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing
Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to
the qere being Shema, which is Aramaic for "the Name".
The spelling of the tetragrammaton and connected forms in the Hebrew
Masoretic text of the Bible, with vowel points shown in red
The vocalisations of יְהֹוָה (Yehovah) and אֲדֹנָי
(Adonai) are not identical. The shva in YHWH (the vowel "ְ " under
the first letter) and the hataf patakh in 'DNY (the vowel "ֲ "
under its first letter) appear different. The vocalisation can be
Biblical Hebrew phonology, where the hataf patakh is
grammatically identical to a shva, always replacing every shva naḥ
under a guttural letter. Since the first letter of אֲדֹנָי
is a guttural letter while the first letter of יְהֹוָה is
not, the hataf patakh under the (guttural) aleph reverts to a regular
shva under the (non-guttural) Yod.
The table below considers the vowel points for יְהֹוָה
(Yehovah) and אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), respectively:
Hebrew word No. 3068
Hebrew word No. 136
In the table directly above, the "simple shewa" in Yehovah and the
hataf patakh in
Adonai are not the same vowel. The difference being,
the "simple shewa" is an "a" sound as in "alone", whereas the hataf
patakh is more subtle, as the "a" in "father". The same information is
displayed in the table above and to the right, where YHWH is intended
to be pronounced as Adonai, and
Adonai is shown to have different
Main article: Yahweh
Wilhelm Gesenius's Hebrew punctuation (i.e., Yahweh)
Tetragrammaton (with the vowel points for Adonai) on a Wittenberg
University debate lectern
The Hebrew scholar
Wilhelm Gesenius [1786–1842] suggested that the
Hebrew punctuation יַהְוֶה, which is transliterated into
English as "Yahweh", might more accurately represent the pronunciation
of the tetragrammaton than the
Biblical Hebrew punctuation
"יְהֹוָה", from which the English name "Jehovah" has been
derived. His proposal to read YHWH as "יַהְוֶה" (see image
to the left) was based in large part on various Greek transcriptions,
such as ιαβε, dating from the first centuries CE but also on the
forms of theophoric names. In his Hebrew Dictionary, Gesenius supports
"Yahweh" (which would have been pronounced [jahwe], with the final
letter being silent) because of the Samaritan pronunciation Ιαβε
reported by Theodoret, and that the theophoric name prefixes YHW
[jeho] and YH [jo] can be explained from the form "Yahweh".
Gesenius's proposal to read YHWH as יַהְוֶה is accepted as
the best scholarly reconstructed vocalised Hebrew spelling of the
Main article: Theophory in the
Bible § Yah theophory
Yeho or "Yehō-" is the prefix form of "YHWH" used in Hebrew
theophoric names; the suffix form "Yahū" or "-Yehū" is just as
common, which has caused two opinions:
In former times (at least from c.1650 CE), the prefix
pronunciation "Yehō-" was sometimes connected with the full
pronunciation "Yehova", derived from combining the Masoretic vowel
points for "Adonai" with the consonantal tetragrammaton YHWH.
Recently, as "Yahweh" is likely an imperfective verb form, "Yahu" is
its corresponding preterite or jussive short form: compare yiŝtahaweh
(imperfective), yiŝtáhû (preterit or jussive short form) = "do
The first argument is believed by
George Wesley Buchanan in Biblical
Archaeology Review; Smith's 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible;
Section # 2.1 The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon (1848)
in its article הוה.
The second argument is supported on grammatical grounds because
shortening to "Yahw" would end up as "Yahu" or something similar, and
forms like Yo (יוֹ) contracted from Yeho (יְהוֹ) and the
suffix "-yah", as well as "Yeho-" or "Yo" can most readily be
explained as derivatives of "Yahweh" rather than from "Yehovah".
Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to
The oldest known inscription of the tetragrammaton dates to
840 BCE, on the Mesha Stele. It bears the earliest certain
extra-biblical reference to the Israelite
God Yahweh. The most
recent discovery of a tetragrammaton inscription, dating to the 6th
century BCE, was found written in Hebrew on two silver scrolls
recovered from Jerusalem.
Scholarly texts of the Hebrew Bible
In the Hebrew Bible, the tetragrammaton occurs 6828 times,:142 as
can be seen in the Biblia Hebraica and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.
In addition, on the margins there are notes (masorah[note 1])
indicating that in 134 places the soferim (Jewish scribes) altered the
original Hebrew text from YHWH to Adonai[note 2] and 8
places to Elohim, which would add 142 occurrences to the initial
number above. According to Brown–Driver–Briggs,
יְהֹוָה (Qr אֲדֹנָי) occurs 6,518 times, and
יֱהֹוִה (Qr אֱלֹהִים) occurs 305 times in the
Masoretic Text. It first appears in Hebrew in the Book of Genesis
2:4. The only books it does not appear in are Ecclesiastes, the
Book of Esther, and Song of Songs.
Book of Esther
Book of Esther the
Tetragrammaton does not appear, but it is
present in four complex acrostics in Hebrew: the initial or last
letters of four consecutive words, either forwards or backwards
comprise YHWH. These letters were distinguished in at least three
ancient Hebrew manuscripts in red.[note 3] Another acrostic
Tetragrammaton also composed the first four words of
Jah occurs 50 times: 43 times in the Psalms, one in
Exodus 15:2; 17:16; Isaiah 12:2; 26:4, and twice in Isaiah 38:11. It
also appears in the Greek phrase Ἁλληλουϊά (hallelujah) in
God's name is also found in the
Bible as a component in theophoric
Hebrew names. Some may have had at the beginning of the form: jô- or
jehô- (29 names), and the other at the end: jāhû- or jāh- (127
names). One name is a form of jehô as the second syllable (Elioenaj,
Onomastic Studies indicate that
theophoric names containing the
Tetragrammaton were very popular
during the monarchy (8th–7th centuries BCE).[note 4] The popular
names with the prefix jô-/jehô- diminished, while the suffix
jāhû-/jāh- increased. The
Septuagint typically translates YHWH
as kyrios "Lord".
Below are the number of occurrences of the
Tetragrammaton in various
books in the Masoretic Text.
Six Hebrew spellings of the tetragrammaton are found in the Leningrad
Codex of 1008–1010, as shown below. The entries in the Close
Transcription column are not intended to indicate how the name was
intended to be pronounced by the Masoretes, but only how the word
would be pronounced if read without qere perpetuum.
Chapter and verse
This is the first occurrence of the tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Bible
and shows the most common set of vowels used in the Masoretic text. It
is the same as the form used in Genesis 3:14 below, but with the dot
over the holam/waw left out, because it is a little redundant.
This is a set of vowels used rarely in the Masoretic text, and are
essentially the vowels from
Adonai (with the hataf patakh reverting to
its natural state as a shewa).
When the tetragrammaton is preceded by Adonai, it receives the vowels
from the name
Elohim instead. The hataf segol does not revert to a
shewa because doing so could lead to confusion with the vowels in
Just as above, this uses the vowels from Elohim, but like the second
version, the dot over the holam/waw is omitted as redundant.
1 Kings 2:26
Here, the dot over the holam/waw is present, but the hataf segol does
get reverted to a shewa.
Here, the dot over the holam/waw is omitted, and the hataf segol gets
reverted to a shewa.
ĕ is hataf segol; ǝ is the pronounced form of plain shva.
The o diacritic dot over the letter waw is often omitted because it
plays no useful role in distinguishing between the two intended
Elohim (which both happen to have an o vowel
in the same position).
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls and other Hebrew and Aramaic texts the
tetragrammaton and some other names of
God in Judaism (such as El or
Elohim) were sometimes written in paleo-Hebrew script, showing that
they were treated specially. Most of God's names were pronounced until
about the 2nd century BCE. Then, as a tradition of non-pronunciation
of the names developed, alternatives for the tetragrammaton appeared,
such as Adonai, Kurios and Theos. The 4Q120, a Greek fragment of
Leviticus (26:2–16) discovered in the Dead Sea scrolls (Qumran) has
ιαω ("Iao"), the Greek form of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW. The
John the Lydian (6th century) wrote: "The Roman Varo
[116–27 BCE] defining him [that is the Jewish god] says that he
is called Iao in the Chaldean mysteries" (De Mensibus IV 53). Van
Cooten mentions that Iao is one of the "specifically Jewish
designations for God" and "the Aramaic papyri from the
Elephantine show that 'Iao' is an original Jewish term".
The preserved manuscripts from Qumran show the inconsistent practice
of writing the tetragrammaton, mainly in biblical quotations: in some
manuscripts is written in paleo-Hebrew script, square scripts or
replaced with four dots or dashes (tetrapuncta).
The members of the Qumran community were aware of the existence of the
tetragrammaton, but this was not tantamount to granting consent for
its existing use and speaking. This is evidenced not only by special
treatment of the tetragrammaton in the text, but by the recommendation
recorded in the 'Rule of Association' (VI, 27): "Who will remember the
most glorious name, which is above all [...]".
The table below presents all the manuscripts in which the
tetragrammaton is written in paleo-Hebrew script,[note 5] in square
scripts, and all the manuscripts in which the copyists have used
Copyists used the 'tetrapuncta' apparently to warn against pronouncing
the name of God. In the manuscript number 4Q248 is in the form of
1Q11 (1QPsb) 2–5 3 (link: )
2Q13 (2QJer) (link: )
1QS VIII 14 (link: )
1Q14 (1QpMic) 1–5 1, 2 (link: )
4Q27 (4QNumb) (link: )
1QIsaa XXXIII 7, XXXV 15 (link: )
1QpHab VI 14; X 7, 14; XI 10 (link: )
4Q37 (4QDeutj) (link: )
4Q53 (4QSamc) 13 III 7, 7 (link: )
1Q15 (1QpZeph) 3, 4 (link: )
4Q78 (4QXIIc) (link: )
4Q175 (4QTest) 1, 19
2Q3 (2QExodb) 2 2; 7 1; 8 3 (link:  )
4Q96 (4QPso (link: )
4Q176 (4QTanḥ) 1–2 i 6, 7, 9; 1–2 ii 3; 8–10 6, 8, 10 (link:
3Q3 (3QLam) 1 2 (link: )
4Q158 (4QRPa) (link: )
4Q196 (4QpapToba ar) 17 i 5; 18 15 (link: )
4Q20 (4QExodj) 1–2 3 (link: )
4Q163 (4Qpap pIsac) I 19; II 6; 15–16 1; 21 9; III 3, 9; 25 7 (link:
4Q248 (history of the kings of Greece) 5 (link: )
4Q26b (4QLevg) linia 8 (link: )
4QpNah (4Q169) II 10 (link: )
4Q306 (4QMen of People Who Err) 3 5 (link: )
4Q38a (4QDeutk2) 5 6 (link: )
4Q173 (4QpPsb) 4 2 (link: )
4Q382 (4QparaKings et al.) 9+11 5; 78 2
4Q57 (4QIsac) (link: )
4Q177 (4QCatena A) (link: )
4Q391 (4Qpap Pseudo-Ezechiel) 36, 52, 55, 58, 65 (link: )
4Q161 (4QpIsaa) 8–10 13 (link: )
4Q215a (4QTime of Righteousness) (link: )
4Q462 (4QNarrative C) 7; 12 (link: )
4Q165 (4QpIsae) 6 4 (link: )
4Q222 (4QJubg) (link: )
4Q524 (4QTb)) 6–13 4, 5 (link: )
4Q171 (4QpPsa) II 4, 12, 24; III 14, 15; IV 7, 10, 19 (link: )
4Q225 (4QPsJuba) (link: )
XḤev/SeEschat Hymn (XḤev/Se 6) 2 7
11Q2 (11QLevb) 2 2, 6, 7 (link: )
4Q365 (4QRPc) (link: )
11Q5 (11QPsa) (link: )
4Q377 (4QApocryphal Pentateuch B) 2 ii 3, 5 (link: )
4Q382 (4Qpap paraKings) (link: )
11Q6 (11QPsb) (link: )
11Q7 (11QPsc) (link: )
11Q20 (11QTb) (link: )
11Q11 (11QapocrPs) (link: )
The occurrence of the
Tetragrammaton in some manuscripts at
The date of composition is an estimate according to Peter Muchowski,
as found in "Commentaries to the Manuscripts of the Dead Sea" by
Emanuel Tov in "Scribal Practices and Approaches, Reflected in the
Texts Found in the Judean Desert".
Manuscripts in blue have written the
Tetragrammaton in tetrapuncta
Manuscripts in green have written the
Tetragrammaton in paleo-Hebrew
Manuscripts in red have written the
Tetragrammaton in square
The numbers on the horizontal line are the approximate year the
manuscripts was produced.
The spellings of the tetragrammaton occur among the many combinations
and permutations of names of powerful agents that occur in Jewish
magical papyri found in Egypt. One of these forms is the heptagram
ιαωουηε. In the Jewish magical papyri, Iave and Iαβα
Yaba occurs frequently.
Yawe is found in an Ethiopian Christian list of magical names of
Jesus, purporting to have been taught by him to his disciples.
Septuagint and other Greek translations
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on 8HevXII
The oldest complete
Septuagint (B, א, A) versions from fourth century
onwards consistently use Κύριος ("Lord"), or Θεός
("God"), where the Hebrew has YHWH, corresponding to
Adonai for YHWH in reading the original. The use of
Κύριος for translating YHWH was not common in LXX manuscripts
before that time. In books written in Greek (e.g., Wisdom, 2 and 3
Maccabees), as in the New Testament, Κύριος takes the place of
the name of God. However, the oldest fragments had the tetragrammaton
in Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew characters, with the exception of P.
Ryl. 458 (perhaps the oldest extant
Septuagint manuscript) where there
are blank spaces, leading some scholars such as Colin Henderson
Roberts to believe that it contained letters. According to Paul E.
Kahle, the tetragrammaton must have been written in the manuscript
where these breaks or blank spaces appear. Albert Pietersma claim
that P. Ryl. 458 is not important for their discussion of
tetragrammaton, but he mentions it for ancient and for one surmise,
since, all the contemporary ancient manuscripts present any form of
divine name. Other oldest fragments of manuscripts cannot be used
in discussions because, in addition to its small text and its
fragmentary condition, it does not include any
Hebrew Bible verses
Tetragrammaton appears (i.e. 4Q119, 4Q121, 4Q122, 7Q5). The
claim that 4Q126 has Κύριος is implausible, because its text is
unidentified, appearing this title (Kyrios) replacing the divine
name from the third century onwards (i.e. P.Oxy656, P.Oxy1075 and
P.Oxy1166). 4Q126 is not considered a biblical manuscript.
Septuagint as now known, the word Κύριος (Kyrios)
without the definite article is used to represent the divine name, but
it is uncertain whether this was the Septuagint's original
Origen (Commentary on Psalms 2.2) and
Galeatus) said that in their time the best manuscripts gave not the
word Κύριος but the tetragrammaton itself written in an older
form of the Hebrew characters. No Jewish manuscript of the
Septuagint has been found with Κύριος representing the
tetragrammaton, and it has been argued, but not widely accepted, that
the use of Κύριος shows that later copies of the
of Christian character, and even that the composition of the New
Testament preceded the change to Κύριος in the Septuagint.
Its consistent use of Κύριος to represent the tetragrammaton has
been called "a distinguishing mark for any Christian LXX
manuscript", However, a passage recorded in the Hebrew Tosefta,
Shabbat 13:5 (written c. 300 CE), quoting
Tarfon (who lived
between 70 and 135 CE) is sometimes cited to suggest that early
Christian writings or copies contained the Tetragrammaton.
In earliest copies of the Septuagint, the tetragrammaton in either
Hebrew or paleo-Hebrew letters is used. The tetragrammaton occurs in
the following texts:
Papyrus Rylands 458
Papyrus Rylands 458 – contains fragments of Deuteronomy. Has blank
spaces where the copyist probably had to write the tetragrammaton. It
has been dated to 2nd century BCE.
Papyrus Fouad 266b (848) – contains fragments of Deuteronomy,
chapters 10 to 33, dated to 1st century BCE. Apparently the first
copyist left a blank space and marked with a dot, and the other
inscribed letters, but not all scholars agree to this view.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 – contains chapter 42 of the Book of Job
and the tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew letters. It has been
dated to the 1st century BCE.
8HevXII gr – dated to the 1st century CE, includes three fragments
Se2grXII (LXXIEJ 12) has
Tetragrammaton in 1 place
8HevXII a (LXXVTS 10a) in 24 places, whole or in part.
8HevXII b (LXXVTS 10b) in 4 places.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101 – contains fragments of the Book of Psalms.
It has been dated between year 50 and 150 CE
4QpapLXXLevb – contains fragments of the Book of Leviticus, chapters
1 to 5. In two verses: 3:12; 4:27 the tetragrammaton appears in the
form ΙΑΩ. This manuscript is dated to the 1st century BCE.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656 – containing fragments of the Book of
Genesis, chapters 14 to 27. A second copyist wrote Kyrios. It is dated
to the late 2nd or early 3rd century CE.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1007 – this manuscript in vitela form contains
Genesis 2 and 3. The divine name is written with a double yodh. It has
been assigned palaeographically to the 3rd century.
Papyrus Berlin 17213 – containing fragments of the Book of Genesis,
chapter 19. Contains a blank space for the name of
Emanuel Tov thinks that it is a free space ending
paragraph. It has been dated to 3rd century CE.
Taylor-Schechter 16.320 – tetragrammaton in Hebrew, 550 –
Codex Marchalianus – has the divine name on marginal notes in Greek
letters ΠΙΠΙ, and is the only another manuscripts with ΙΑΩ. It
is a 6th-century Greek manuscript.
Taylor-Schechter 12.182 – a
Hexapla manuscript with tetragrammaton
in Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ. It is from 7th-century.
Ambrosiano O 39 sup. – the latest Greek manuscript containing the
God is Origen's Hexapla, transmitting among other translations
the text of the Septuagint. This codex comes from the late 9th
century, and is stored in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.
In some earlier Greek copies of the
Bible translated in the 2nd
century CE by Symmachus and Aquila of Sinope, the tetragrammaton
occurs. The following manuscripts contain the divine name:
Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek 39777, the P.Vindob.G.39777 – dated to
late 3rd century or beginning 4th century.
AqTaylor, this is a
Septuagint manuscript dated after the middle of
the 5th century, but not later than the beginning of the 6th century.
AqBurkitt – a palimpsest manuscript of the
Septuagint dated late 5th
century or early 6th century.
Sidney Jellicoe concluded that "Kahle is right in holding that LXX
[Septuagint] texts, written by
Jews for Jews, retained the divine name
in Hebrew Letters (paleo-Hebrew or Aramaic) or in the Greek-letters
imitative form ΠΙΠΙ, and that its replacement by Κύριος was
a Christian innovation". Jellicoe draws together evidence from a
great many scholars (B. J. Roberts, Baudissin, Kahle and C. H.
Roberts) and various segments of the
Septuagint to draw the
conclusions that the absence of "Adonai" from the text suggests that
the insertion of the term
Kyrios was a later practice; in the
Kyrios is used to substitute YHWH; and the tetragrammaton
appeared in the original text, but Christian copyists removed
Jerome (translator of the Vulgate) used the Hexapla. Both
attest to the importance of the sacred Name and that some manuscripts
Septuagint contained the tetragrammaton in Hebrew letters.[citation
needed] This is further affirmed by The New International
New Testament Theology, which states "Recently
discovered texts doubt the idea that the translators of the LXX
(Septuagint) have rendered the tetragrammaton JHWH with KYRIOS. The
most ancient available manuscripts of the LXX have the tetragrammaton
written in Hebrew letters in the Greek text. This was a custom
preserved by the later Hebrew translator of the
Old Testament in the
first centuries (after Christ)"
Tetragrammaton in the New Testament
No Greek manuscript of the
New Testament uses the
tetragrammaton.:77 In all its quotations of
Old Testament texts
that have the tetragrammaton in Hebrew the
New Testament uses the
Greek word Κύριος (Kyrios). However, within the New Testament
the name that the tetragrammaton represents underlies the names of
some of the people mentioned (such as Zachary and Elijah), and the
name appears in the abbreviated form Yah in the Greek phrase
Ἁλληλουϊά (hallelujah) in Revelation 19:1–6.
In 1977, Professor George Howard in the pages of the Journal of
Biblical Literature published a thesis of the presence of the
Tetragrammaton in the biblical quotations cited by the writers of the
New Testament, giving two sets of evidence:
In pre-Christian manuscripts of the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible
Tetragrammaton (Papyrus Fouad 266; fragments of the scroll
8HevXII gr, (LXXVTS 10a, LXXVTS 10b, Se2grXII) containing the Twelve
Prophets found in Nahal Hever, 4QLXXLevb) and other Jewish
translations of the
Hebrew Bible into Greek, represented by
translations of Aquila,
Theodotion and Symmachus;
Nomina sacra (ΚΣ and ΘΣ) occurring in the early copies of the LXX
in place of the Tetragrammaton, apparently created by the Christians
of pagan origin. They knew Hebrew and it was difficult to them to save
the Tetragrammaton. So they decided to use the shortened ΚΣ
(κυριος – Lord) and ΘΣ (θεος – God), as to conform to
the original spelling of the Tetragrammaton. It is not known whether
and how this practice was influenced by the later trinitarian debates.
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-
rendering the name as "IEVE"
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles,
France. This example has the vowel points of "Elohim".
According to the
Catholic Encyclopedia (1910) and B.D.
Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) writes Ἰαῶ (Iao);
Irenaeus (d. c. 202) reports that the Gnostics formed a compound
Ἰαωθ (Iaoth) with the last syllable of Sabaoth. He also
reports that the Valentinian heretics use Ἰαῶ (Iao);
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria (d. c. 215) writes Ἰαοὺ (Iaou)—see
Origen (d. c. 254), Ἰαώ (Iao);
Porphyry (d. c. 305) according to
Eusebius (died 339), Ἰευώ
Epiphanius (died 404), who was born in Palestine and spent a
considerable part of his life there, gives Ἰά (Ia) and Ἰάβε
(Iabe) and explains Ἰάβε as meaning He who was and is and always
Jerome (4th/5th century), (tetragrammaton) can be read
Theodoret (d. c. 457) writes Ἰαώ (Iao); he also reports
Samaritans say Ἰαβέ or Ἰαβαί (both pronounced at
that time /ja'vε/), while the
Jews say Ἀϊά (Aia). (The latter
is probably not יהוה but אהיה Ehyeh = "I am " or "I will
be", Exod. 3:14 which the
Jews counted among the names of God.)
Jacob of Edessa (died 708), Jehjeh;
Jerome (died 420) speaks of certain Greek writers who
misunderstood the Hebrew letters יהוה (read right-to-left) as
the Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ (read left-to-right), thus changing YHWH to
A window featuring the Hebrew tetragrammaton יְהֹוָה in
Peshitta (Syriac translation), probably in the second century,
uses the word "Lord" (ܡܳܪܝܳܐ, pronounced moryo) for the
Latin translation) made from the Hebrew in the 4th
century CE, uses the word Dominus ("Lord"), a translation of the
Hebrew word Adonai, for the tetragrammaton.
Vulgate translation, though made not from the
Septuagint but from
the Hebrew text, did not depart from the practice used in the
Septuagint. Thus, for most of its history, Christianity's translations
of the Scriptures have used equivalents of
Adonai to represent the
tetragrammaton. Only at about the beginning of the 16th century did
Christian translations of the
Bible appear with transliterations of
Usage in religious traditions
Main article: Genizah
Especially due to the existence of the Mesha Stele, the Jahwist
tradition found in Exod. 3:15, and ancient Hebrew and Greek texts,
biblical scholars widely hold that the tetragrammaton and other names
God were spoken by the ancient
Israelites and their
Some time after the destruction of Solomon's Temple, the spoken use of
God's name as it was written ceased among the people, even though
knowledge of the pronunciation was perpetuated in rabbinic
Talmud relays this occurred after the death of Simeon
the Just (either Simon I or his great-great-grandson Simon II).
Philo calls it ineffable, and says that it is lawful for those only
whose ears and tongues are purified by wisdom to hear and utter it in
a holy place (that is, for priests in the Temple). In another passage,
commenting on Lev. xxiv. 15 seq.: "If any one, I do not say should
blaspheme against the
Lord of men and gods, but should even dare to
utter his name unseasonably, let him expect the penalty of death."
Rabbinic sources suggest that the name of
God was pronounced only once
a year, by the high priest, on the Day of Atonement. Others,
including Maimonides, claim that the name was pronounced daily in
the liturgy of the
Temple in the priestly benediction of worshippers
(Num. vi. 27), after the daily sacrifice; in the synagogues, though, a
substitute (probably "Adonai") was used. According to the Talmud,
in the last generations before the fall of Jerusalem, the name was
pronounced in a low tone so that the sounds were lost in the chant of
the priests. Since the destruction of Second
Temple of Jerusalem
in 70 CE, the tetragrammaton has no longer been pronounced in the
liturgy. However the pronunciation was still known in
Babylonia in the
latter part of the 4th century.
The vehemence with which the utterance of the name is denounced in the
Mishnah suggests that use of
Yahweh was unacceptable in rabbinical
Judaism. "He who pronounces the Name with its own letters has no part
in the world to come!" Such is the prohibition of pronouncing the
Name as written that it is sometimes called the "Ineffable",
"Unutterable", or "Distinctive Name".
Halakha prescribes that whereas the Name written "yodh he waw he", it
is only to be pronounced "Adonai"; and the latter name too is regarded
as a holy name, and is only to be pronounced in prayer. Thus
when someone wants to refer in third person to either the written or
spoken Name, the term HaShem "the Name" is used; and this
handle itself can also be used in prayer. The
vowel points (niqqud) and cantillation marks to the manuscripts to
indicate vowel usage and for use in ritual chanting of readings from
Jewish prayer in synagogues. To יהוה they added
the vowels for "Adonai" ("My Lord"), the word to use when the text was
read. While "HaShem" is the most common way to reference "the Name",
the terms "HaMaqom" (lit. "The Place", i.e. "The Omnipresent") and
"Raḥmana" (Aramaic, "Merciful") are used in the mishna and gemara,
still used in the phrases "HaMaqom y'naḥem ethḥem" ("may The
Omnipresent console you"), the traditional phrase used in sitting
Shiva and "Raḥmana l'tzlan" ("may the Merciful save us" i.e. "God
The written tetragrammaton, as well as six other names of God,
must be treated with special sanctity. They cannot be disposed of
regularly, lest they be desecrated, but are usually put in long term
storage or buried in Jewish cemeteries in order to retire them from
use. Similarly, it is prohibited to write the tetragrammaton (or
these other names) unnecessarily. To guard the sanctity of the Name
sometimes a letter is substituted by a different letter in writing
(e.g. יקוק), or the letters are separated by one or more hyphens.
Jews are stringent and extend the above safeguard by also not
writing out other names of
God in other languages, for example writing
"God" in English as "G-d". However this is beyond the letter of the
Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy
Kabbalistic tradition holds that the correct pronunciation is known to
a select few people in each generation, it is not generally known what
this pronunciation is. In late kabbalistic works the tetragrammaton is
sometimes referred to as the name of Havayah—הוי'ה, meaning "the
Name of Being/Existence". This name also helps when one needs to refer
specifically to the written Name; similarly, "Shem Adonoot", meaning
"the Name of Lordship" can be used to refer to the spoken name
"Adonai" specifically.
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, says that the tree of the tetragrammaton
"unfolds" in accordance with the intrinsic nature of its letters, "in
the same order in which they appear in the Name, in the mystery of ten
and the mystery of four." Namely, the upper cusp of the Yod is Arich
Anpin and the main body of Yod is and Abba; the first Hei is Imma; the
Vav is Ze`ir Anpin and the second Hei is Nukvah. It unfolds in this
aforementioned order and "in the mystery of the four expansions" that
are constituted by the following various spellings of the letters:
ע"ב/`AV : יו"ד ה"י וי"ו ה"י, so called "`AV"
according to its gematria value ע"ב=70+2=72.
ס"ג/SaG: יו"ד ה"י וא"ו ה"י, gematria 63.
מ"ה/MaH: יו"ד ה"א וא"ו ה"א, gematria 45.
ב"ן/BaN: יו"ד ה"ה ו"ו ה"ה, gematria 52.
Luzzatto summarises, "In sum, all that exists is founded on the
mystery of this Name and upon the mystery of these letters of which it
consists. This means that all the different orders and laws are all
drawn after and come under the order of these four letters. This is
not one particular pathway but rather the general path, which includes
everything that exists in the
Sefirot in all their details and which
brings everything under its order."
Another parallel is drawn[by whom?] between the four letters of the
tetragrammaton and the Four Worlds: the י is associated with
Atziluth, the first ה with Beri'ah, the ו with Yetzirah, and final
ה with Assiah.
A tetractys of the letters of the
Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by
There are some[who?] who believe that the tetractys and its mysteries
influenced the early kabbalists. A Hebrew tetractys in a similar way
has the letters of the tetragrammaton (the four lettered name of God
in Hebrew scripture) inscribed on the ten positions of the tetractys,
from right to left. It has been argued that the
Kabbalistic Tree of
Life, with its ten spheres of emanation, is in some way connected to
the tetractys, but its form is not that of a triangle. The occult
Dion Fortune says:
"The point is assigned to Kether;
the line to Chokmah;
the two-dimensional plane to Binah;
consequently the three-dimensional solid naturally falls to
(The first three-dimensional solid is the tetrahedron.)
The relationship between geometrical shapes and the first four
Sephirot is analogous to the geometrical correlations in tetractys,
shown above under Pythagorean Symbol, and unveils the relevance of the
Tree of Life with the tetractys.
Samaritans shared the taboo of the
Jews about the utterance of the
name, and there is no evidence that its pronunciation was common
Samaritan practice. However Sanhedrin 10:1 includes the
comment of Rabbi Mana II, "for example those Kutim who take an oath"
would also have no share in the world to come, which suggests that
Mana thought some
Samaritans used the name in making oaths. (Their
priests have preserved a liturgical pronunciation "Yahwe" or "Yahwa"
to the present day.) As with Jews, the use of Shema (שמא "the
Name") remains the everyday usage of the name among Samaritans, akin
to Hebrew "the Name" (Hebrew השם "HaShem").
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle,
detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868
Episcopal Church in Iowa
It is assumed that early
Jewish Christians inherited from
practice of reading "Lord" where the tetragrammaton appeared in the
Hebrew text, or where a tetragrammaton may have been marked in a Greek
text. Gentile Christians, primarily non-Hebrew speaking and using
Greek texts, may have read "Lord" as it occurred in the Greek text of
New Testament and their copies of the Greek Old Testament. This
practice continued into the
Vulgate where "Lord" represented the
tetragrammaton in the
Latin text. In Petrus Alphonsi's
Trinity diagram, the name is written as "Ieve". At the
Reformation, the Luther
Bible used "Jehova" in the German text of
Luther's Old Testament.
As mentioned above, the
Septuagint (Greek translation), the Vulgate
Latin translation), and the
Peshitta (Syriac translation) use the
word "Lord" (κύριος, kyrios, dominus, and ܡܳܪܝܳܐ, moryo
Use of the
Septuagint by Christians in polemics with
Jews led to its
abandonment by the latter, making it a specifically Christian text.
From it Christians made translations into Coptic, Arabic, Slavonic and
other languages used in
Oriental Orthodoxy and the Eastern Orthodox
Church, whose liturgies and doctrinal declarations are
largely a cento of texts from the Septuagint, which they consider to
be inspired at least as much as the Masoretic Text. Within
the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek text remains the norm for texts
in all languages, with particular reference to the wording used in
The Septuagint, with its use of Κύριος to represent the
tetragrammaton, was the basis also for Christian translations
associated with the West, in particular the Vetus Itala, which
survives in some parts of the liturgy of the
Latin Church, and the
Christian translations of the
Bible into English commonly use "LORD"
in place of the tetragrammaton in most passages, often in small
capitals (or in all caps), so as to distinguish it from other words
translated as "Lord".
Emphatic Diaglott (1864) a translation of the
New Testament by
Benjamin Wilson, the name
Jehovah appears eighteen times.
Bible In Basic English (1949/1964) uses "Yahweh" eight times,
including Exodus 6:2–3.
Bible (1966) uses "Yahweh" in 6,823 places in the Old
The New English
Bible (NT 1961, OT 1970) generally uses the word
"LORD" but uses "JEHOVAH" several times. For examples of both forms,
see Exodus Chapter 3 and footnote to verse 15.
New International Version
New International Version (1973/1978/1983/2011) generally uses
"the LORD," though in Exodus 3:14, the tetragrammaton is thrice
translated "I AM." In the Old Testament, when immediately preceded by
אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), the two words are translated "the Sovereign
Bible (1985) uses "Yahweh" in 6,823 places in the
Bible (1954/1987). At Exodus 6:3 the AB says "but by My
Lord [Yahweh—the redemptive name of God] I did not make
Myself known to them."
Bible (1971). "Jehovah" or "Lord".
Young's Literal Translation
Young's Literal Translation (1862/1898) (Version) – "Jehovah"
since Genesis 2:4
The Holman Christian Standard
Bible (1999/2002) uses "Yahweh" over 50
times, including Exodus 6:2.
The World English
Bible (WEB) (1997) [a Public Domain work with no
copyright] uses "Yahweh" some 6837 times.
New Living Translation
New Living Translation (1996/2004) uses "Yahweh" ten times,
including Exodus 6:2–3. The Preface of the New Living Translation:
Second Edition says that in a few cases they have used the name Yahweh
(for example 3:15; 6:2–3).
Bible (1902) retains "Yahweh" throughout the
Bible (in progress) retains "Yahweh" throughout the Old
King James Version
King James Version (1611) –
Jehovah appears seven times, i.e.
four times as "JEHOVAH", Exodus 6:3; Psalm 83:18; Isaiah 12:2; 26:4,
and three times as a part of Hebrew place-names Genesis 22:14; Exodus
17:15; Judges 6:24.
Note: Elsewhere in the KJV, "LORD" is generally used. But in verses
such as Genesis 15:2; 28:13; Psalm 71:5; Amos 1:8; 9:5, where this
practice would result in "
Lord LORD" (Hebrew: Adonay JHVH) or "LORD
Lord" (JHVH Adonay) the KJV translates the Hebrew text as '
or "LORD God". In the New Testament, when quoting Psalm 110:1, the
all-caps LORD for the
Tetragrammaton appears four times, where the
ordinary word "Lord" also appears: Matthew 22:44, Mark 12:36, Luke
20:42 and Acts 2:34.
American Standard Version
American Standard Version (1901) uses "Jehovah" in 6,823 places in
the Old Testament.
The New World Translation (1961/1984/2013), published by the
Bible and Tract Society, uses "Jehovah" in 7,216 places in
Old Testament and New Testament; 6,979 times in the Old
Testament and 237 in the New Testament—including 70 of the 78 times
New Testament quotes an
Old Testament passage containing the
Tetragrammaton, where the
Tetragrammaton does not appear in any extant
Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition
Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition (1981) used by adherents of the
God (Seventh Day) inserts the name
Yahweh in the Old and New
The Divine Name King James
Bible (2011) uses "Jehovah" in 6,973 places
and "Jah" in 50 places in the Old Testament. In addition, Jehovah
appears in parentheses in 128 places in the
New Testament wherever the
New Testament quotes an
Old Testament verse as a gloss (cross
reference), totalling to 7,151 places in all.
The Lexham English
Bible (2012) uses "Yahweh" throughout the Old
Green's Literal Translation
Green's Literal Translation (1985) uses "Jehovah" in 6,866 places in
the Old Testament.
Recovery Version (1999) uses "Jehovah" in 6,841 places in the Old
Bible (1890) by John Nelson Darby renders the Tetragrammaton
Jehovah 6,810 times.
Bible in Living English (1972) by Steven T. Byington, published by
Bible and Tract Society, renders the
"Jehovah" throughout the
Old Testament over 6,800 times.
The Names of
Bible (2011,2014) by Ann Spangler uses "Yahweh"
throughout the Old Testament.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church considers the
Septuagint text, which uses
Κύριος (Lord), to be the authoritative text of the Old
Testament, and in its liturgical books and prayers it uses
Κύριος in place of the tetragrammaton in texts derived from the
The tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of
St. Louis, King of France in Missouri
In the Catholic Church, the first edition of the official Vatican Nova
Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, editio typica, published in 1979,
used the traditional Dominus when rendering the tetragrammaton in the
overwhelming majority of places where it appears; however, it also
used the form Iahveh for rendering the tetragrammaton in three known
In the second edition of the
Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio,
editio typica altera, published in 1986, these few occurrences of the
form Iahveh were replaced with Dominus, in keeping with
the long-standing Catholic tradition of avoiding direct usage of the
On 29 June 2008, the
Holy See reacted to the then still recent
practice of pronouncing, within Catholic liturgy, the name of God
represented by the tetragrammaton. As examples of such vocalisation it
mentioned "Yahweh" and "Yehovah". The early Christians, it said,
followed the example of the
Septuagint in replacing the name of God
with "the Lord", a practice with important theological implications
for their use of "the Lord" in reference to Jesus, as in Philippians
2:9-11 and other
New Testament texts. It therefore directed that, "in
liturgical celebrations, in songs and prayers the name of
God in the
form of the tetragrammaton YHWH is neither to be used or pronounced";
and that translations of Biblical texts for liturgical use are to
follow the practice of the Greek
Septuagint and the
replacing the divine name with "the Lord" or, in some contexts,
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops welcomed
this instruction, adding that it "provides also an opportunity to
offer catechesis for the faithful as an encouragement to show
reverence for the Name of
God in daily life, emphasizing the power of
language as an act of devotion and worship".
God in Judaism
God in Islam
Pi - Film in which a man stumbles upon the "true" hidden name of God
^ masora parva (small) or masora marginalis are notes to the Masoretic
text, written in the margins of the left, right and between the
columns and the comments on the top and bottom margins to masora magna
C. D. Ginsburg
C. D. Ginsburg in The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, London
1880, vol I, p. 25, 26, § 115 lists the 134 places where this
practice is observed. Comparing this list with text by BHS can be
noted that BHS puts the
Tetragrammaton in the main text only in Psalm
^ These are Est 1:20; 5:4, 13 and 7:7. Additionally, Est 7:5 there is
an acrostic referring to the title of
God of Exodus 3:14.
^ This is shown, for example in Lachish letters, which is a list of
ten names, of which eight are just theoforics
^ In some manuscripts the tetragrammaton was replaced by the word
’El or ’
Elohim written in Paleo-Hebrew script, they are: 1QpMic
(1Q14) 12 3; 1QMyst (1Q27) II 11; 1QHa I (Suk. = Puech IX) 26; II (X)
34; VII (XV) 5; XV (VII) 25; 1QHb (1Q35) 1 5; 3QUnclassified fragments
(3Q14) 18 2; 4QpPsb (4Q173) 5 4; 4QAges of Creation A (4Q180) 1 1;
4QMidrEschate?(4Q183) 2 1; 3 1; fr. 1 kol. II 3; 4QSd (4Q258) IX 8;
4QDb (4Q267) fr. 9 kol. i 2; kol. iv 4; kol. v 4; 4QDc (4Q268) 1 9;
4QComposition Concerning Divine Providence (4Q413) fr. 1–2 2, 4; 6QD
(6Q15) 3 5; 6QpapHymn (6Q18) 6 5; 8 5; 10 3. W 4QShirShabbg (4Q406) 1
2; 3 2 występuje ’Elohim.
^ a b c d e Knight, Douglas A.; Levine, Amy-Jill (2011). The Meaning
of the Bible: What the Jewish Scriptures and Christian Old Testament
Can Teach Us (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne.
^ It originates from tetra "four" + γράμμα gramma (gen.
grammatos) "letter" "Online Etymology Dictionary".
^ Parke-Taylor, G.H. (1975). (Yehovah) Yahweh : the divine name
in the Bible. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
p. 79. ISBN 978-0889200135.
^ Josephus, The Jewish War, V:235
^ G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren, eds. (1979). Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 3. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
^ Norbert Samuelson (2006). Jewish Philosophy: An Historical
Introduction. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9244-9.
^ Lambdin, Thomas O.: Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, London: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1971.
^ A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the
Old Testament with an appendix
containing the Biblical Aramaic, written by Francis Brown, Samuel
Rolles Driver and Charles Augustus Briggs, based on the Hebrew lexicon
Wilhelm Gesenius as translated by Edward Robinson, Oxford: The
Clarendon Press, 1906, s. 218.
^ Paul Joüon and T. Muraoka. A Grammar of
Biblical Hebrew (Subsidia
Biblica). Part One: Orthography and Phonetics. Rome : Editrice
Pontificio Istituto Biblio, 1996. ISBN 978-8876535956. Quote from
Section 16(f)(1)" "The Qre is יְהֹוָה the Lord, whilst the Ktiv
is probably(1) יַהְוֶה (according to ancient witnesses)." "Note
1: In our translations, we have used Yahweh, a form widely accepted by
scholars, instead of the traditional Jehovah"
^ "AnsonLetter.htm". Members.fortunecity.com. Archived from the
original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ Smith's 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible
^ The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon by Benjamin Davidson
^ a b "Names Of God". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 18 November
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moore, George Foot (1911). 311 "Jehovah" in
Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 15. Edited by Hugh Chisholm (11th
^ Lemaire, Andre (May–June 1994). ""House of David" Restored in
Moabite Inscription" (PDF). Biblical Archaeology Review. Biblical
Archaeology Society. 20 (03). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31
^ C. D. Ginsburg. The Massorah. Translated into English with a
critical and exegetical commentary. IV. p. 28,§115.
^ Dr. E.W. Bullinger (1921). The Companion Bible. Appendix 32
From The Companion Bible
^ Steven Ortlepp (2010). Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton: A
Historico-Linguistic Approach. p. 60.
^ C. D. Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of
the Hebrew Bible, London 1897, s. 368, 369. These places are listed
in: C.D. Ginsburg, The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, vol I, p.
26, § 116.
^ Since the BHS and BHK already have the
Tetragrammaton in Psalm
68:26, this would make a total of 6,969 occurrences in the
Bible translator. vol. 56. United
Bible Societies. 2005.
p. 71. ; Nelson's expository dictionary of the Old
Testament. Merrill Frederick Unger, William White. 1980.
^ The Name of
Jehovah in the Book of Esther., appendix 60, Companion
Bible Gateway passage: תהילים 96:11 – The Westminster
^ G. Lisowsky, Konkordanz zum hebräischen Alten Testament, Stuttgart
1958, p. 1612. Basic information about the form Jāh, see L. Koehler,
W. Baumgartner, J.J. Stamm, Wielki słownik hebrajsko-polski i
aramejsko-polski Starego Testamentu (Great Dictionary of the
Hebrew-Aramaic-Polish and Polish Old Testament), Warszawa 2008, vol 1,
p. 327, code No. 3514.
^ A. Tronina, P. Walewski, Biblijne nazwy osobowe i topograficzne.
Słownik etymologiczny, (Biblical personal names and topographical
etymological dictionary) Częstochowa 2009, p. 109.
^ G. Buchanan, Studies in Hebrew proper names, London 1896, p. 163.
^ E. Jenni, C. Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament,
Hendrickson Publishers 1997, page 685.
^ "Genesis 2:4 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ "Genesis 3:14 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ "Judges 16:28 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ "Genesis 15:2 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ "1 Kings 2:26 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ "Ezekiel 24:24 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us.
Retrieved 18 November 2011.
^ Troyer, Kristin De (February 2005), lectio difficilior: The Names of
God. Their Pronunciation and Their Translation, ISSN 1661-3317,
retrieved 20 April 2013
^ Bezalel Porten, Archives from Elephantine: The life of an ancient
Jewish military colony, 1968, University of California Press, pp. 105,
^ Stern M., Greek and
Latin Authors on
Jews and Judaism (1974–84)
1:172; Schafer P., Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the
Jews in the
Ancient World (1997) 232; Cowley A., Aramaic Papyri of the 5th century
(1923); Kraeling E.G., The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New
Documents of the 5th century BCE from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine
^ Sufficient examination of the subject is available at Sean
McDonough's YHWH at Patmos (1999), pp 116 to 122 and George van
Kooten's The Revelation of the Name YHWH to Moses (2006), pp 114, 115,
126–136. It is worth mentioning a fundamental, though aged, source
about the subject: Adolf Deissmann's
Bible studies: Contributions
chiefly from papyri and inscriptions to the history of the language,
the literature, and the religion of Hellenistic Judaism and primitive
Christianity (1909), at chapter "Greek transcriptions of the
^ Translated by: P. Muchowski, Rękopisy znad Morza Martwego. Qumran
– Wadi Murabba‘at – Masada, Kraków 1996, pp. 31.
^ E. Tov, Scribal practices and approache's reflected in the texts
found in the Judean Desert, s. 206.
^ A complete list: A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11
(11QPsa), serie Discoveries of the Judaean Desert of Jordan IV, pp. 9.
^ B. Alfrink, La prononciation 'Jehova' du tétragramme, O.T.S. V
^ K. Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae, Leipzig-Berlin, I, 1928 and
^ T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint.
Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 72.
^ T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint.
Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 56.
^ :E. Hatch, H.A. Redpath (1975). A Concordance to the Septuagint: And
the Other Greek Versions of the
Old Testament (Including the
Apocryphal Books). I. pp. 630–648.
^ Robert A. Kraft. "Some Observations on Early Papyri and MSS for
^ The New International Dictionary of
New Testament Theology Volume 2,
^ Sidney Jellicoe (1968). The
Septuagint and Modern Study.
Eisenbrauns. pp. 271–2. ISBN 0-931464-00-5.
Paul E. Kahle (1959). The Cairo Geniza. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
p. 222. ISBN 0758162456.
^ Albert Pietersma (1984). KYRIOS OR TETRAGRAM: A RENEWED QUEST FOR
THE ORIGINAL LXX (PDF). Mississauga: Benben Publications.
^ Geza Vermes (2011). The Complete
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls in English (7th
Edition). Penguin, UK. ISBN 0141197323.
^ Larry W. Hurtado (2013). "The Divine Name and Greek
^ a b c d david. "THE SEPTUAGINT".
^ Sidney Jellicoe, The
Septuagint and Modern Study (Eisenbrauns 1968
ISBN 978-0-93146400-3), p. 271
^ Mogens Müller (1996). The First
Bible of the Church. The First
Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint, Volume 1 of Copenhagen
international seminar, Journal for the study of the Old Testament:
Supplement series, Issue 206 of Supplement series. A&C Black.
p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85075571-5.
^ Sean M. McDonough (1999). "2". The Use of the Name YHWH. YHWH at
Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting,
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. Mohr Siebeck.
p. 60. ISBN 978-31-6147055-4.
^ Eugen J. Pentiuc (2014).
Septuagint Manuscripts and Printed
Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Oxford
University Press USA. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19533123-3.
^ "Jewish Encyclopedia: GILYONIM". 1906.
^ Z. Aly, L. Koenen, Three Rolls of the Early Septuagint: Genesis and
Deuteronomy, Bonn 1980, s. 5, 6.
^ E. Tov, Scribal practices and approache's reflected in the texts
found in the Judean Desert, pp. 231.
^ Sidney Jellicoe,
Septuagint and Modern Study (Eisenbrauns, 1989,
ISBN 0-931464-00-5) pp. 271, 272.
^ Papyrus Grecs Bibliques, by Francoise Dunand, Cairo, 1966 pg. 47
^ Sean M. McDonough (2011). YHWH at Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its
Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting. Wipf and Stock Publishers.
p. 59. ISBN 1610971558.
^ G. Gertoux. THE USE OF THE NAME BY EARLY CHRISTIANS (PDF).
International Meeting Society of Biblical Literature. p. 3.
^ The New International Dictionary of
New Testament Theology, Vol.2,
pag.512 Colin Brown 1986
^ a b George Howard (March 1977). "The Tetragram and the New
Testament" (PDF). Journal of Biblical Literature. Athens G. A.:
University of Georgia. Vol. 96, No. 1: 63–83.
^ B.D. Eerdmans, The Name Jahu, O.T.S. V (1948) 1–29.
^ Anthony John Maas.
Jehovah (Yahweh) in The Catholic encyclopedia; an
international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine,
discipline, and history of the Catholic Church.
Special edition, under
the auspices of The Knights of Columbus Catholic Truth Committee.
Edited by Charles G. Herbermann [and others] Published 1907 by The
Encyclopedia Press in New York.
^ "Among the
Jews Moses referred his laws to the god who is invoked as
Iao (Gr. Ιαώ)." (Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica I, 94:2)
^ Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", II, xxxv, 3, in P. G., VII, col. 840.
^ Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", I, iv, 1, in P.G., VII, col. 481.
^ Clement, "Stromata", V, 6, in P.G., IX, col. 60.
^ Origen, "In Joh.", II, 1, in P.G., XIV, col. 105, where a footnote
says that the last part of the name of Jeremiah refers to what the
Samaritans expressed as Ἰαβαί,
Eusebius as Ἰευώ,
Theodoretus as Ἀϊά and the ancient Greeks as Ἰαώ.
Praeparatio evangelica I, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 72 A; and
also ibid. X, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 808 B.
^ Epiphanius, Panarion, I, iii, 40, in P.G., XLI, col. 685
^ "nomen Domini apud Hebraeos quatuor litterarum est, jod, he, vau,
he: quod proprie Dei vocabulum sonat: et legi potest JAHO, et Hebraei
ἄῤῥητον, id est, ineffabile opinatur." ("Breviarium in
Psalmos. Psalm. viii.", in P.L., XXVI, col. 838 A). This work was
traditionally attributed to Jerome, but authenticity has been doubted
or denied since modern times. But "now believed to be genuine and to
be dated before CE 392" ZATW (W. de Gruyter, 1936. page 266)
^ "the word Nethinim means in Hebrew 'gift of Iao', that is of the God
who is" (Theodoret, "Quaest. in I Paral.", cap. ix, in P. G., LXXX,
col. 805 C)
^ Theodoret, "Ex. quaest.", xv, in P. G., LXXX, col. 244 and "Haeret.
Fab.", V, iii, in P. G., LXXXIII, col. 460
^ cf. Lamy, "La science catholique", 1891, p. 196.
^ Jerome, "Ep. xxv ad Marcell.", in P. L., XXII, col. 429.
^ Sebastian P. Brock The
Bible in the Syriac Tradition St. Ephrem
Ecumenical Research Institute, 1988. Quote Page 17: "The
Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text, and
most Biblical scolars believe that the
New Testament directly
from the original Greek. The so-called ""deuterocanonical" books, or
"Apocrypha" were all translated from Greek, with ..."
^ a b c Joshua Bloch, The Authorship of the
Peshitta The American
Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1919
^ Adam Kamesar. Jerome, Greek Scholarship, and the Hebrew Bible: A
Study of the Quaestiones Hebraicae in Genesim. Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1993. ISBN 9780198147275. page 97.
^ In the 7th paragraph of Introduction to the
Old Testament of the New
English Bible, Sir Godfry Driver wrote, "The early translators
generally substituted 'Lord' for [YHWH]. [...] The Reformers preferred
Jehovah, which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530 A.D., in Tyndale's
translation of the Pentateuch (Exodus 6.3), from which it passed into
other Protestant Bibles."
^ Clifford Hubert Durousseau, "Yah: A Name of God" in Jewish Bible
Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 1, January–March 2014; same on Questia
^ Kristin De Troyer The Names of God, Their Pronunciation and Their
Translation, – lectio difficilior 2/2005.
^ Miller, Patrick D (2000). The Religion of Ancient Israel.
Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664221454.
^ Yoma; Tosef. Soṭah, xiii
^ The Cambridge History of Judaism: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period p
779 William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz – 2006
"(BT Kidd 7ia) The historical picture described above is probably
wrong because the Divine Names were a priestly ... Name was one of the
climaxes of the Sacred Service: it was entrusted exclusively to the
High Priest once a year on the "
Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings,
Chapter 14; http://www.chabad.org/dailystudy/rambam.asp?tDate=28 March
^ "Judaism 101 on the Name of God". jewfaq.org.
^ For example, see Saul Weiss and Joseph Dov Soloveitchik (February
2005). Insights of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. p. 9.
ISBN 978-0-7425-4469-7. and Minna Rozen (1992). Jewish
Identity and Society in the 17th century. p. 67.
^ M. Rösel The reading and translation of the divine name in the
Masoretic tradition and the Greek Pentateuch – Journal for the Study
of the Old Testament, 2007 "It is in this book that we find the
strictest prohibition against pronouncing the name of the Lord. The
Hebrew of 24.16, which may be translated as 'And he that
blasphemes/curses (3B?) the name of the
Lord (9H9J), he shall surely
be put to death', in the LXX is subjected to a ..."
^ "They [the Priests, when reciting the Priestly Blessing, when the
Temple stood] recite [God's] name – i.e., the name yod-hei-vav-hei,
as it is written. This is what is referred to as the 'explicit name'
in all sources. In the country [that is, outside the Temple], it is
read [using another one of God's names], א-ד-נ-י ('Adonai'), for
only in the
Temple is this name [of God] recited as it is written."
Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings,
^ Kiddushin 71a states, "I am not referred to as [My name] is written.
My name is written yod-hei-vav-hei and it is pronounced "Adonai."
^ a b Stanley S. Seidner,"HaShem: Uses through the Ages." Unpublished
paper, Rabbinical Society Seminar, Los Angeles, CA,1987.
^ For example, two common prayer books are titled "Tehillat Hashem"
and "Avodat Hashem." Or, a person may tell a friend, "Hashem helped me
to perform a great mitzvah today."
^ For example, in the common utterance and praise, "Barukh Hashem"
(Blessed [i.e. the source of all] is Hashem), or "Hashem yishmor" (God
^ See Deut. 12:2-4: "You must destroy all the sites at which the
nations you are to dispossess worshiped their gods...tear down their
altars...and cut down the images of their gods, obliterating their
name from that site. Do not do the same thing to Hashem (YHWH) your
^ "Based on the
Talmud (Shavuot 35a-b),
Maimonides (Hilkhot Yesodei
HaTorah, Chapter 6), and the Shulchan Arukh (Yoreh Deah 276:9) it is
prohibited to erase or obliterate the seven Hebrew names for
Torah (in addition to the above, there is E-l, E-loha,
^ Why Don't You Spell Out G-d's Name?, Aron Moss, Chabad.org
^ a b In קל"ח פתחי חכמה by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato,
Opening #31; English translation in book "138 Openings of Wisdom" by
Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, 2008, also viewable at
accessed 12 March 2012
^ The Mystical Qabalah, Dion Fortune, Chapter XVIII, 25
Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture: Volume 3 – Page
152 Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser – 2002 " In fact, there is no
proof in any other rabbinic writing that
Samaritans used to pronounce
the Divine Name when they took an oath. The only evidence for
Sarmaritans uttering the
Tetragrammaton at that ..."
^ A Catholic Handbook: Essentials for the 21st Century Page 51 William
C. Graham – 2010 "Why Do We No Longer Say Yahweh? The Vatican's
Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
directed in ... just as the Hebrews and early Christians substituted
other names for
Yahweh when reading Scripture aloud."
^ "BibliaHebraica.org, "The Septuagint"". Archived from the original
^ "HTC: An Orthodox Critique of
^ Donald Fairbarn, Eastern Orthodoxy through Western Eyes
(Westminister John Knox Press 2002 ISBN 978-0-66422497-4), p. 34
^ "Search the
Yahweh in BBE".
^ The Living Bible, "Jehovah" or "Lord" per text or footnotes. e.g.
Genesis 7:16; 8:21; Exodus 3:15.
^ "BibleGateway – : Yahweh".
^ Eugen J. Pentiuc. The
Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition,
p. 77. Oxford University Press (6 February 2014)
^ "Fatherhood of God" in The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox
Christianity, 2 Volume Set, Editor John Anthony McGuckin. Wiley 2010
^ "Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices fíliis Israel:
Iahveh (Qui est), Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac et
Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum, et hoc
memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem." (Exodus 3:15).
^ "Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Iahveh nomen eius!" (Exodus 15:3).
^ "Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Iahveh Nissi
(Dominus vexillum meum)" (Exodus 17:15).
^ "Exodus 3:15: Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices
fíliis Israel: Dominus, Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus
Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum,
et hoc memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem."
^ "Exodus 15:3: Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Dominus nomen eius!"
^ "Exodus 17:15: Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius
Dominus Nissi (Dominus vexillum meum)"
^ "Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of
the Sacraments (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 17 May 2016.
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Divine
Worship (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 15 May 2014.
Van der Toorn, Karel (1999). "Yahweh". In Van der Toorn, Karel;
Becking, Bob; Van der Horst, Pieter Willem. Dictionary of Deities and
Demons in the Bible. Eerdmans.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Moore, George Foot (1911). "Jehovah". In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Volume 15 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–314.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tetragrammaton.
Names of God
In Christianity • In Hinduism • In Islam •
In Judaism • In Zoroastrianism • In Chinese religion
I Am that I Am