TERUKKUTTU is a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu
* 1 History * 2 Theme * 3 Style * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links
The term "terukkuttu" is derived from the Tamil words Teru ("street") and Kuttu ("theatre"). The word " Kattaikkuttu " is derived from the name of special ornaments known as kattai (or kattai camankal).
The writer M. Shanmugam Pillai has compared terukkuttu to the Tamil epic Silappatikaram , calling Silappatikaram a proto-form of terukkuttu. The Silappatikaram story is still performed by the terukkuttu actors, the terukkuttu drama commences and ends in a manner similar to the commencement and end of each canto in the epic, and the actors sing and converse in verse interspersed with prose, the prose coming after the verse as its explanation. Both Silappatikaram and terukkuttu are centered around the chastity and moral power of women as cherished values.
However, historically, the terukkuttu is not more than two to three
centuries old. The researcher Richard A. Frasca wrote that certain of
his performer-informants believed that the terukkuttu originally
emanated from the
Many scholars note the similarity between terukkuttu and other
neighbouring regional drama forms, such as
Many terukuttu performances center around the enactment of
Mahabharata story, with emphasis on the role of
Draupadi . Terukkuttu
The terukkuttu plays form part of ritual celebrations including the twenty-one day temple festival starting in Chittirai, the first month of the Tamil calendar . The terukkuttu performances begin in the middle of the festival, and continue till the morning of the penultimate day.
The core themes of the terukuttu plays include:
Draupadi Kalyanam (The marriage of
* Supattirai Kalyanam (The marriage of
* Alli Arjunan (The Marriage of
Arjuna with Alli)
* Pancal Capatam (The Vow of Draupadi)
* Arjunan Tapam (Arjuna's tapas )
* Krishnan Titu (The mission of
The terukkuttu plays are a combination of song, music, dance and drama. The actors wear colorful costumes. The musical instruments used by the terukkuttu musicians include harmonium , drums , a mukhavinai (an instrument similar to oboe ), and cymbals .
An acting arena is marked at courtyard of a temple, open ground or
any other convenient site and people squat on the three sides of the
rectangular arena. The chorus of singers and the musicians occupy the
place on the rear side of the stage, and the actors use the front
side. Two persons holding a curtain enter the arena, with an actor in
the guise of
The text of a terukkuttu play is a series of songs related by a theme. Each song is rendered in a raga , structured in form of a classical song. It is preceded by viruttam , chanting of four-line verses in the same raga as the song. After the song, an actor delivers a speech based on it.
* ^ Sarachchandra, Ediriweera R. (1966). The Folk Drama of Ceylon.
Colombo: Department of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon. p. 116.
* ^ A B C D Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (1990) . History of Indian
Theatre. Abhinav Publications. pp. 39–44. ISBN 978-81-7017-278-9 .
OCLC 18270064 .
* ^ Srinivas, Smriti (2004) . Landscapes of Urban Memory. Orient
Longman. p. 23. ISBN 81-250-2254-6 .
OCLC 46353272 .
* ^ Bruin, Hanne M de (1999). Kattaikkuttu: The flexibility of a
south Indian theatre tradition. E. Forsten. pp. 85–99. ISBN
OCLC 42312297 .
* ^ Barfoot, C.C. (1993). Theatre Intercontinental: Forms,
Functions, Correspondences. Rodopi. p. 116. ISBN 90-5183-575-2 . OCLC
* ^ Frasca, Richard Armando (1984). The Terukkūttu : ritual
theater of Tamilnadu (Ph.D. thesis). University of California,
Berkeley . p. 140.
OCLC 13876271 .
* ^ W. T. A. Leslie Fernando (24 December 2003). "Daily Mirror".
Archived from the original on March 23, 2004. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
* ^ W. T. A. Leslie Fernando. "Did Sinhala drama originate in
Christmas?". Retrieved 2007-11-21.
* ^ A B Hiltebeitel, Alf (1988). The Cult of Draupadi: Mythologies:
* Frasca, Richard Armando (1990). Theatre of the Mahabharata: terukkuttu Performances in South India. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1290-4 . OCLC 21147946 . * Gentes, Mary Josephine (1987). Hinduism through village dance drama : narrative image and ritual process in South India's terukkuttu and Yaksagana ritual theaters (Ph.D. thesis). University of Virginia. OCLC 20052719 . * Frasca, Richard Armando (1998). "The Dice Game and the Disrobing (Pakatai Tuyil): A terukkuttu Performance". Asian Theatre Journal. University of Hawai'i Press. 15 (1): 1–44. JSTOR 1124097 . doi :10.2307/1124097 . * Bruin, Hanne M de (1999). Kattaikkuttu: The flexibility of a south Indian theatre tradition. E. Forsten. ISBN 978-90-6980-103-2 . OCLC 42312297 . * Shivaprakash, H S (2007). "Regional theatres (ix. Terukuttu)". Traditional theatres. Wisdom Tree. ISBN 978-81-8328-075-4 . OCLC 85833550 .