The Info List - Terence

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PUBLIUS TERENTIUS AFER (/təˈrɛnʃiəs, -ʃəs/ ; c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as TERENCE (/ˈtɛrəns/ ), was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic , of Berber descent. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator , brought Terence
to Rome
as a slave, educated him and later on, impressed by his abilities, freed him. Terence
apparently died young, probably in Greece
or on his way back to Rome
. All of the six plays Terence
wrote have survived.

One famous quotation by Terence
reads: "Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto", or "I am human, and I think that nothing of that which is human is alien to me." This appeared in his play Heauton Timorumenos .


* 1 Biography * 2 Terence\'s plays * 3 Cultural legacy * 4 See also * 5 External links * 6 References


Terence's date of birth is disputed; Aelius Donatus , in his incomplete Commentum Terenti, considers the year 185 BC to be the year Terentius was born; Fenestella , on the other hand, states that he was born ten years earlier, in 195 BC.

He may have been born in or near Carthage or in Greek Italy to a woman taken to Carthage as a slave. Terence's cognomen Afer suggests he lived in the territory of the Libyan tribe called by the Romans Afri
near Carthage prior to being brought to Rome
as a slave. This inference is based on the fact that the term was used in two different ways during the republican era: during Terence's lifetime, it was used to refer to non-Carthaginian Libyco-Berbers, with the term Punicus reserved for the Carthaginians. Later, after the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, it was used to refer to anyone from the land of the Afri
( Tunisia
and its surroundings). It is therefore most likely that Terence
was of Libyan descent, considered ancestors to the modern-day Berber peoples.

In any case, he was sold to P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator , who educated him and later on, impressed by Terence's abilities, freed him. Terence
then took the nomen "Terentius," which is the origin of the present form.

He was a member of the so-called Scipionic Circle .

When he was 25, Terence
travelled to Greece
and never returned. It is mostly believed that Terence
died during the journey, but this cannot be confirmed. Before his disappearance he exhibited six comedies which are still in existence. According to some ancient writers, he died at sea.


1496 edition of Terence's Works

Like Plautus , Terence
adapted Greek plays from the late phases of Attic comedy . Terence
wrote in a simple conversational Latin , and most students who persevere long enough to be able to read him in the original find his style particularly pleasant and direct. Aelius Donatus , Jerome
's teacher, is the earliest surviving commentator on Terence's work. Terence's popularity throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
is attested to by the numerous manuscripts containing part or all of his plays; the scholar Claudia Villa has estimated that 650 manuscripts containing Terence's work date from after AD 800. The mediaeval playwright Hroswitha of Gandersheim claims to have written her plays so that learned men had a Christian alternative to reading the pagan plays of Terence, while the reformer Martin Luther not only quoted Terence
frequently to tap into his insights into all things human but also recommended his comedies for the instruction of children in school.

Terence's six plays are:

* Andria (The Girl from Andros) (166 BC) * Hecyra (The Mother-in-Law) (165 BC) * Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor) (163 BC) * Phormio (161 BC) * Eunuchus (161 BC) * Adelphoe (The Brothers) (160 BC)

The first printed edition of Terence
appeared in Strasbourg
in 1470, while the first certain post-antique performance of one of Terence's plays, Andria , took place in Florence
in 1476. There is evidence, however, that Terence
was performed much earlier. The short dialogue Terentius et delusor was probably written to be performed as an introduction to a Terentian performance in the 9th century (possibly earlier).


Mid-12th century illustrated Latin manuscript of Terence's Comedies from St Albans Abbey
St Albans Abbey
, now held at the Bodleian Library

Due to his clear and entertaining language, Terence's works were heavily used by monasteries and convents during the Middle Ages and The Renaissance
. Scribes often learned Latin through the meticulous copying of Terence's texts. Priests and nuns often learned to speak Latin through reenactment of Terence's plays, thereby learning both Latin and Gregorian chants. Although Terence's plays often dealt with pagan material, the quality of his language promoted the copying and preserving of his text by the church. The preservation of Terence through the church enabled his work to influence much of later Western drama.

Terence's plays were a standard part of the Latin curriculum of the neoclassical period. US President John Adams once wrote to his son , " Terence
is remarkable, for good morals, good taste, and good Latin... His language has simplicity and an elegance that make him proper to be accurately studied as a model."

Two of the earliest English comedies, Ralph Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton\'s Needle , are thought to parody Terence's plays.

Due to his cognomen Afer, Terence
has long been identified with Africa and heralded as the first poet of the African diaspora by generations of writers, including Juan Latino , Phyllis Wheatley , Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
, Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes
and Maya Angelou .

American playwright Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
based his novel The Woman of Andros on Terence's Andria .

Questions as to whether Terence
received assistance in writing or was not the actual author have been debated over the ages, as described in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica

meets the charge of receiving assistance in the composition of his plays by claiming as a great honour the favour which he enjoyed with those who were the favorites of the Roman people. But the gossip, not discouraged by Terence, lived and throve; it crops up in Cicero
and Quintilian
, and the ascription of the plays to Scipio had the honour to be accepted by Montaigne and rejected by Diderot


* Translation * Metres of Roman comedy * Codex Vaticanus 3868
Codex Vaticanus 3868
* List of slaves

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