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Territories of the United States
United States
are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States
United States
(U.S.) federal government. Unlike U.S. states
U.S. states
and Native tribes that have sovereignty alongside the federal government, territories are without sovereignty (according to a 2016 Supreme Court
Supreme Court
ruling called Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
v. Sanchez Valle).[2] The territories are classified by whether they are "incorporated" (i.e., part of the U.S. proper) and whether they have an "organized" government through an Organic Act
Organic Act
passed by the U.S. Congress.[3] The U.S. has sixteen[4] territories in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the south Pacific Ocean, and the western portion of the north Pacific Ocean. Five of the territories are permanently inhabited and are classified as unincorporated territories. The other eleven are small islands, atolls, and reefs with no native or permanent population. Of those eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories ( Bajo Nuevo Bank
Bajo Nuevo Bank
and Serranilla Bank) are administered by Colombia.[5][6] Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land. Most territories eventually attained statehood.[7][8] Other territories at some point administered by the U.S. eventually became independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
and Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States
United States
existed from 1789 to 1959. The first were the Northwest and the Southwest territories, and the last were the Alaska Territory
Alaska Territory
and the Hawaii Territory. 31 of these territories applied for and were granted statehood. In the process of organizing and promoting territories to statehood, some areas of a territory lacking sufficient development and population densities were temporarily orphaned from parts of a larger territory after residents voted on whether to petition Congress for statehood. For example, when a portion of the Missouri
Missouri
Territory became the state of Missouri, the remaining portion of the territory, consisting of all the states of Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, most of Kansas, Wyoming, and Montana, and parts of Colorado
Colorado
and Minnesota, effectively became an unorganized territory.[9] U.S. territories tend to have infrastructure and telecommunications inferior to the United States
United States
mainland; for example, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries.[10] Poverty rates are also higher in the territories than in the states.[11][12]

Contents

1 Existing territories and their legal status

1.1 Permanently inhabited territories

1.1.1 Notes 1.1.2 Statistics

1.2 Uninhabited territories

2 Incorporated and unincorporated territories

2.1 Express or implied? 2.2 U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
decisions about particular territories

2.2.1 Alaska
Alaska
Territory 2.2.2 Florida
Florida
Territory 2.2.3 Southwest Territory 2.2.4 Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory

3 Organized territory 4 Current U.S. territories by group

4.1 Incorporated organized territories 4.2 Incorporated unorganized territories 4.3 Unincorporated organized territories 4.4 Unincorporated unorganized territories 4.5 Inhabited territories 4.6 Uninhabited territories 4.7 Extraterritorial jurisdiction 4.8 Associated states

5 Classification of former U.S. territories and administered areas

5.1 Former incorporated organized territories of the United States 5.2 Former unincorporated territories of the United States (incomplete) 5.3 Former unincorporated territories of the United States
United States
under military government 5.4 Areas formerly administered by the United States 5.5 Other zones

6 Galleries

6.1 Current territorial non-voting members of the House of Representatives 6.2 Current territorial governors 6.3 Satellite images

6.3.1 Inhabited territories 6.3.2 Uninhabited territories (U.S. Minor Outlying Islands)

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Existing territories and their legal status[edit] Territories have always been a part of the U.S.[13] According to federal law, the term "United States", when used in a geographical sense, means "the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States
United States
Virgin Islands".[14] Since political union with the Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
in 1986, they too are treated as a part of the U.S.[14] An executive order adopted in 2007 includes American Samoa
American Samoa
in the U.S. "geographical extent" as reflected in U.S. Department of State documents.[15] Permanently inhabited territories[edit] The U.S. has five territories that are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea; Guam
Guam
and the Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
in the Marianas archipelago in the western North Pacific Ocean; and American Samoa
American Samoa
in the South Pacific Ocean. Approximately 4 million people in these territories are U.S. citizens. U.S. citizenship at birth is granted in 4 of the 5 major territories.[16] American Samoa
American Samoa
has about 32,000 non-citizen U.S. nationals.[17] Under U.S. law, among the territories, "only persons born in American Samoa
American Samoa
and Swains Island
Swains Island
are non-citizen U.S. nationals."[18] American Samoans are under the protection of the U.S., with the ability to travel to the U.S. without a visa.[18] However, to become U.S. citizens, American Samoans must naturalize (as if they were foreigners).[19] Each of these territories is an organized, self-governing territory with three branches of government, a locally elected governor, and a territorial legislature. Each territory also elects a non-voting member (or a non-voting resident commissioner in the case of Puerto Rico) to the U.S. House of Representatives.[20][21] They "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives."[22] They participate in debate, are assigned offices and money for staff, and nominate constituents from their territories to the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Merchant Marine service academies.[22] They can vote in committee on all legislation presented to the House of Representatives. They are included in their party count for each committee, and they are equal to senators on conference committees. Depending on the congress, they may also vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole.[23] As of January 2017, the members of Congress from these territories were: Gregorio Sablan
Gregorio Sablan
for the Northern Mariana Islands, Madeleine Bordallo
Madeleine Bordallo
for Guam, Amata Coleman Radewagen for American Samoa, Jenniffer González
Jenniffer González
for Puerto Rico, and Stacey Plaskett for the U.S. Virgin Islands.[24] The District of Columbia also has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, territories of the United States
United States
do not have U.S. senators
U.S. senators
representing them in the senate.[25] Every four years, U.S. political parties nominate their presidential candidates at conventions, which include delegates from these territories.[26] However, the U.S. citizens living in territories such as Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
cannot vote in the general election for president of the U.S.[25] Non-citizen nationals in American Samoa
American Samoa
also can't vote for the president.[16] These territories pay some U.S. taxes and are under the protection of U.S. courts. The capitals of these territories are Pago Pago
Pago Pago
in American Samoa; Hagåtña
Hagåtña
in Guam; Saipan
Saipan
in the Northern Mariana Islands; San Juan in Puerto Rico; and, Charlotte Amalie in the U.S. Virgin Islands.[27][28] The current governors of these territories are the following: Lolo Matalasi Moliga (American Samoa), Eddie Baza Calvo
Eddie Baza Calvo
(Guam), Ralph Torres (Northern Mariana Islands), Ricardo Rosselló
Ricardo Rosselló
(Puerto Rico), and Kenneth Mapp
Kenneth Mapp
(U.S. Virgin Islands).

Name Abbr. Location Area Population Capital Largest Town Status Date Acquired

 American Samoa AS Polynesia
Polynesia
& South Pacific 0000197.1 !197.1 km2 (76.1 sq mi) 55,519 Pago Pago Tafuna Unincorporated & unorganized April 17, 1900

 Guam GU Micronesia
Micronesia
& North Pacific 0000543 !543 km2 (210 sq mi) 159,358 Hagåtña Dededo Unincorporated & organized April 11, 1899

 Northern Mariana Islands MP Micronesia
Micronesia
& North Pacific 0000463 !463.63 km2 (179 sq mi) 53,467 Capitol Hill, Saipan Garapan Unincorporated & organized November 3, 1986

 Puerto Rico PR Caribbean
Caribbean
& North Atlantic 0009104 !9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi) 3,667,084 San Juan San Juan Unincorporated & organized April 11, 1899

  United States
United States
Virgin Islands VI Caribbean
Caribbean
& North Atlantic 000346.36 !346.36 km2 (134 sq mi) 106,405 Charlotte Amalie Charlotte Amalie Unincorporated & organized March 31, 1917

Notes[edit]

American Samoa
American Samoa
- Territory since 1900. Locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967.[30] People born in American Samoa are non-citizen nationals.[16] American Samoa
American Samoa
is technically unorganized. The main island is Tutuila. Guam
Guam
- Territory since 1899, Guam
Guam
is the home of Naval Base Guam
Guam
and Andersen Air Force Base. Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
- Commonwealth since 1986; formerly a United Nations Trust Territory under the administration of the United States. Sometimes the abbreviation "CNMI" is used (for "Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands"). The main island is Saipan. Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
- Unincorporated territory since 1899, a commonwealth since 1952. In November 2008, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that a sequence of Congressional actions have had the cumulative effect of changing Puerto Rico's status from "unincorporated" to "incorporated."[31] However, the issue has not finished making its way through the court system;[32] and the U.S. government still refers to Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
as unincorporated.[33] A Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
attorney has called Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
"semi-sovereign".[34] See the Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
section in the article, Organized incorporated territories of the United States, and also the article, Political status of Puerto Rico. United States
United States
Virgin Islands - Purchased by the U.S. from Denmark in 1917. The main islands are Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix.

Statistics[edit] The inhabited territories (except Guam) have had negative population growth in recent years, as well as high poverty rates, but also high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) rankings. All poverty rates are higher than the mainland United States. Several territories have an official language other than English.[35][36]

Statistics

Territory Population Growth (2010 to 2017)[37] Poverty rate (2009)[38][39][A] Life expectancy (years) HDI ranking[40][41] GDP (dollars)[42] Driving Side Time Zone Calling Code Official Language(s)[35][36]

 American Samoa 03 !−2.39% 05 !57.8%[A] 05 !73.4 05 !0.827 (Very High HDI) $05 !658,000,000 right Samoan Standard Time (UTC-11) +1-684 English and Samoan

 Guam +01 !2.12% 02 !22.9% 03 !76 01 !0.901 (Very High HDI) $02 !5,793,000,000 right Chamorro Standard Time (UTC+10) +1-671 English and Chamorro

 Northern Mariana Islands 02 !−0.68% 04 !52.3% 04 !75.4 03 !0.875 (Very High HDI) $04 !1,242,000,000 right Chamorro Standard Time (UTC+10) +1-670 English, Chamorro, and Carolinian

 Puerto Rico 05 !−10.43% 03 !43.5% 01 !80.9 04 !0.845 (Very High HDI) $01 !103,135,000,000 right Atlantic Standard Time (UTC−4) +1-787, +1-939 English and Spanish

  United States
United States
Virgin Islands 04 !−3.25% 01 !22.4% 02 !79.4 02 !0.894 (Very High HDI) $03 !3,765,000,000 left Atlantic Standard Time (UTC−4) +1-340 English

Uninhabited territories[edit] The U.S. has eleven territories with no native or permanent population, called the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands. They are small islands, atolls, and reefs spread across the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea and the Pacific Ocean: Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, the Midway Islands, Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island. Palmyra Atoll (formally, the United States
United States
Territory of Palmyra Island[43]) is the only incorporated U.S. territory, a status it has maintained since the Territory of Hawaii
Territory of Hawaii
became a state in 1959. The status of several territories is disputed: Navassa Island
Navassa Island
is disputed by Haiti, Wake Island
Wake Island
is disputed by the Marshall Islands, Swains Island
Swains Island
(part of American Samoa) is disputed by Tokelau, and Serranilla Bank
Serranilla Bank
and Bajo Nuevo Bank
Bajo Nuevo Bank
(both administered by Colombia) are disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, Honduras, and Nicaragua.[44][45]

Name Location Area Population Status Note

Bajo Nuevo Bank North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
& Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea 0000110 !110 km2 (42 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Administered by Colombia. Claimed by the U.S. (under the Guano
Guano
Islands Act) and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua
Nicaragua
was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia
Colombia
by the International Court of Justice, although the U.S. was not a party to that case and does not recognize the jurisdiction of the ICJ.[46]

Baker Island[a] North Pacific Ocean 00002.1 !2.1 km2 (0.81 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Claimed under the Guano Islands Act
Guano Islands Act
on October 28, 1856.[47][48] Formally annexed on May 13, 1936, and placed under the jurisdiction of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior.[49]

Howland Island[a] North Pacific Ocean 00004.5 !4.5 km2 (1.7 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Claimed under the Guano Islands Act
Guano Islands Act
on December 3, 1858.[47][48] Formally annexed on May 13, 1936, and placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of the Interior.[49]

Jarvis Island[a] South Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
& Polynesia 00004.75 !4.75 km2 (1.83 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Claimed under the Guano Islands Act
Guano Islands Act
on October 28, 1856.[47][48] Formally annexed on May 13, 1936, and placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of the Interior.[49]

 Johnston Atoll[a] North Pacific Ocean 00002.67 !2.67 km2 (1.03 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Last used by the U.S. Department of Defense in 2004

Kingman Reef[a] North Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
& Polynesia 000018 !18 km2 (6.9 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Claimed under the Guano Islands Act
Guano Islands Act
on February 8, 1860.[47][48] Formally annexed on May 10, 1922, and placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of the Navy
U.S. Department of the Navy
on December 29, 1934.[50]

 Midway Atoll North Pacific Ocean 00006.2 !6.2 km2 (2.4 sq mi) 40 Unincorporated & unorganized Territory since 1859; primarily a wildlife refuge inhabited only by civilian contractors; previously under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of the Navy.

 Navassa Island North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
& Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea 00005.4 !5.4 km2 (2.1 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Territory since 1857. Claimed by Haiti.

 Palmyra Atoll North Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
& Polynesia 0000012 !12 km2 (5 sq mi) 20 Incorporated & unorganized As of 2007, partly privately owned by The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy
with much of the rest owned by the federal government and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.[51][52] It is an archipelago of about 50 small islands with about 1.56 sq mi (4.0 km2) of land area, lying about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south of Oahu, Hawaii. The atoll was acquired by the U.S. through the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii
in 1898. When the Territory of Hawaii
Territory of Hawaii
was incorporated on April 30, 1900, Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll
was incorporated as part of that territory. When the State of Hawaii
State of Hawaii
was admitted to the Union in 1959, however, the Act of Congress
Act of Congress
explicitly separated Palmyra Atoll from the newly federated state. Palmyra remained an incorporated territory, but received no new organized government.[53]

Serranilla Bank North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
& Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea 0000350 !350 km2 (140 sq mi) 0 Unincorporated & unorganized Administered by Colombia; site of a naval garrison. Claimed by the U.S (since 1879 under the Guano
Guano
Islands Act), Honduras, and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua
Nicaragua
was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia
Colombia
by the International Court of Justice, although the U.S. was not a party to that case and does not recognize the jurisdiction of the ICJ.[46]

 Wake Island[a] North Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
& Micronesia 00007.4 !7.4 km2 (2.9 sq mi) 150 Unincorporated & unorganized Territory since 1898; host to the Wake Island
Wake Island
Airfield administered by the U.S. Air Force; claimed by the Marshall Islands.[54]

^ a b c d e f These six territories, together with Palmyra Atoll, comprise the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

View of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Protestant Cay
Protestant Cay
in Christiansted, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Tumon
Tumon
Beach in Guam.

Mount Tapochau
Mount Tapochau
in the Northern Mariana Islands.

Afono
Afono
village in American Samoa.

The Wake Island
Wake Island
Lagoon in Wake Island.

A red-footed booby in the Palmyra Atoll.

Navy memorial and albatross monument with Laysan albatross
Laysan albatross
chicks at Midway Atoll

Incorporated and unincorporated territories[edit] Main article: Insular Cases The U.S. Congress decides whether a territory is incorporated or unincorporated. The entire U.S. constitution applies to each incorporated territory, including its local government and all of its inhabitants, in the same manner as it applies to the local governments and residents of a state. Incorporated territories are considered an integral part of the U.S., not mere possessions.[55] From 1901 to 1905, the U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
in a series of cases known as the Insular Cases held that the constitution extended by its own force to U.S. territories. The Court in these cases, however, also established the doctrine of territorial incorporation, under which the constitution applies fully to incorporated territories, such as the territories of Alaska
Alaska
and Hawaii, and applies partially in the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.[56][57] The U.S. had no unincorporated territories (also called "overseas possessions" or "insular areas") until 1856. In that year, the U.S. Congress enacted the Guano
Guano
Islands Act, which authorised the president to take possession of unclaimed islands to mine guano. Under this law, the U.S. has taken control of and claimed rights in many islands, atolls, etc., especially in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea and the Pacific Ocean, most of which have since been abandoned. The U.S. also has acquired territories since 1856 under other circumstances, such as under the Treaty of Paris (1898)
Treaty of Paris (1898)
that ended the Spanish–American War. The U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
considered the constitutional position of these unincorporated territories in Balzac v. People of Porto Rico, where the Court said the following about a U.S. court in Puerto Rico:[58]:312

The United States
United States
District Court is not a true United States
United States
court established under article 3 of the Constitution to administer the judicial power of the United States.... It is created ... by the sovereign congressional faculty, granted under article 4, 3, of that instrument, of making all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory belonging to the United States. The resemblance of its jurisdiction to that of true United States
United States
courts, in offering an opportunity to nonresidents of resorting to a tribunal not subject to local influence, does not change its character as a mere territorial court.

In Glidden Company v. Zdanok, the U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
cited the Balzac case and said with regard to courts in unincorporated territories, "Upon like considerations, Article III has been viewed as inapplicable to courts created in unincorporated territories outside the mainland ... and to the consular courts established by concessions from foreign countries...."[59]:547 The courts determined that incorporation involves express declaration, or an implication so strong as to exclude any other view (raising questions about Puerto Rico's status).[60] Express or implied?[edit] In the Balzac case, the Court defined the meaning of "implied":[58]:306

Had Congress intended to take the important step of changing the treaty status of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
by incorporating it into the Union, it is reasonable to suppose that it would have done so by the plain declaration, and would not have left it to mere inference. Before the question became acute at the close of the Spanish War, the distinction between acquisition and incorporation was not regarded as important, or at least it was not fully understood and had not aroused great controversy. Before that, the purpose of Congress might well be a matter of mere inference from various legislative acts; but in these latter days, incorporation is not to be assumed without express declaration, or an implication so strong as to exclude any other view.

U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
decisions about particular territories[edit] The U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
in Rassmussen v. U.S. first quoted from Article III of the 1867 treaty for the purchase of Alaska
Alaska
and then said, "'The inhabitants of the ceded territory ... shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States....' This declaration, although somewhat changed in phraseology, is the equivalent ... of the formula, employed from the beginning to express the purpose to incorporate acquired territory into the United States, especially in the absence of other provisions showing an intention to the contrary."[61]:522 Part of the act of incorporation is on the people of the territory, not on the territory per se, by extending the privileges and immunities clause of the constitution to them, such as when it was extended to Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
in 1947 (despite this, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
remains officially unincorporated).[60] The 2016 Supreme Court
Supreme Court
case Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
v. Sanchez Valle ruled that territories don't have their own sovereignty.[2] In 2016, the Supreme court declined to rule on a lower court ruling that American Samoans do not get citizenship at birth (Tuana v. United States).[62][63] Alaska
Alaska
Territory[edit] The Rassmussen case arose out of a criminal conviction by a six-person jury in Alaska
Alaska
under a federal law allowing this procedure there. The Court held that Alaska
Alaska
had been incorporated into the U.S. because of the treaty of cession with Russia.[64] In addition, the Congressional implication was so strong as to exclude any other view:[61]:523

That Congress, shortly following the adoption of the treaty with Russia, clearly contemplated the incorporation of Alaska
Alaska
into the United States
United States
as a part thereof, we think plainly results from the act of July 20, 1868, concerning internal revenue taxation ... and the act of July 27, 1868 ... extending the laws of the United States
United States
relating to customs, commerce, and navigation over Alaska, and establishing a collection district therein. ... And this is fortified by subsequent action of Congress, which it is unnecessary to refer to.

In his concurring opinion, Justice Brown expressed the same thought:[61]:533–4

Apparently, acceptance of the territory is insufficient in the opinion of the court in this case, since the result that Alaska
Alaska
is incorporated into the United States
United States
is reached, not through the treaty with Russia, or through the establishment of a civil government there, but from the act ... extending the laws of the United States
United States
relating to the customs, commerce, and navigation over Alaska, and establishing a collection district there. Certain other acts are cited, notably the judiciary act ... making it the duty of this court to assign ... the several territories of the United States
United States
to particular Circuits.

Florida
Florida
Territory[edit] In Dorr v. U.S., the U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
quoted Chief Justice Marshall from an earlier case as follows:[65]:141–2

"The 6th article of the treaty of cession contains the following provision: 'The inhabitants of the territories which His Catholic Majesty cedes the United States
United States
by this treaty shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States
United States
as soon as may be consistent with the principles of the Federal Constitution, and admitted to the enjoyment of the privileges, rights, and immunities of the citizens of the United States.' ... This treaty is the law of the land, and admits the inhabitants of Florida
Florida
to the enjoyment of the privileges, rights, and immunities of the citizens of the United States. It is unnecessary to inquire whether this is not their condition, independent of stipulation. They do not, however, participate in political power; they do not share in the government till Florida
Florida
shall become a state. In the meantime Florida
Florida
continues to be a territory of the United States, governed by virtue of that clause in the Constitution which empowers Congress "to make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States.'"

In Downes v. Bidwell, the Court said, "The same construction was adhered to in the treaty with Spain for the purchase of Florida
Florida
... the 6th article of which provided that the inhabitants should 'be incorporated into the Union of the United States, as soon as may be consistent with the principles of the Federal Constitution.'"[66]:256 Southwest Territory[edit] In the Downes case, the first mention of incorporation is made in the following paragraph by Justice Brown:[66]:321–2

In view of this it cannot, it seems to me, be doubted that the United States continued to be composed of states and territories, all forming an integral part thereof and incorporated therein, as was the case prior to the adoption of the Constitution. Subsequently, the territory now embraced in the state of Tennessee
Tennessee
was ceded to the United States by the state of North Carolina. In order to insure the rights of the native inhabitants, it was expressly stipulated that the inhabitants of the ceded territory should enjoy all the rights, privileges, benefits, and advantages set forth in the ordinance 'of the late Congress for the government of the western territory of the United States.

Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory[edit]

First U.S. stamp to commemorate a territory and depict a map (1904)

In the Downes case, the Court said:[66]:252

Owing to a new war between England and France
France
being upon the point of breaking out, there was need for haste in the negotiations, and Mr. Livingston took the responsibility of disobeying his (Mr. Jefferson's) instructions, and, probably owing to the insistence of Bonaparte, consented to the 3d article of the treaty (with France
France
to acquire the territory of Louisiana), which provided that 'the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States; and in the meantime they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and the religion which they profess.' [8 Stat. at L. 202.] This evidently committed the government to the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission of Louisiana
Louisiana
as a state....

The U.S. Supreme Court
Supreme Court
is unanimous in its interpretation that the extension of the privileges and immunities clause of the U.S. Constitution to the inhabitants of a territory in effect produces the incorporation of that territory. The net effect of incorporation is that the territory becomes an integral part of the geographical boundaries of the U.S. and cannot, from then on, be separated. The whole body of the U.S. Constitution is extended to the inhabitants of that territory, except for those provisions that relate to its federal character. Moreso, the needful rules and regulations of the territorial clause must yield to the Constitution and the inherent constraints imposed on it in dealing with the privileges and immunities of the inhabitants of the incorporated territory. Notice must be taken that incorporation of a territory takes place through the incorporation of its inhabitants, not of the territory per se. As such, those inhabitants receive the full impact of the U.S. Constitution, except for those provisions that deal specifically with the federal character of the Union.[citation needed] Organized territory[edit] Lands under the sovereignty of the federal government (but not part of any state) that were given a measure of self-rule by the Congress through an Organic Act
Organic Act
subject to the Congress' plenary powers under the territorial clause of Article IV, sec. 3, of the U.S. Constitution.[67] Current U.S. territories by group[edit] See also: Insular area All current U.S. territories are in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
(except American Samoa
American Samoa
and Jarvis Island). Incorporated organized territories[edit] Main article: Organized incorporated territories of the United States No incorporated organized territory has existed since 1959, with the last two being the territories of Alaska
Alaska
and Hawaii, both of which achieved statehood in that year. Incorporated unorganized territories[edit] Many incorporated unorganized territories became incorporated organized territories or states. For example, when the eastern part of the incorporated organized territory called Minnesota
Minnesota
became the state of Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1858, the western part became part of an unorganized territory. Later, that became a part of the Dakota Territory, out of which two states and some parts of other states were created. California
California
was part of an unorganized territory when it became a state. Currently, only Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll
is incorporated and unorganized.

 Palmyra Atoll

There are also territories that have the status of being incorporated but that are not organized:

U.S. coastal waters out to 12 nautical miles (14 mi; 22 km) offshore (except state waters extend a minimum of 3 nautical miles (3.5 mi; 5.6 km) offshore).

Unincorporated organized territories[edit] Main article: Unincorporated territories of the United States Currently, there are four unincorporated and organized territories: Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands.

 Guam  Northern Mariana Islands  Puerto Rico   United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Unincorporated unorganized territories[edit] Currently, American Samoa
American Samoa
and all of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands are unincorporated and unorganized (except Palmyra Atoll, which is incorporated and unorganized).

 American Samoa Bajo Nuevo Bank
Bajo Nuevo Bank
(administered by Colombia) Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island  Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef  Midway Atoll   Navassa Island
Navassa Island
(claimed by Haiti) Serranilla Bank
Serranilla Bank
(administered by Colombia)   Wake Island
Wake Island
(claimed by Marshall Islands)

Inhabited territories[edit] Currently, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
are inhabited.

 American Samoa  Guam  Northern Mariana Islands  Puerto Rico   United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Uninhabited territories[edit] See also: Unincorporated territories of the United States
United States
and United States Minor Outlying Islands The U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
have no permanent human population. All are unincorporated and unorganized, except for Palmyra Atoll, which is incorporated and unorganized. There are non-permanent human populations at Palmyra Atoll, Wake Island
Wake Island
and Midway Atoll.

Bajo Nuevo Bank
Bajo Nuevo Bank
(administered by Colombia) Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island  Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef  Midway Atoll   Navassa Island
Navassa Island
(claimed by Haiti)  Palmyra Atoll Serranilla Bank
Serranilla Bank
(administered by Colombia)   Wake Island
Wake Island
(claimed by Marshall Islands)

Extraterritorial jurisdiction[edit] The U.S. exercises some degree of extraterritorial jurisdiction in overseas areas, such as:

Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(since 1903): A 45 square miles (120 km2) land area along Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, to which the U.S. claims to hold a perpetual lease.[68] The Cuban government does not recognize this claim and has refused to accept any payment since 1959. The lease amount is US$2,000 in gold per year.[69] American research stations in Antarctica: Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, McMurdo Station, and Palmer Station
Palmer Station
are under U.S. jurisdiction but are held without sovereignty per the Antarctic Treaty. Certain other parcels in foreign countries held by lease, such as military bases, depending on the terms of a lease, treaty, or status of forces agreement with the host country.

Associated states[edit] Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau
Palau
gained independence under the Compact of Free Association
Compact of Free Association
(COFA), which gives the U.S. full authority over aid and defense in exchange for continuing access to U.S. health care, government services such as the Federal Communications Commission and the U.S. Postal Service, and the right for COFA citizens to work freely in the U.S. and vice versa.[70] The United States
United States
exercises a high degree of control in defense, funding, and government services in:

  Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
(since 1986)   Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
(since 1986)   Palau
Palau
(since 1994)

Classification of former U.S. territories and administered areas[edit] See also: List of United States
United States
colonial possessions Former incorporated organized territories of the United States[edit] Further information: Organized incorporated territories of the United States § List of organized incorporated territories Former unincorporated territories of the United States (incomplete)[edit]

The Corn Islands
Corn Islands
(1914–1971): leased for 99 years under the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty. However, returned to Nicaragua
Nicaragua
upon the abrogation of the treaty in 1970. The Line Islands
Line Islands
(?–1979): disputed claim with the United Kingdom. U.S. claim to most of the islands was ceded to Kiribati
Kiribati
upon its independence in 1979. The U.S. retained Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, and Jarvis Island.   Panama Canal Zone
Panama Canal Zone
(1903–1979): sovereignty returned to Panama under the Torrijos-Carter Treaties
Torrijos-Carter Treaties
of 1978. U.S. retained a military base there and control of the canal until December 31, 1999. The Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands
(1898–1935), the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
(1935–46): granted full independence on July 4, 1946. Phoenix Islands
Phoenix Islands
(?–1979): disputed claim with the United Kingdom. U.S. claim ceded to Kiribati
Kiribati
upon its independence in 1979. Baker Island and Howland Island, which could be considered part of this group, are retained by the U.S. Quita Sueño Bank
Quita Sueño Bank
(1869–1981): claimed under Guano
Guano
Islands Act. Claim abandoned on September 7, 1981, by treaty. Roncador Bank
Roncador Bank
(1856–1981): claimed under Guano
Guano
Islands Act. Ceded to Colombia
Colombia
on September 7, 1981, by treaty. Serrana Bank
Serrana Bank
(1874?–1981): claimed under Guano
Guano
Islands Act. Ceded to Colombia
Colombia
on September 7, 1981, by treaty. Swan Islands (1863–1972): claimed under Guano
Guano
Islands Act. Ceded to Honduras
Honduras
in 1972, by treaty.

Former unincorporated territories of the United States
United States
under military government[edit]

  Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(April 11, 1899 – May 1, 1900): civil government operations began   Philippines
Philippines
(August 14, 1898[71] – July 4, 1901): civil government operations began   Guam
Guam
(April 11, 1899 – July 1, 1950): civil government operations began

Areas formerly administered by the United States[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

  Cuba
Cuba
(April 11, 1899 – May 20, 1902): sovereignty recognized as the independent Republic of Cuba.   Philippines
Philippines
(August 14, 1898 – July 4, 1946): sovereignty recognized as the Republic of the Philippines.  Veracruz: occupied by the United States
United States
from April 21, 1914 to November 23, 1914, consequential to the Tampico Affair
Tampico Affair
following the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
of 1910–1929.  Haiti: occupied by the United States
United States
from 1915 to 1934 and later under the authority of the United Nations
United Nations
from 1999 to the 2000s.   Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
occupied by the United States
United States
from 1916 to 1924 and again from 1965 to 1966.   Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(1947–1986): liberated in World War II, included the "Compact of Free Association" nations (the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau) and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
including Okinawa
Okinawa
(U.S. occupation: 1952–1972, after World War II): returned to Japan
Japan
under the Agreement Between the United States
United States
of America and Japan
Japan
concerning the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
and the Daito Islands.[72] Nanpo Islands
Nanpo Islands
(1945–1968): Occupied after World War II, Returned to Japanese control by mutual agreement. Marcus Island (or Minamitorishima) (1945–1968): Occupied during World War II, returned to Japan
Japan
by mutual agreement.   Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(1831–1832): Brief landing party and raid by the U.S. Navy warship USS Lexington. Now administered as a British Overseas Territory by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and claimed by Argentina.

Other zones[edit]

United States
United States
occupation of Greenland
Greenland
(1941–1945)[73] United States
United States
occupation of Iceland during World War II (1941–1946),[73] retained a military base until 2006. American Occupation Zones in Allied-occupied Austria
Allied-occupied Austria
and Vienna (1945–1955) American Occupation Zone in West Berlin
West Berlin
(1945–1990) American Occupation Zones of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany (1945–1949) Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories
Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories
in full force in Allied-controlled sections of Italy from Invasion of Sicily
Invasion of Sicily
in July 1943 until the armistice with Italy in September 1943. AMGOT continued in newly liberated areas of Italy until the end of World War II. Also existed in combat zones of Allied nations such as France. Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954) The U.S. co-administered a portion of the Free Territory between the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
after World War II
World War II
along with the United Kingdom. Occupation of Japan
Japan
(1945–1952) after World War II. U.S. participation in the Occupation of the Rhineland
Occupation of the Rhineland
(Germany) (1918–1921) South Korea
Korea
(U.S. occupation of the south of the 38th parallel north in Korea
Korea
in 1945–1948). The region is slightly different from the current practical boundary of the Republic of Korea
Korea
(South Korea) since the ceasefire of the Korean War. See also Division of Korea. Coalition Provisional Authority
Coalition Provisional Authority
Iraq
Iraq
(2003–2004) Green zone
Green zone
Iraq
Iraq
(March 20, 2003 – December 31, 2008)[74] Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
(1944–1945), occupied territory; returned to France
France
on October 23, 1945. Grenada
Grenada
invasion and occupation (1983)

Galleries[edit] Current territorial non-voting members of the House of Representatives[edit]

Congresswoman Amata Coleman Radewagen
Amata Coleman Radewagen
(American Samoa)

Congresswoman Madeleine Bordallo
Madeleine Bordallo
(Guam)

Congressman Gregorio Sablan
Gregorio Sablan
(Northern Mariana Islands)

Congresswoman Jenniffer González
Jenniffer González
(Puerto Rico)

Congresswoman Stacey Plaskett
Stacey Plaskett
(U.S. Virgin Islands)

Current territorial governors[edit]

Lolo Matalasi Moliga
Lolo Matalasi Moliga
(Governor of American Samoa)

Eddie Baza Calvo
Eddie Baza Calvo
(Governor of Guam)

Ralph Torres
Ralph Torres
(Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands)

Ricardo Rosselló
Ricardo Rosselló
(Governor of Puerto Rico)

Kenneth Mapp
Kenneth Mapp
(Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands)

Satellite images[edit] Inhabited territories[edit]

Tutuila
Tutuila
and Aunu'u
Aunu'u
(American Samoa)

Guam

Saipan
Saipan
(Northern Mariana Islands)

Puerto Rico

Saint John (U.S. Virgin Islands)

Uninhabited territories (U.S. Minor Outlying Islands)[edit]

Baker Island

Howland Island

Jarvis Island

Johnston Atoll

Kingman Reef

Midway Atoll

Navassa Island

Palmyra Atoll

Wake Island

See also[edit]

Enabling act (United States) Extreme points of the United States Hawaiian Organic Act Historic regions of the United States Legal status of Hawaii

Hawaiian sovereignty movement

Organic Acts of 1845–46 Political divisions of the United States Political status of Puerto Rico

Statehood movement in Puerto Rico

Territories of the United States
United States
on stamps United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands United States
United States
territory Unorganized territories

Notes[edit]

A. ^ Puerto Rico's poverty rate is from 2017. The governor of American Samoa said in 2017 that the poverty rate in American Samoa
American Samoa
is now 65%.[11]

References[edit]

^ "Definition of Terms - 1120 Acquisition of U.S. Nationality in U.S. Territories and Possessions" (PDF). U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7- Consular Affairs. U.S. Department of State.  ^ a b https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/06/09/supreme-court-puerto-rico-independent-sovereign/85155382/ Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Not Sovereign, Supreme Court
Supreme Court
Says. Richard Wolf, USA Today. June 9, 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2018. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". U.S. Department of the Interior.  ^ Two of those territories are administered by Colombia. ^ http://losi.tamucc.edu/Panels/Panelist%20Presentations/Presentation%20-%20Prof.%20Jon%20Van%20Dyke%20(Third%20Panel).pdf Unresolved Maritime Boundary Problems In The Caribbean. Jon M. Van Dyke. William S. Richardson School of Law, and the University of Hawaii
Hawaii
at Manoa. 2007 Law of the Sea Institute Conference, Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi; Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, March 23, 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ^ http://www.wondermondo.com/BajoNuevo.htm Bajo Nuevo Bank
Bajo Nuevo Bank
(Petrel Islands) and Serranilla Bank. Wondermondo.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ^ United States
United States
Summary, 2010: Population and housing unit counts. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. 2012.  ^ Smith, Gary Alden (February 28, 2011). State and National Boundaries of the United States. McFarland. p. 170. ISBN 9781476604343.  ^ Gold, Susan Dudley (September 2010). Missouri
Missouri
Compromise. Marshall Cavendish. p. 33. ISBN 9781608700417.  ^ https://www.engadget.com/2012/07/04/most-expensive-internet-in-america-samoa-broadband-interview/ The most expensive internet in America: fighting to bring affordable broadband to American Samoa. Darren Murph. Engadget.com. Retrieved November 24, 2017. ^ a b http://www.pireport.org/articles/2017/03/02/american-samoa-governor-says-small-economies-cannot-afford-any-reduction Pireport.org. American Samoa
American Samoa
Governor Says Small Economies 'Cannot Afford Any Reduction In Medicaid. Fili Sagapolutele. 03/02/2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10240r.pdf Gao.gov. Poverty Determination In U.S. Insular Areas. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ Bartholomew H. Sparrow (2005). Sanford Levinson; Bartholomew H. Sparrow, eds. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase and American Expansion, 1803–1898. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 232. ISBN 0-7425-4984-4. Retrieved December 2, 2012.  ^ a b 7 FAM 1112. State Department Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) 7-Consular Affairs. Viewed January 12, 2016. ^ Executive Order 13423 Sec. 9. (l). "The "United States" when used in a geographical sense, means the fifty states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and associated territorial waters and airspace." ^ a b c https://harvardlawreview.org/2017/04/american-samoa-and-the-citizenship-clause/ American Samoa
American Samoa
and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism. Chapter 3. Harvard Law Review. Retrieved 5 January 2018. ^ Nativity by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status, United States Census, 2010. ^ a b 7 FAM 1111(b). State Department Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) 7-Consular Affairs. However, as reported in Samoa lawsuit, Newsweek, July 13, 2012. viewed December 16, 2012. ^ Joshua Keating. (June 15, 2015). "How Come American Samoans Still Don't Have U.S. Citizenship at Birth?". Slate.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.  ^ U.S. General Accounting Office, U.S. Insular Areas: Application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 8, 14, 27, viewed September 3, 2015. ^ U.S. Department of State, Common Core Document of the United States of America, report to the United Nations
United Nations
Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, sec. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, viewed September 3, 2015. American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
appear on the United Nations' list of non-self-governing territories, viewed September 3, 2015. ^ a b House Learn webpage. Viewed January 26, 2013. ^ Application of the U.S. Constitution, GAO Report, U.S. Insular Areas, November 1997, (p. 26–28). ^ [1] viewed August 10, 2015. ^ a b http://time.com/3736845/john-oliver-last-week-tonight-voting-rights/ Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S. Territories. Time.com. Melissa Locker. March 9, 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018 ^ The Green Papers, 2016 Presidential primaries, caucuses and conventions, viewed September 3, 2015. ^ U.S. State Department, Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty. The chart, under "Sovereignty", lists five places under U.S. sovereignty that are administered by a local "Administrative Center" with "Short form names": American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, U.S. ^ The Not-Quite States of America (book). Doug Mack. 2017. ^ IBP USA (2009), SAMOA American Country Study Guide: Strategic Information and Developments, Int'l Business Publications, pp. 49–64, ISBN 978-1-4387-4187-1, retrieved 2011-10-20  ^ The revised constitution was approved on June 2, 1967 by Stewart L. Udall, then U.S. Secretary of the Interior, under authority granted on June 29, 1951. It became effective on July 1, 1967.[29] ^ Consejo de Salud Playa Ponce v. Johnny Rullan, p.28: "The Congressional incorporation of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
throughout the past century has extended the entire Constitution to the island ...." ^ Hon. Gustavo A. Gelpi, "The Insular Cases: A Comparative Historical Study of Puerto Rico, Hawai'i, and the Philippines", The Federal Lawyer, March/April 2011. http://www.aspira.org/files/legal_opinion_on_pr_insular_cases.pdf p. 25: "In light of the [Supreme Court] ruling in Boumediene, in the future the Supreme Court
Supreme Court
will be called upon to reexamine the Insular Cases doctrine as applied to Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and other U.S. territories." ^ accessed 26 January 2013: " Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
is a self-governing, unincorporated territory of the United States
United States
located in the Caribbean". ^ http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/supreme_court_dispatches/2016/01/the_supreme_court_considers_puerto_rico_s_sovereignty_in_sanchez_valle.html Second-Class Sovereignty. Mark Joseph Stern. Slate.com. January 14, 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2018. ^ a b http://aboutworldlanguages.com/us-languages U.S. Languages. Aboutworldlanguages.com. Retrieved 17 January 2018. ^ a b http://www.vinow.com/general_usvi/culture/virgin-islands-language/ Virgin Islands Language. vinow.com. Retrieved 17 January 2018. ^ https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2016/demo/popest/state-total.html Census.gov (2016). Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_VISF_PBG76&prodType=table https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_GUSF_PBG82&prodType=table https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_MPSF_PBG82&prodType=table https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_ASSF_PBG82&prodType=table Census.gov American Factfinder. Poverty status in 2009 by age. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/PR Census.gov. Quick Facts. Puerto Rico. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/wp-09-02.pdf Filling Gaps In The Human Development Index: Findings For Asia And The Pacific. David A. Hastings. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ https://ceterisparibusuprm.org/human-development-index-trends-and-inequality-in-puerto-rico-2010-2015-by-ricardo-r-fuentes-ramirez/ Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research. 7. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ https://data.worldbank.org/country/American-Samoa https://data.worldbank.org/country/Virgin-Islands-US https://data.worldbank.org/country/Northern-Mariana-Islands https://data.worldbank.org/country/Guam https://data.worldbank.org/country/Puerto-Rico Worldbank.org. Retrieved 9 January 2018. ^ Act of Admission, § 2, Pub. L. No. 86-3, 73 Stat. 4 (March 18, 1959). ^ U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, p. 1, 6, 39n. viewed April 6, 2016. ^ U.S. State Department, Dependencies and Areas of Special
Special
Sovereignty Chart, under "Sovereignty", lists nine places under U.S. sovereignty thar are administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, the Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island. ^ a b International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(2012). "Territorial and maritime dispute ( Nicaragua
Nicaragua
vs Colombia)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ a b c d Moore, John Bassett (1906). "A Digest of International Law as Embodied in Diplomatic Discussions, Treaties and Other International Agreements, International Awards, the Decisions of Municipal Courts, and the Writings of Jurists and Especially in Documents, Published and Unpublished, Issued by Presidents and Secretaries of State of the United States, the Opinions of the Attorneys-General, and the Decisions of Courts, Federal and State". Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 566–580.  ^ a b c d "Acquisition Process of Insular Areas". United States Department of the Interior Office of Insular Affairs. Retrieved July 15, 2016.  ^ a b c Exec. Order No. 7368 (May 13, 1936; in English) President of the United States ^ "Kingman Reef". Office of Insular Affairs. Retrieved July 15, 2016.  ^ "AUSTRALIA-OCEANIA :: UNITED STATES PACIFIC ISLAND WILDLIFE REFUGES (TERRITORIES OF THE US)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ "DOI Office of Insular Affairs
Office of Insular Affairs
(OIA) - Palmyra Atoll". 31 October 2007.  ^ "Palmyra Atoll". U.S. Department of the Interior Office of Insular Affairs. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ "Wake Island". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ "Definitions of insular area political organizations". Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved September 30, 2017.  ^ "Consejo de Salud Playa de Ponce v. Johnny Rullan, Secretary of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, pages 6–7" (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. Retrieved February 4, 2010.  ^ "The Insular Cases: The Establishment of a Regime of Political Apartheid (2007) Juan R. Torruella" (PDF). Retrieved February 5, 2010.  ^ a b "Balzac v. People of Porto Rico". U.S. Supreme Court. April 10, 1922. Retrieved October 4, 2017 – via FindLaw.  ^ "Glidden Company v. Zdanok". U.S. Supreme Court. June 25, 1962. Retrieved October 4, 2017 – via FindLaw.  ^ a b http://www.caribbeanbusiness.com/is-puerto-rico-on-a-path-to-incorporation Is Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
On A Path To Incorporation? Eva Lloréns Vélez. February 13, 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2018. ^ a b c "Rassmussen v. U.S." U.S. Supreme Court. April 10, 1905. Retrieved October 4, 2017 – via FindLaw.  ^ http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-court-samoans-20160613-snap-story.html Supreme Court
Supreme Court
rejects citizenship for American Samoans. David G. Savage. June 13, 2016. Latimes.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ^ http://www.equalrightsnow.org/case_overview About Tuana v. United States. Equalrightsnow.org. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ^ Juan R. Torruella (2007). "The Insular Cases: The Establishment of a Regime of Political Apartheid" (PDF). pp. 318–319. Retrieved February 7, 2010.  ^ "Dorr v. U.S." U.S. Supreme Court. May 31, 1904. Retrieved October 4, 2017 – via FindLaw.  ^ a b c "Downes v. Bidwell". U.S. Supreme Court. May 27, 1901. Retrieved October 4, 2017 – via FindLaw.  ^ U.S. Const. art. IV, § 3, cl. 2 ("The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States..."). ^ "Agreement Between the United States
United States
and Cuba
Cuba
for the Lease of Lands for Coaling and Naval stations". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. February 23, 1903. Retrieved 2 April 2008.  ^ Michael Ratner; Ellen Ray (2004). Guantanamo: What the World Should Know. Chelsea Green Publishing. p. xiv;. ISBN 978-1-931498-64-7.  ^ "USCompact.org U.S. Compact of Free Association
Compact of Free Association
with the FSM and the RMI". Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. p. 279. ISBN 9716420714. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Okinawa
Okinawa
Reversion Agreement – 1971, The Contemporary Okinawa Website. Accessed 5 June 2007. ^ a b Committee, America First (1 January 1990). "In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-interventionist Movement of 1940-1941 as Revealed in the Papers of the America First Committee". Hoover Institution Press. p. 331 – via Google Books.  ^ Campbell Robertson; Stephen Farrell (December 31, 2008), Green Zone, Heart of U.S. Occupation, Reverts to Iraqi Control, The New York Times 

External links[edit]

FindLaw: Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244 (1901) regarding the distinction between incorporated and unincorporated territories FindLaw: People of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
v. Shell Co., 302 U.S. 253 (1937) regarding application of U.S. law to organized but unincorporated territories FindLaw: United States
United States
v. Standard Oil Company, 404 U.S. 558 (1972) regarding application of U.S. law to unorganized unincorporated territories Television Stations in U.S. Territories Unincorporated Territory Office of Insular Affairs Application of the U.S. Constitution in U.S. Insular Areas Department of the Interior Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations United States
United States
District Court decision addressing the distinction between Incorporated vs Unincorporated territories

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