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Khan Tervel (Bulgarian: Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
at the beginning of the 8th century. In 705 Emperor Justinian II
Justinian II
named him Caesar, the first foreigner to receive this title.[1][2] He was probably a Christian like his grandfather Khan Kubrat.[1][3][4] Tervel played an important role in defeating the Arabs during the Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 717–718. The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans
Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans
states that Tervel belonged to the Dulo clan
Dulo clan
and reigned for 21 years. According to the chronology developed by Moskov, Tervel would have reigned 695–715. Other chronologies place his reign in 701–718 or 700–721, but cannot be reconciled with the testimony of the Imennik. The testimony of the source and some later traditions allow identifying Tervel as the son and heir of his predecessor Asparukh, who had perhaps died in battle against the Khazars. The Emperor Tervel is a Bulgarian Saint, painted in many medieval and renaissance frescoes in many churches and monasteries in Bulgaria. [5][page needed][not in citation given]

Contents

1 Alliance with Justinian II 2 The war with the Arabs in 717–718 and later life 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Alliance with Justinian II[edit] See also: Battle of Anchialus (708)
Battle of Anchialus (708)
and Madara Rider Tervel is first mentioned in the Byzantine sources in 704, when he was approached by the deposed and exiled Byzantine emperor Justinian II. Justinian acquired Tervel's support for an attempted restoration to the Byzantine throne in exchange for friendship, gifts, and his daughter in marriage. With an army of 15,000 horsemen provided by Tervel, Justinian suddenly advanced on Constantinople
Constantinople
and managed to gain entrance into the city in 705. The restored emperor executed his supplanters, the emperors Leontius and Tiberius III, alongside many of their supporters. Justinian awarded Tervel with many gifts, the title of kaisar (Caesar), which made him second only to the emperor and the first foreign ruler in Byzantine history to receive such a title, and a territorial concession in northeastern Thrace, a region called Zagora. Whether Justinian's daughter Anastasia was married to Tervel as had been arranged is unknown.

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during the rule of Tervel. The territorial expansion of 705 can be seen on the map.

Only three years later, however, when Justinian II
Justinian II
consolidated his throne he violated this arrangement and commenced military operations to recover the ceded area but Khan Tervel routed the Byzantines at the Battle of Anchialus (near present-day Pomorie) in 708. In 711, faced by a serious revolt in Asia Minor, Justinian again sought the aid of Tervel, but obtained only lukewarm support manifested in an army of 3,000. Outmaneuvered by the rebel emperor Philippicus, Justinian was captured and executed, while his Bulgarian allies were allowed to retire to their country. Tervel took advantage of the disorders in Byzantium and raided Thrace
Thrace
in 712, plundering as far as the vicinity of Constantinople. Given the chronological information of the Imennik, Tervel would have died in 715. However, the Byzantine Chronicler Theophanes the Confessor ascribes Tervel a role in an attempt to restore the deposed Emperor Anastasius II in 718 or 719. If Tervel had survived this long, he would have been the Bulgarian ruler who concluded a new treaty (confirming the annual tribute paid by the Byzantines to Bulgaria, the territorial concessions in Thrace, regulating commercial relations and the treating of political refugees) with Emperor Theodosius III
Theodosius III
in 716. However, elsewhere Theophanes records the name of the Bulgarian ruler who concluded the treaty of 716 as Kormesios, i.e., Tervel's eventual successor Kormesiy. It is probable that the chronicler ascribed the events of 718 or 719 to Tervel simply because this was the last name of a Bulgar ruler that he was familiar with, and that his sources had been silent about the name, as in his account of the siege of Constantinople. According to another theory Kermesios was authorized by Tervel to sign the treaty. Most researches agree that it was during the time of Tervel when the famous rock relief the Madara Rider
Madara Rider
was created as a memorial to the victories over the Byzantines, to honour his father Asparukh and as an expression of the glory of the Bulgarian state. The war with the Arabs in 717–718 and later life[edit] See also: Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(717–718)

The Madara Rider.

On 25 May 717 Leo III the Isaurian
Leo III the Isaurian
was crowned Emperor of Byzantium. During the summer of the same year the Arabs led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik crossed the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
and besieged Constantinople
Constantinople
with a large army and navy. Leo III made a plea to Tervel for help, relying on the treaty of 716 and Tervel agreed. The first clash between the Bulgarians and the Arabs ended with a Bulgarian victory. During the very first stages of the siege the Bulgarians appeared in the Muslim rear and large part of their army was destroyed and the rest were trapped. The Arabs built two trenches around their camp facing the Bulgarian army and the walls of the city. They persisted with the siege despite the severe winter with 100 days of snowfall. In the spring, the Byzantine navy
Byzantine navy
destroyed the Arab fleets that had arrived with new provisions and equipment, while a Byzantine army defeated Arab reinforcements in Bithynia. Finally, in early summer the Arabs engaged the Bulgarians in battle but suffered a crushing defeat. According to Theophanes the Confessor, the Bulgarians slaughtered some 22,000 Arabs in the battle. Shortly after, the Arabs raised the siege. The Byzantine-Bulgarian victory of 718 and the victory of the Frankish king Charles Martel
Charles Martel
in the battle of Tours (732) stopped the Muslim advance in the interior of Europe. In 719 he again interfered in the internal affairs of the Byzantine Empire when the deposed emperor Anastasios II asked for his assistance to regain the throne. Tervel provided him with 360,000 gold coins and sent troops. Anastasios marched to Constantinople, but its population refused to cooperate. In the meantime Leo III sent a letter to Tervel in which he conjured him to respect the treaty and to prefer peace to war. Because Anastasios was abandoned by his supporters, the Bulgarian ruler agreed to the pleas of Leo III and broke relations with the usurper. He also sent to Leo III many of the conspirators who had sought refuge in Pliska. Legacy[edit] Tervel Peak
Tervel Peak
on Livingston Island
Livingston Island
in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Antarctica
is named after Tervel of Bulgaria. See also[edit]

History of Bulgaria Bulgars

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Свети благоверен цар Български Тривелий - Хан Тервел Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "първа" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ Хан Тервел - тема за кандидат студенти Archived 1 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ „История славянобългарска“, св.Паисий Хилендарски, 18 век. ^ "Българите", докум. филм, реж. и сценарист П. Петков, опер. Кр. Михайлов. Производство bTV. 2006 год., България ^ http://gtbyzance.com/articles/The_Bulgarian_Theme_in_Constantinople_Monuments.pdf

References[edit]

Mosko Moskov, Imennik
Imennik
na bălgarskite hanove (novo tălkuvane), Sofia 1988. Jordan Andreev, Ivan Lazarov, Plamen Pavlov, Koj koj e v srednovekovna Bălgarija, Sofia 1999. (primary source), Bahši Iman, Džagfar Tarihy, vol. III, Orenburg 1997. (primary source), Nikephoros Patriarch of Constantinople, Short History, C. Mango, ed., Dumbarton Oaks Texts 10, 1990. (primary source), The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, C. Mango and R. Scott, trans., Oxford University Press, 1997.

Further reading[edit]

"The Bulgarian Theme in Constantinople’s Monuments "

External links[edit]

Rulers of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
- Tervel

Preceded by Asparukh Khan of Bulgaria 695–715 Succeeded by Kormesiy

v t e

Bulgarian monarchs

First Empire (681–1018)

Asparukh Tervel Kormesiy Sevar Kormisosh Vinekh Telets Sabin Umor Toktu Pagan Telerig Kardam Krum Omurtag Malamir Presian I Boris I Vladimir Simeon I Peter I Boris II Roman Samuil Gavril Radomir Ivan Vladislav Presian II Peter Delyan Constantine Bodin

Second Empire (1186–1396)

Ivan Asen I Peter II Kaloyan Boril Ivan Asen II Kaliman I Asen Michael II Asen Kaliman II Asen Mitso Asen Constantine Tikh Ivailo Ivan Asen III George Terter I Smilets Chaka Theodore Svetoslav George Terter II Michael Shishman Ivan Stephen Ivan Alexander Ivan Shishman Ivan Sratsimir

Principality (1878–1908) and Kingdom (1908–1946)

Alexander I Ferdinand I Boris III Simeon II

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90886

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