Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a
single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each
(doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord
to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net
and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to play the
ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid
return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a
point, while the opposite player will.
Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and
at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket,
including wheelchair users. The modern game of tennis originated in
Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis. It
had close connections both to various field (lawn) games such as
croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called
real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis
referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli's
novel Sybil (1845), Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go
down to Hampton Court and play tennis."
The rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two
exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot
on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the
1970s. A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption
of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system,
which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system
known as Hawk-Eye.
Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is also a
popular worldwide spectator sport. The four Grand Slam tournaments
(also referred to as the Majors) are especially popular: the
Australian Open played on hard courts, the
French Open played on red
clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, and the US Open also
played on hard courts.
1.2 Origins of the modern game
3 Manner of play
3.2 Play of a single point
3.3.1 Game, set, match
Special point terms
184.108.40.206 Game point
220.127.116.11 Break point
3.4 Rule variations
5 Junior tennis
6 Match play
6.2 Ball changes
6.3 On-court coaching
7.5 Other shots
9.1 Grand Slam tournaments
9.2 Men's tournament structure
9.2.1 Masters 1000
9.2.2 250 and 500 Series
9.2.3 Challenger Tour and Futures tournaments
9.3 Women's tournament structure
9.3.1 Premier events
9.3.2 International events
10.1 Professional players
10.2 Grand Slam tournament winners
10.3 Greatest male players
10.4 Greatest female players
11 In popular culture
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Main article: History of tennis
Jeu de paume
Jeu de paume in the 17th century
Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century
northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand.
Louis X of
France was a keen player of jeu de paume ("game of the
palm"), which evolved into real tennis, and became notable as the
first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style.
Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had
indoor, enclosed courts made in
Paris "around the end of the 13th
century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all
over Europe. In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following
a particularly exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled
wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although
there was also suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary
accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known
by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King
Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace.
It wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the
game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which
can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection
used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in
England and France, although the game was only played indoors where
the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of
England was a big
fan of this game, which is now known as real tennis. During the
18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket
sports emerged in England.
Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is
strongly believed to have been the catalyst, worldwide, for the
preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing
fields, pitches, greens, etc. This in turn led to the codification of
modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football
codes, lawn bowls and others.
Origins of the modern game
Augurio Perera's house in Edgbaston, Birmingham, where he and Harry
Gem first played the modern game of lawn tennis
Between 1859 and 1865
Harry Gem and his friend Augurio Perera
developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque
ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in
Birmingham, England, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two
local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue
Road, Leamington Spa.
In December 1873, British army officer Major Walter Clopton Wingfield
designed and patented a similar game ;– which he called
sphairistikè (Greek: σφαιριστική, meaning "ball-playing"),
and was soon known simply as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests
at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in
Llanelidan, Wales. According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass
agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that [Wingfield] deserves
much of the credit for the development of modern tennis."
According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield
"popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which
included a net, poles, rackets, balls for playing the game – and
most importantly you had his rules. He was absolutely terrific at
marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had very good
connections with the clergy, the law profession, and the aristocracy
and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in
1874." The world's oldest tennis tournament, the Wimbledon
Championships, were first played in
London in 1877. The first
Championships culminated a significant debate on how to standardize
Lawn tennis in the U.S., 1887
In the U.S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite,
returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascinated
by the game of tennis after watching British army officers play.
She laid out a tennis court at the
Staten Island Cricket Club at Camp
Washington, Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York. The first American
National championship was played there in September 1880. An
Englishman named O.E. Woodhouse won the singles title, and a silver
cup worth $100, by defeating Canadian I. F. Hellmuth. There was
also a doubles match which was won by a local pair. There were
different rules at each club. The ball in Boston was larger than the
one normally used in New York. On 21 May 1881, the United States
Lawn Tennis Association
Lawn Tennis Association (now the
United States Tennis
Association) was formed to standardize the rules and organize
competitions. The U.S. National Men's Singles Championship, now
the US Open, was first held in 1881 at the Newport Casino, Newport,
Rhode Island. The U.S. National Women's Singles Championships were
first held in 1887 in Philadelphia.
Tennis doubles final at 1896 Olympic Games
Tennis also became popular in France, where the French Championships
dates to 1891 although until 1925 it was open only to tennis players
who were members of French clubs. Thus, Wimbledon, the US Open,
the French Open, and the
Australian Open (dating to 1905) became and
have remained the most prestigious events in tennis. Together
these four events are called the Majors or Slams (a term borrowed from
bridge rather than baseball).
Lawn tennis in Canada, ca. 1900
The comprehensive rules promulgated in 1924 by the International Lawn
Tennis Federation, now known as the International
(ITF), have remained largely stable in the ensuing eighty years, the
one major change being the addition of the tiebreak system designed by
Jimmy Van Alen. That same year, tennis withdrew from the Olympics
after the 1924 Games but returned 60 years later as a 21-and-under
demonstration event in 1984. This reinstatement was credited by the
efforts by the then ITF President Philippe Chatrier, ITF General
Secretary David Gray and ITF Vice President Pablo Llorens, and support
from IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch. The success of the event
was overwhelming and the IOC decided to reintroduce tennis as a full
medal sport at Seoul in 1988.
International Tennis Hall of Fame
International Tennis Hall of Fame at the Newport Casino
The Davis Cup, an annual competition between men's national teams,
dates to 1900. The analogous competition for women's national
teams, the Fed Cup, was founded as the Federation Cup in 1963 to
celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the ITF.
In 1926, promoter
C. C. Pyle
C. C. Pyle established the first professional tennis
tour with a group of American and French tennis players playing
exhibition matches to paying audiences. The most notable of
these early professionals were the American
Vinnie Richards and the
Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen. Once a player turned pro he or
she was no longer permitted to compete in the major (amateur)
In 1968, commercial pressures and rumors of some amateurs taking money
under the table led to the abandonment of this distinction,
inaugurating the Open Era, in which all players could compete in all
tournaments, and top players were able to make their living from
tennis. With the beginning of the Open Era, the establishment of an
international professional tennis circuit, and revenues from the sale
of television rights, tennis's popularity has spread worldwide, and
the sport has shed its middle-class English-speaking image
(although it is acknowledged that this stereotype still
In 1954, Van Alen founded the International
Tennis Hall of Fame, a
non-profit museum in Newport, Rhode Island. The building contains
a large collection of tennis memorabilia as well as a hall of fame
honouring prominent members and tennis players from all over the
world. Each year, a grass court tournament and an induction ceremony
honoring new Hall of Fame members are hosted on its grounds.
Wooden racket - c. 1920s
Part of the appeal of tennis stems from the simplicity of equipment
required for play. Beginners need only a racket and balls.
Racket (sports equipment)
Racket (sports equipment) § Tennis
The components of a tennis racket include a handle, known as the grip,
connected to a neck which joins a roughly elliptical frame that holds
a matrix of tightly pulled strings. For the first 100 years of the
modern game, rackets were made of wood and of standard size, and
strings were of animal gut. Laminated wood construction yielded more
strength in rackets used through most of the 20th century until first
metal and then composites of carbon graphite, ceramics, and lighter
metals such as titanium were introduced. These stronger materials
enabled the production of oversized rackets that yielded yet more
power. Meanwhile, technology led to the use of synthetic strings that
match the feel of gut yet with added durability.
Franjo Punčec in a wooden frame - late 1930s
Under modern rules of tennis, the rackets must adhere to the following
The hitting area, composed of the strings, must be flat and generally
The frame of the hitting area may not be more than 29 inches
(74 cm) in length and 12.5 inches (32 cm) in width.
The entire racket must be of a fixed shape, size, weight, and weight
distribution. There may not be any energy source built into the
The rackets must not provide any kind of communication, instruction or
advice to the player during the match.
The rules regarding rackets have changed over time, as material and
engineering advances have been made. For example, the maximum length
of the frame had been 32 inches (81 cm) until 1997, when it was
shortened to 29 inches (74 cm).
Many companies manufacture and distribute tennis rackets. Wilson, Head
and Babolat are some of the more commonly used brands; however, many
more companies exist.[example needed] The same companies sponsor
players to use these rackets in the hopes that the company name will
become more well known by the public.
A tennis racket and balls.
Tennis balls were originally made of cloth strips stitched together
with thread and stuffed with feathers. Modern tennis balls are
made of hollow vulcanized rubber with a felt coating. Traditionally
white, the predominant colour was gradually changed to optic yellow in
the latter part of the 20th century to allow for improved visibility.
Tennis balls must conform to certain criteria for size, weight,
deformation, and bounce to be approved for regulation play. The
International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation (ITF) defines the official diameter as
65.41–68.58 mm (2.575–2.700 in). Balls must weigh
between 56.0 and 59.4 g (1.98 and 2.10 oz).
were traditionally manufactured in the
United States and Europe.
Although the process of producing the balls has remained virtually
unchanged for the past 100 years, the majority of manufacturing now
takes place in the Far East. The relocation is due to cheaper labour
costs and materials in the region.
Advanced players improve their performance through a number of
accoutrements. Vibration dampeners may be interlaced in the proximal
part of the string array for improved feel. Racket handles may be
customized with absorbent or rubber-like materials to improve the
players' grip. Players often use sweat bands on their wrists to keep
their hands dry and head bands or bandanas to keep the sweat out of
their eyes as well. Finally, although the game can be played in a
variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for
stability and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.
Manner of play
The dimensions of a tennis court
Two players before a serve
For individual terms see: Glossary of tennis
Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface. The court is 78 feet
(23.77 m) long, and 27 feet (8.2 m) wide for singles matches
and 36 ft (11 m) for doubles matches. Additional clear
space around the court is required in order for players to reach
overrun balls. A net is stretched across the full width of the court,
parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends. It is
held up by either a metal cable or cord that can be no more than
0.8 cm (1⁄3 in). The net is 3 feet 6 inches
(1.07 m) high at the posts and 3 feet (0.91 m) high in the
center. The net posts are 3 feet (0.91 m) outside the doubles
court on each side or, for a singles net, 3 feet (0.91 m) outside
the singles court on each side.
The modern tennis court owes its design to Major Walter Clopton
Wingfield. In 1873, Wingfield patented a court much the same as the
current one for his stické tennis (sphairistike). This template was
modified in 1875 to the court design that exists today, with markings
similar to Wingfield's version, but with the hourglass shape of his
court changed to a rectangle.
Tennis is unusual in that it is played on a variety of surfaces.
Grass, clay, and hardcourts of concrete or asphalt topped with acrylic
are the most common. Occasionally carpet is used for indoor play, with
hardwood flooring having been historically used. Artificial turf
courts can also be found.
The lines that delineate the width of the court are called the
baseline (farthest back) and the service line (middle of the court).
The short mark in the center of each baseline is referred to as either
the hash mark or the center mark. The outermost lines that make up the
length are called the doubles sidelines. These are the boundaries used
when doubles is being played. The lines to the inside of the doubles
sidelines are the singles sidelines and are used as boundaries in
singles play. The area between a doubles sideline and the nearest
singles sideline is called the doubles alley, which is considered
playable in doubles play. The line that runs across the center of a
player's side of the court is called the service line because the
serve must be delivered into the area between the service line and the
net on the receiving side. Despite its name, this is not where a
player legally stands when making a serve.
The line dividing the service line in two is called the center line or
center service line. The boxes this center line creates are called the
service boxes; depending on a player's position, he or she will have
to hit the ball into one of these when serving. A ball is out only
if none of it has hit the line or the area inside the lines upon its
first bounce. All lines are required to be between 1 and 2 inches (25
and 51 mm) in width, with the exception of the baseline which can
be up to 4 inches (100 mm) wide (although in practice it is often
created the same width as the rest).
Play of a single point
Main article: Point (tennis)
The players (or teams) start on opposite sides of the net. One player
is designated the server, and the opposing player is the receiver. The
choice to be server or receiver in the first game and the choice of
ends is decided by a coin toss before the warm-up starts. Service
alternates game by game between the two players (or teams). For each
point, the server starts behind the baseline, between the center mark
and the sideline. The receiver may start anywhere on their side of the
net. When the receiver is ready, the server will serve, although the
receiver must play to the pace of the server.
In a legal service, the ball travels over the net (without touching
it) and into the diagonally opposite service box. If the ball hits the
net but lands in the service box, this is a let or net service, which
is void, and the server retakes that serve. The player can serve any
number of let services in a point and they are always treated as voids
and not as faults. A fault is a serve that falls long or wide of the
service box, or does not clear the net. There is also a "foot fault",
which occurs when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension
of the center mark before the ball is hit. If the second service is
also a fault, the server double faults, and the receiver wins the
point. However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service.
A legal service starts a rally, in which the players alternate hitting
the ball across the net. A legal return consists of the player or team
hitting the ball before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures
except the net, provided that it still falls in the server's court. A
player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must
travel past the net into the other players' court. A ball that hits
the net during a rally is still considered a legal return as long as
it crosses into the opposite side of the court. The first player or
team to fail to make a legal return loses the point. The server then
moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new
Tennis scoring system
"Break point" redirects here. For software term, see Breakpoint.
Game, set, match
A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player
serving. A game is won by the first player to have won at least four
points in total and at least two points more than the opponent. The
running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to
tennis: scores from zero to three points are described as "love",
"15", "30", and "40", respectively. If at least three points have been
scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at 40 apiece,
the score is not called out as "40-40", but rather as "deuce". If at
least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one
more point than his opponent, the score of the game is "advantage" for
the player in the lead. During informal games, "advantage" can also be
called "ad in" or "van in" when the serving player is ahead, and "ad
out" or "van out" when the receiving player is ahead.
The scoreboard of a match between
Andy Roddick and Cyril Saulnier.
The score of a tennis game during play is always read with the serving
player's score first. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the
point count (e.g., "15-love") after each point. At the end of a game,
the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall
A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating
between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain
criteria. Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games
and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won
six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played. If the
leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7–5. If the
trailing player wins the game (tying the set 6–6) a tie-break is
played. A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one
player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set
score of 7–6. A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero
games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA. In tournament
play, the chair umpire announces the winner of the set and the overall
score. The final score in sets is always read with the winning
player's score first, e.g. "6–2, 4–6, 6–0, 7–5".
A match consists of a sequence of sets. The outcome is determined
through a best of three or five sets system. On the professional
circuit, men play best-of-five-set matches at all four Grand Slam
tournaments, Davis Cup, and the final of the
Olympic Games and
best-of-three-set matches at all other tournaments, while women play
best-of-three-set matches at all tournaments. The first player to win
two sets in a best-of-three, or three sets in a best-of-five, wins the
match. Only in the final sets of matches at the Australian Open,
the French Open, Wimbledon, the Olympic Games,
Davis Cup (until 2015),
Fed Cup are tie-breaks not played. In these cases, sets are played
indefinitely until one player has a two-game lead, leading to some
remarkably long matches.
In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match
with the well-known phrase "Game, set, match" followed by the winning
person's or team's name.
Special point terms
A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead
in the game needs only one more point to win the game. The terminology
is extended to sets (set point), matches (match point), and even
championships (championship point). For example, if the player who is
serving has a score of 40-love, the player has a triple game point
(triple set point, etc.) as the player has three consecutive chances
to win the game. Game points, set points, and match points are not
part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in
A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server, has a chance to
win the game with the next point. Break points are of particular
importance because serving is generally considered advantageous, with
servers being expected to win games in which they are serving. A
receiver who has one (score of 30–40 or advantage), two (score of
15–40) or three (score of love-40) consecutive chances to win the
game has break point, double break point or triple break point,
respectively. If the receiver does, in fact, win their break point,
the game is awarded to the receiver, and the receiver is said to have
converted their break point. If the receiver fails to win their break
point it is called a failure to convert. Winning break points, and
thus the game, is also referred to as breaking serve, as the receiver
has disrupted, or broken the natural advantage of the server. If in
the following game the previous server also wins a break point it is
referred to as breaking back. Except where tie-breaks apply, at least
one break of serve is required to win a set.
See also: Types of tennis match
From 'No advantage'. Scoring method created by Jimmy Van Alen. The
first player or doubles team to win four points wins the game,
regardless of whether the player or team is ahead by two points. When
the game score reaches three points each, the receiver chooses which
side of the court (advantage court or deuce court) the service is to
be delivered on the seventh and game-deciding point. Utilized by World
Tennis professional competition, ATP tours, WTA tours, ITF Pro
Doubles and ITF Junior Doubles.
Instead of playing multiple sets, players may play one "pro set". A
pro set is first to 8 (or 10) games by a margin of two games, instead
of first to 6 games. A 12-point tie-break is usually played when the
score is 8–8 (or 10–10). These are often played with no-ad
This is sometimes played instead of a third set. A match tie-break
(also called super tie-break) is played like a regular tie-break, but
the winner must win ten points instead of seven. Match tie-breaks are
used in the Hopman Cup, Grand Slams (excluding Wimbledon) and the
Olympic Games for mixed doubles; on the ATP (since 2006), WTA (since
2007) and ITF (excluding four Grand Slam tournaments and the Davis
Cup) tours for doubles and as a player's choice in USTA league play.
Fast4 is a shortened format that offers a "fast" alternative, with
four points, four games and four rules: there are no advantage scores,
lets are played, tie-breakers apply at three games all and the first
to four games wins the set.
Another, however informal, tennis format is called Canadian doubles.
This involves three players, with one person playing a doubles team.
The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only
for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does not use the
alleys when executing a shot. The scoring is the same as a regular
game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body.
"Australian doubles", another informal and unsanctioned form of
tennis, is played with similar rules to the
Canadian doubles style,
only in this version, players rotate court position after each game.
As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a
match, with the singles player always serving. Scoring styles vary,
but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game,
with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve and the
doubles team each taking one if they break serve.
Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as
people who require a wheelchair for mobility. An extra bounce is
permitted. This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and
able-bodied matches. It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a
wheelchair player and an able-bodied player (referred to as "one-up,
one-down"), or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied
player. In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the
wheelchair users only.
An umpire informing two players of the rules
Main article: Official (tennis)
In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an
officiating head judge or chair umpire (usually referred to as the
umpire), who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court. The
umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The
umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball
has landed within the required part of the court and who also call
foot faults. There also may be a net judge who determines whether the
ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to
overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a
clear mistake has been made.
In some tournaments, line judges who would be calling the serve, were
assisted by electronic sensors that beeped to indicate the serve was
out. This system was called "Cyclops". Cyclops has since largely
been replaced by the
Hawk-Eye system. In professional
tournaments using this system, players are allowed three unsuccessful
appeals per set, plus one additional appeal in the tie-break to
challenge close line calls by means of an electronic review. The US
Open, Miami Masters, US Open Series, and
World Team Tennis
World Team Tennis started
using this challenge system in 2006 and the
Australian Open and
Wimbledon introduced the system in 2007. In clay-court matches,
such as at the French Open, a call may be questioned by reference to
the mark left by the ball's impact on the court surface.
The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final
authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or
team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the
tennis rules were violated (question of law) but may not change the
umpire's decision on a question of fact. If, however, the referee is
on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's
decision (This would only happen in
Davis Cup or
Fed Cup matches, not
at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral
country is in the chair).
Ball boys and girls may be employed to retrieve balls, pass them to
the players, and hand players their towels. They have no adjudicative
role. In rare events (e.g., if they are hurt or if they have caused a
hindrance), the umpire may ask them for a statement of what actually
happened. The umpire may consider their statements when making a
decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make
their own calls, trusting each other to be honest. This is the case
for many school and university level matches. The referee or referee's
assistant, however, can be called on court at a player's request, and
the referee or assistant may change a player's call. In unofficiated
matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is
sure that the ball is out.
Main article: Junior tennis
In tennis, a junior is a player under 18 who is still legally
protected by a parent or guardian. Players on the main adult tour who
are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These
players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments.
International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation (ITF) conducts a junior tour that
allows juniors to establish a world ranking and an Association of
Tennis Professionals (ATP) or
Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association (WTA)
ranking. Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by
progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments
before entering the main circuit. The latter three circuits also have
adults competing in them. Some juniors, however, such as Australian
Lleyton Hewitt and Frenchman Gaël Monfils, have catapulted directly
from the junior tour to the ATP tour by dominating the junior scene or
by taking advantage of opportunities given to them to participate in
In 2004, the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage
greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings (singles
and doubles) into one combined tally. Junior tournaments do not
offer prize money except for the Grand Slam tournaments, which are the
most prestigious junior events. Juniors may earn income from tennis by
participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours.
Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different
amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.
Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the
Fed Cup and
Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often
means having to begin playing at a young age. To facilitate and
nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations
have developed a junior development system. Juniors develop their play
through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all
different standards of play. Talented juniors may also receive
sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions.
Convention dictates that two players shake hands at the end of a match
A tennis match is intended to be continuous. Because stamina is a
relevant factor, arbitrary delays are not permitted. In most cases,
service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of
the previous point. This is increased to 90 seconds when the
players change ends (after every odd-numbered game), and a 2-minute
break is permitted between sets. Other than this, breaks are
permitted only when forced by events beyond the players' control, such
as rain, damaged footwear, damaged racket, or the need to retrieve an
errant ball. Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly,
the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent
penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player
who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.
In the event of a rain delay, darkness or other external conditions
halting play, the match is resumed at a later time, with the same
score as at the time of the delay, and the players at the same end of
the court when rain halted play, or at the same position (north or
south) if play is resumed on a different court.
Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA
tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first
change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of
balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up. As a courtesy to the
receiver, the server will often signal to the receiver before the
first serve of the game in which new balls are used as a reminder that
they are using new balls. However, in ITF tournaments like Fed Cup,
the balls are changed in a 9–11 style. Continuity of the balls'
condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is
required after an extended break in play (usually due to rain), then
the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the
match balls is resumed only when play resumes.
A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis
during a match. This has been introduced in women's
WTA Tour events in 2009 and allows the player to request
her coach once per set.
A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her
repertoire: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half-volley,
overhead smash, drop shot, and lob.
Main article: Grip (Tennis)
A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a
match. The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the
ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot. Players
use various grips during play, including the Continental (The
Handshake Grip"), Eastern (Can be either semi-eastern or full
eastern. Usually used for backhands.), and Western (semi-western or
full western, usually for forehand grips) grips. Most players change
grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for
example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip.
Main article: Serve (tennis)
Martina Navratilova featured on a Paraguayan stamp
A serve (or, more formally, a "service") in tennis is a shot to start
a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and
hitting it (usually near the apex of its trajectory) into the
diagonally opposite service box without touching the net. The serve
may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a
rarity. If the ball hits the net on the first serve and bounces
over into the correct diagonal box then it is called a "let" and the
server gets two more additional serves to get it in. There can also be
a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't
prepared. If the server misses his or her first serve and gets a
let on the second serve, then they get one more try to get the serve
in the box.
Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve
to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different
types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and
kick (American twist) serve. A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a
manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server,
the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness. If the
ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the
hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise.
Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the
point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with
their serve. A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is
called an "ace".
Main article: Forehand
For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the
right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made
with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body. There are
various grips for executing the forehand, and their popularity has
fluctuated over the years. The most important ones are the
continental, the eastern, the semi-western, and the western. For a
number of years, the small, frail 1920s player Bill Johnston was
considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke
that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip. Few top players used
the western grip after the 1920s, but in the latter part of the 20th
century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically,
the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many
modern players. No matter which grip is used, most forehands are
generally executed with one hand holding the racket, but there have
been fine players with two-handed forehands. In the 1940s and 50s, the
Pancho Segura used a two-handed forehand to
achieve a devastating effect against larger, more powerful players.
Players such as
Monica Seles or France's
Fabrice Santoro and Marion
Bartoli are also notable players known for their two-handed
Main article: Backhand
Andy Murray hitting a two-handed backhand.
For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the
left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is
made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body. It can
be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally
considered more difficult to master than the forehand. For most of the
20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either
an eastern or a continental grip. The first notable players to use two
hands were the 1930s Australians
Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich, but
they were lonely exceptions. The two-handed grip gained popularity in
the 1970s as Björn Borg, Chris Evert, Jimmy Connors, and later Mats
Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used
by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal
and Serena Williams.
Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a
slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory
bounce. Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player
long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge,
had a powerful one-handed stroke in the 1930s and 1940s that imparted
topspin onto the ball. Ken Rosewall, another player noted for his
one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the
1950s and 1960s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles, use
two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.
A volley is a shot returned to the opponent in mid-air before the ball
bounces, generally performed near the net, and is usually made with a
stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the
opponent's court. The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the
rise just after it has bounced, also generally in the vicinity of the
net, and played with the racket close to the ground. The swinging
volley is hit out of the air as the player approaches the net. It is
an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the
opponent, as it returns the ball into the opponent's court much faster
than a standard volley.
From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as
either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and
deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into
better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it
over the opponent's head. If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the
other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an
overhead smash, a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.
A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the
backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the
reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a
high slice (under the ball or sideways). Fewer players attempt the
backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high
topspin backhand, while themselves in the air. A successful execution
of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less
margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this
shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.
If an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an
unexpected drop shot, by softly tapping the ball just over the net so
that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it.
Advanced players will often apply back spin to a drop shot, causing
the ball to "skid" upon landing and bounce sideways, with less forward
momentum toward their opponent, or even backwards towards the net,
thus making it even more difficult to return.
Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis. When
an isolated large-energy appears during the muscle contraction and at
the same time body weight apply huge amount of pressure to the
lengthened muscle which can result in the occurrence of muscle
strain. Inflammation and bleeding are triggered when muscle strain
occur which resulted in redness, pain and swelling. Overuse is
also common in tennis players from all level. Muscle, cartilage,
nerves, bursae, ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse. The
repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and
recover in the most common case among the injury.
See also: List of tennis tournaments
Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players.
Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's
singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of the net.
Tournaments may be organized for specific age groups, with upper age
limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players. Example of
this include the Orange Bowl and
Les Petits As junior tournaments.
There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as
wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis. In the four Grand Slam
tournaments, the singles draws are limited to 128 players for each
Most large tournaments seed players, but players may also be matched
by their skill level. According to how well a person does in
sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted
periodically to maintain competitive matches. For example, the United
Tennis Association administers the National
Program (NTRP), which rates players between 1.0 and 7.0 in 1/2 point
increments. Average club players under this system would rate
3.0–4.5 while world class players would be 7.0 on this scale.
Grand Slam tournaments
The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most
prestigious tennis events in the world. They are held annually and
comprise, in chronological order, the Australian Open, the French
Open, Wimbledon, and the US Open. Apart from the Olympic Games, Davis
Cup, Fed Cup, and Hopman Cup, they are the only tournaments regulated
International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation (ITF). The ITF's national
Tennis Australia (Australian Open), the Fédération
Tennis (French Open), the Lawn
(Wimbledon) and the
United States Tennis Association
United States Tennis Association (US Open) are
delegated the responsibility to organize these events.
Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also
carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth
double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next
echelon of tournaments, the Masters 1000 (men) and Premier events
(women). Another distinguishing feature is the number of
players in the singles draw. There are 128, more than any other
professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded
players, other players ranked in the world's top 100, qualifiers, and
players who receive invitations through wild cards. Grand Slam men's
tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play
best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of
events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters
and the Miami Masters.
Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that
have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in
conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis
competitions. These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies.
For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly
Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from 1988 through 1990
citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its "predominantly
white" dress code. Wimbledon has its own particular methods for
disseminating tickets, often leading tennis fans to follow complex
procedures to obtain tickets.
Grand Slam Tournaments
New York City
* The international tournament began in 1925
Men's tournament structure
ATP World Tour Masters 1000
ATP World Tour Masters 1000 is a group of nine tournaments that
form the second-highest echelon in men's tennis. Each event is held
annually, and a win at one of these events is worth 1000 ranking
points. When the ATP, led by Hamilton Jordan, began running the men's
tour in 1990, the directors designated the top nine tournaments,
outside of the Grand Slam events, as "Super 9" events. In 2000
this became the
Tennis Masters Series and in 2004 the ATP Masters
Series. In November at the end of the tennis year, the world's top
eight players compete in the ATP World Tour Finals, a tournament with
a rotating locale. It is currently held in London, England.
In August 2007 the ATP announced major changes to the tour that were
introduced in 2009. The Masters Series was renamed to the "Masters
1000", the addition of the number 1000 referring to the number of
ranking points earned by the winner of each tournament. Contrary to
earlier plans, the number of tournaments was not reduced from nine to
eight and the
Monte Carlo Masters remains part of the series although,
unlike the other events, it does not have a mandatory player
Hamburg Masters has been downgraded to a 500-point
event. The Madrid Masters moved to May and onto clay courts, and a new
Shanghai took over Madrid's former indoor October slot.
As of 2011 six of the nine "1000" level tournaments are combined ATP
and WTA events.
250 and 500 Series
The third and fourth tier of men's tennis tournaments are formed by
the ATP World Tour 500 series, consisting of 11 tournaments, and the
ATP World Tour 250 series with 40 tournaments. Like the ATP World
Tour Masters 1000, these events offer various amounts of prize money
and the numbers refer to the amount of ranking points earned by the
winner of a tournament. The
Dubai Tennis Championships
Dubai Tennis Championships offer the
largest financial incentive to players, with total prize money of
US$2,313,975 (2012). These series have various draws of 28, 32, 48
and 56 for singles and 16 and 24 for doubles. It is mandatory for
leading players to enter at least four 500 events, including at least
one after the US Open.
Challenger Tour and Futures tournaments
The Challenger Tour for men is the lowest level of tournament
administered by the ATP. It is composed of about 150 events and, as a
result, features a more diverse range of countries hosting events.
The majority of players use the Challenger Series at the beginning of
their career to work their way up the rankings. Andre Agassi, between
winning Grand Slam tournaments, plummeted to World No. 141 and used
Challenger Series events for match experience and to progress back up
the rankings. The Challenger Series offers prize funds of between
US$25,000 and US$150,000.
Below the Challenger Tour are the Futures tournaments, events on the
ITF Men's Circuit. These tournaments also contribute towards a
ATP rankings points. Futures Tournaments offer prize funds of
between US$10,000 and US$15,000. Approximately 530 Futures
Tournaments are played each year.
Women's tournament structure
Premier events for women form the most prestigious level of events on
Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association Tour after the Grand Slam tournaments.
These events offer the largest rewards in terms of points and prize
money. Within the Premier category are Premier Mandatory, Premier 5,
and Premier tournaments. The Premier events were introduced in 2009
replacing the previous
Tier I and II tournament categories. Currently
four tournaments are Premier Mandatory, five tournaments are Premier
5, and twelve tournaments are Premier. The first tiering system in
women's tennis was introduced in 1988. At the time of its creation,
only two tournaments, the Lipton International Players Championships
Florida and the German Open in Berlin, comprised the Tier I
International tournaments are the second main tier of the WTA tour and
consist of 31 tournaments, with a prize money for every event at
U.S.$220,000, except for the year-ending Commonwealth Bank Tournament
of Champions in Bali, which has prize money of U.S.$600,000.
Professional tennis players enjoy the same relative perks as most top
sports personalities: clothing, equipment and endorsements. Like
players of other individual sports such as golf, they are not
salaried, but must play and finish highly in tournaments to obtain
In recent years, some controversy has surrounded the involuntary or
deliberate noise caused by players' grunting.
Grand Slam tournament winners
The following players have won at least five singles titles at Grand
Margaret Court (24)
Serena Williams (23)
Steffi Graf (22)
Helen Wills Moody
Helen Wills Moody (19)
Chris Evert (18)
Martina Navratilova (18)
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King (12)
Maureen Connolly Brinker
Maureen Connolly Brinker (9)
Monica Seles (9)
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory (8)
Suzanne Lenglen (8)
Dorothea Lambert Chambers
Dorothea Lambert Chambers (7)
Maria Bueno (7)
Evonne Goolagong Cawley
Evonne Goolagong Cawley (7)
Venus Williams (7)
Justine Henin (7)
Blanche Bingley Hillyard
Blanche Bingley Hillyard (6)
Doris Hart (6)
Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Osborne duPont (6)
Nancye Wynne Bolton
Nancye Wynne Bolton (6)
Louise Brough Clapp
Louise Brough Clapp (6)
Lottie Dod (5)
Charlotte Cooper Sterry
Charlotte Cooper Sterry (5)
Daphne Akhurst Cozens
Daphne Akhurst Cozens (5)
Helen Jacobs (5)
Alice Marble (5)
Pauline Betz Addie
Pauline Betz Addie (5)
Althea Gibson (5)
Martina Hingis (5)
Maria Sharapova (5)
Roger Federer (20)
Rafael Nadal (16)
Pete Sampras (14)
Roy Emerson (12)
Novak Djokovic (12)
Rod Laver (11)
Björn Borg (11)
Bill Tilden (10)
Fred Perry (8)
Ken Rosewall (8)
Jimmy Connors (8)
Ivan Lendl (8)
Andre Agassi (8)
William Renshaw (7)
Richard Sears (7)
William Larned (7)
Henri Cochet (7)
René Lacoste (7)
John Newcombe (7)
John McEnroe (7)
Mats Wilander (7)
Laurence Doherty (6)
Anthony Wilding (6)
Donald Budge (6)
Jack Crawford (6)
Boris Becker (6)
Stefan Edberg (6)
Frank Sedgman (5)
Tony Trabert (5)
Margaret Court (b. 1942).
Roger Federer (b. 1981).
Greatest male players
Tennis male players statistics and World number
one male tennis player rankings
A frequent topic of discussion among tennis fans and commentators is
who was the greatest male singles player of all time. By a large
Associated Press poll in 1950 named
Bill Tilden as the
greatest player of the first half of the 20th century. From 1920
to 1930, Tilden won singles titles at Wimbledon three times and the
U.S. Championships seven times. In 1938, however,
Donald Budge became
the first person to win all four major singles titles during the same
calendar year, the Grand Slam, and won six consecutive major titles in
1937 and 1938. Tilden called Budge "the finest player 365 days a year
that ever lived." In his 1979 autobiography,
Jack Kramer said
that, based on consistent play, Budge was the greatest player
ever. Some observers, however, also felt that Kramer deserved
consideration for the title. Kramer was among the few who dominated
amateur and professional tennis during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Tony Trabert has said that of the players he saw before the start of
the open era, Kramer was the best male champion.
By the 1960s, Budge and others had added
Pancho Gonzales and Lew Hoad
to the list of contenders. Budge reportedly believed that Gonzales was
the greatest player ever. Gonzales said about Hoad, "When Lew's
game was at its peak nobody could touch him. ... I think his game
was the best game ever. Better than mine. He was capable of making
more shots than anybody. His two volleys were great. His overhead was
enormous. He had the most natural tennis mind with the most natural
During the open era, first
Rod Laver and more recently
Björn Borg and
Pete Sampras were regarded by many of their contemporaries as among
the greatest ever. Andre Agassi, the first of two male players in
history to have achieved a
Career Golden Slam
Career Golden Slam in singles tennis
(followed by Rafael Nadal), has been called the best service returner
in the history of the game. He is the first man to win
slams on all modern surfaces (previous holders of all slams played in
an era of grass and clay only), and is regarded by a number of critics
and fellow players to be among the greatest players of all
Roger Federer is considered by many observers to have
the most "complete" game in modern tennis. He has won 20 grand slam
titles and 6 World Tour Finals, the most for any male player. Many
experts of tennis, former tennis players and his own tennis peers
believe Federer is the greatest player in the history of the
game. Federer's biggest rival Rafael
Nadal is regarded as the greatest competitor in tennis history by some
former players and is regarded to have the potential to be the
greatest of all time. Nadal is regarded as the greatest clay
court player of all time.
Serena Wiiliams July 2008
Greatest female players
World number 1 women tennis players and List of
WTA number 1 ranked players
As with the men there are frequent discussions about who is the
greatest female singles player of all time with Steffi Graf, Martina
Serena Williams being the three players most often
In March 2012 the TennisChannel published a combined list of the 100
greatest men and women tennis players of all time. It ranked
Steffi Graf as the greatest female player (in 3rd place overall),
Martina Navratilova (4th place) and
Margaret Court (8th
place). The rankings were determined by an international panel.
Sportwriter John Wertheim of
Sports Illustrated stated in an article
in July 2010 that
Serena Williams is the greatest female tennis player
ever with the argument that "Head-to-head, on a neutral surface (i.e.
hard courts), everyone at their best, I can't help feeling that she
crushes the other legends.". In a reaction to this article Yahoo
sports blog Busted Racket published a list of the top-10 women's
tennis players of all time placing
Martina Navratilova in first
spot. This top-10 list was similar to the one published in June
2008 by the Bleacher Report who also ranked
Martina Navratilova as the
top female player of all time.
Steffi Graf is considered by some to be the greatest female player.
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King said in 1999, "Steffi is definitely the greatest
women's tennis player of all time."
Martina Navratilova has
included Graf on her list of great players. In December 1999,
Graf was named the greatest female tennis player of the 20th century
by a panel of experts assembled by the Associated Press. Tennis
writer Steve Flink, in his book The Greatest
Tennis Matches of the
Twentieth Century, named her as the best female player of the 20th
century, directly followed by Martina Navratilova.
Tennis magazine selected
Martina Navratilova as the greatest female
tennis player for the years 1965 through 2005. Tennis
historian and journalist
Bud Collins has called Navratilova "arguably,
the greatest player of all time."
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King said about
Navratilova in 2006, "She's the greatest singles, doubles and mixed
doubles player who's ever lived."
In popular culture
Tennis balles" are mentioned by
William Shakespeare in his play Henry
V (1599), when a basket of them is given to King Henry as a mockery of
his youth and playfulness.
David Foster Wallace, an amateur tennis player himself at Urbana High
School in Illinois, included tennis in many of his works of
nonfiction and fiction including "
Tennis Player Michael Joyce's
Professional Artistry as a Paradigm of Certain Stuff about Choice,
Freedom, Discipline, Joy, Grotesquerie, and Human Completeness," the
autobiographical piece "Derivative Sport in Tornado Alley," and
Infinite Jest, which is partially set at the fictional "Enfield Tennis
Academy" in Massachusetts.
The Prince of Tennis
The Prince of Tennis revolves around the tennis
prodigy Echizen Ryoma and tennis matches between rival schools.
The Royal Tenenbaums
The Royal Tenenbaums (2001) features Richie Tenenbaum (Luke Wilson), a
tennis pro who suffers from depression and has a breakdown on court in
front of thousands of fans.
Wimbledon (2004) is a film about a discouraged pro tennis player (Paul
Bettany) who meets a young woman on the women's tennis circuit
(Kirsten Dunst) who helps him find his drive to go and win
The Squid and the Whale (2005), Joan (Laura Linney) has an affair
with her kids' tennis coach, Ivan (William Baldwin). In a symbolic
scene, Joan's ex-husband, Bernard (Jeff Daniels), loses a tennis match
against Ivan in front of the kids.
Match Point (2005) features a love affair between a
former tennis pro (Jonathan Rhys Meyers) and his best friend's fiancé
Confetti (2006) is a mockumentary which sees three couples competing
to win the title of "Most Original Wedding of the Year". One competing
Meredith MacNeill and Stephen Mangan) are a pair of
hyper-competitive professional tennis players holding a tennis-themed
There are several tennis video games including Mario Tennis, the
TopSpin series, Wii Sports, and Grand Slam Tennis.
Outline of tennis
Glossary of tennis
^ William J. Baker (1988). "Sports in the Western World". p.182.
Disraeli (1845) Sybil, chapter 1
^ Gillmeister, Heiner (1998). Tennis : A Cultural History.
Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press. p. 117.
^ a b Newman, Paul B. (2001). Daily life in the Middle Ages.
Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 163.
^ a b Gillmeister, Heiner (1998). Tennis : A Cultural History
(Repr. ed.). London: Leicester University Press. pp. 17–21.
^ John Moyer Heathcote; C. G. Heathcote; Edward Oliver
Pleydell-Bouverie; Arthur Campbell Ainger (1901). Tennis.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 10 June 1927.
Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ Crego, Robert. Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries, page
^ a b J. Perris (2000) Grass tennis courts: how to construct and
maintain them p.8. STRI, 2000
^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National Ockham's Razor,
first broadcast 6 June 2010.
^ Tyzack, Anna, The True Home of
Tennis Country Life, 22 June 2005
Harry Gem Project". theharrygemproject.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May
Tennis Club". Retrieved 18 March 2008.
^ E. M. Halliday. "Sphairistiké, Anyone?". American Heritage.
Retrieved 2 May 2012.
Walter Clopton Wingfield
Walter Clopton Wingfield International
Tennis Hall of Fame.
Retrieved 24 September 2011
^ a b c "125 years of Wimbledon: From birth of lawn tennis to modern
marvels". CNN. Retrieved 21 September 2011
^ a b "History of Tennis". International
Tennis Federation. Retrieved
28 July 2008.
^ Grimsley, Will (1971). Tennis: Its History, People and Events.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. p. 9.
Tennis on Staten Island". The New York Times. 4 September
1880. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ "History of
Tennis Association". Archived from the
original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ "Fact & History". Rhodes Island Government. Retrieved 29 May
^ "History of the U.S. National Championships/US Open". USOpen.org.
Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ "History of the French Open". Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ a b c d "
Suzanne Lenglen and the First Pro Tour". Retrieved 29 May
^ "Originality of the phrase "Grand Slam"". Archived from the original
on 6 September 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ "James Henry Van Alen in the
Tennis Hall of Fame". Archived from the
original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
Tennis Event". ITF. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
Tennis and Olympics Love Affair". SportsPundit.com. Retrieved 2
Davis Cup History". ITF. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
Fed Cup History". ITF. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ "History of the Pro
Tennis Wars Chapter 2, part 1 1927–1928".
Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ Open Minded – Bruce Goldman
^ a b Henderson, Jon (10 December 2008). "Middle-class heroes can lift
our game". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
^ Kate Magee (10 July 2008). "Max Clifford to help shed tennis'
middle-class image". PR Week. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
International Tennis Hall of Fame
International Tennis Hall of Fame Information". Archived from the
original on 18 May 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ "ITF Tennis – Technical – Appendix II". ITF. Retrieved
4 May 2012.
^ "ITF Tennis – Technical – The Racket". ITF. Retrieved
4 May 2012.
^ Grimsley, Will (1971). Tennis: Its History, People and Events:
Styles of the Greats. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
p. 14. ISBN 0-13-903377-7.
^ a b "History of Rule 3 - The Ball". ITF. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
^ "Balls- Manufacture". ITF. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
^ a b "
Tennis court dimensions". Sportsknowhow.com. Retrieved 29 May
Tennis Federation. "ITF Rules of Tennis" (PDF). United
Tennis Association Website. USTA. Retrieved 27 September
Tennis court history – Grass". ITF. Retrieved 28 July
^ "Surface Descriptions". International
Tennis Federation. Retrieved
15 October 2015.
^ a b "ITF Rules of Tennis – Rule 1 (The Court)" (PDF). ITF.
Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ "ITF Rules of Tennis – Rule 17 (Serving)" (PDF). ITF.
Retrieved 3 May 2012.
Tennis Terminology". cbs.com. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
^ "ATP Most Jam Donuts Served". Tennis.com. Retrieved 6 May
^ From 1984 through 1998, women played first-to-win-three-sets in the
final of the year-ending
WTA Tour Championships.
^ "WTT Firsts & Innovations". WTT.com. Archived from the original
on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ "Alternative Procedures and Scoring Methods". ITF. Retrieved 3 May
^ a b "ITF Rules of Tennis – Appendix V (Role of Court
Officials)" (PDF). ITF. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
^ "Cyclops and speed guns". BBC. 20 June 2003. Retrieved 6 May
^ "Cyclops knocked off centre as Wimbledon adopts Hawkeye". The
Guardian. London. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ Evans, Richard (27 June 2009). "Hawk-eye Vision". The Guardian.
London. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "The History Of Hawk-Eye". WTA Tour. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 6
^ "ITF Announce Combined Junior Rankings" (PDF). ITF. Retrieved 6 May
^ a b c "The ITF states this in Rule No. 29" (PDF).
^ "Code of Conduct for 2012 ITF Pro Circuits Tournaments" (PDF). ITF.
Retrieved 7 May 2012. The first violation of this Section shall be
penalised by a Time Violation warning and each subsequent violation
shall be penalised by the assessment of one Time Violation point
Tennis On-Court Coaching". Expert-tennis-tips.com.
^ "Coaching during a match". USTA. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
Tennis Coaching Debate". NPR. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
^ "Does on-court coaching have a future?". ESPN. Retrieved 7 May
^ WTA 2012 Official Rulebook Chapter XVII/H
^ "Grip Guide — A Grip on Your Game". Tennis.com. Retrieved 3
^ "Chang refused to lose 20 years ago". ESPN.com. Retrieved 6 May
Tennis Federation. "ITF Rules of Tennis" (PDF). United
Tennis Association Website. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
^ "Serves". BBC. 12 September 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "The Two-handed
Forehand Revisited". TennisONE. Retrieved 6 May
^ Damir Popadic. "Two-Handed is Superior to One-Handed Backhand"
(PDF). ITF. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ Grasso, John. Historical Dictionary of Tennis. Lanham, Md.:
Scarecrow Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8108-7237-0.
^ Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Renstrom, Per A.; Safran, Marc R. (1 June
2012). "Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injury in the tennis player".
British Journal of Sports Medicine. 46 (7): 492–498.
doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091164. ISSN 1473-0480.
^ a b c Levangie, P. K., & Norkin, C. C. (2011). Joint structure
and function: A comprehensive analysis (5th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A.
Davis Co. ISBN 9780803623620. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
Lawn Tennis Association
Lawn Tennis Association Deaf tennis". Archived from the original on
5 February 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
^ a b "Grand Slams Overview". ITF. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ a b "
ATP Rankings FAQ". ATP. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
WTA Tour Rankings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19
January 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
^ Sarah Holt (15 June 2005). "What not to wear at Wimbledon". BBC
Sport. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
^ "10 Ways to Grab a Seat at Wimbledon 2010".
Wimbledondebentureholders.com. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
^ "History of Tennis". Retrieved 16 March 2008.
London to host World Tour Final". BBC Sport, Piers Newbery. 3 July
2007. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
^ "ATP Tour 2009". Coretennis.net. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
^ "ATP World Tour Season". ATP. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
^ "Dubai Duty Free
Tennis Championships". ATP. Retrieved 6 May
^ "About the Challenger Circuit". Association of
Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 2 May
^ "An appreciation of Andre Agassi". ESPN, Matt Wilansky. 1 July 2006.
Retrieved 18 March 2008.
^ "About the ITF Men's Circuit". International
Retrieved 18 March 2008.
^ "Tilden brought theatrics to tennis".
^ "Don Budge's Comments After 1937
Davis Cup Semi-final Match Against
Baron Gottfried von Cramm (1:07)". Archived from the original on 26
April 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ Kramer, Jack; Deford, Frank (1979). The Game, My 40 Years in Tennis.
^ Richard Pagliaro (26 February 2004). "The
Tennis Week Interview:
Tony Trabert Part II". Archived from the original on 27 September
2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
^ Will Grimsley, Tennis: Its History, People, and Events (1971)
^ "Hoad" (PDF). Jame Buddell. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
^ a b Molinaro, John. "CBC Sports: "Tennis's love affair with Agassi
comes to an end"". Cbc.ca. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013.
Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ "Reed's shotmakers: Men's return of serve". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved
15 May 2010.
^ "Adjectives Tangled in the Net". The New York Times. Retrieved 15
^ Dwyre, Bill (14 March 1995). "Sampras, Agassi Have Just Begun to
Fight". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
^ Parsons, John (26 June 2002). "Grand-slammed". The Daily Telegraph.
London. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "Stars pay tribute to Agassi". BBC Sport. 4 September 2006.
Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "Roddick: Federer might be greatest ever". USA Today. Associated
Press. 3 July 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2007.
^ "Federer inspires comparisons to all-time greats". CNN. Associated
Press. 12 September 2004. Archived from the original on 13 March 2005.
Retrieved 2 March 2007.
^ "4-In-A-Row For Federer". CBS News. Associated Press. 9 July 2006.
Retrieved 2 March 2007.
^ Sarkar, Pritha (4 July 2005). "Greatness beckons Federer". Reuters.
Retrieved 2 March 2007.
^ Collins, Bud (3 July 2005). "Federer Simply In a League of His Own".
MSNBC Website. MSNBC.COM. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
^ Newbery, Piers (5 July 2009). "BBC – Federer Breaks Sampras
Record". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
^ "Federer or Nadal? Re-Analyzing the Greatest of All-Time Debate".
Tennis Magazine. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ "Nadal has the talent to be the greatest of all time – but only if
his knees are up to it « Grand Slam Professional Tennis
Predictions and Picks by Nick Bollettieri". Nickstennispicks.com. 6
July 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ "A Retrospective: Who's the Best
Tennis Player on Clay?". Bleacher
Report. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
^ "100 Greatest of All Time". The
Tennis Channel. Archived from the
original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ Wertheim, John (7 July 2010). "I said it:
Serena Williams is game's
greatest ever". SI.com. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ "Ranking the top-10 women's tennis players of all time". Yahoo.
Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ "Greatest Ever: Tennis: The Top Ten Female Players of All Time".
Bleacher Report. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ a b Finn, Robin (18 August 1999). "On Tennis; Graf Is Best, Right?
Just Don't Ask Her". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ Wilstein, Steve (7 December 1999). "
Tennis Players of the Century".
The Independent. London. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ "Exclusive Interview with Steve Flink about the career of Chris
Evert". Retrieved 3 May 2012.
^ "40 Greatest Players of the
Tennis Era". Tennis. Archived from the
original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ "Redemption Has to Start Somewhere". Tennis.com. Retrieved 3 May
^ Collins, Bud (2008). The
Bud Collins History of Tennis: An
Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York, N.Y.: New
Chapter Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-942257-41-3.
^ Bonnie DeSimone (11 September 2006). "Act II of Navratilova's career
ends with a win". ESPN. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ "Brief Interview with a Five Draft Man". Amherst Magazine. Retrieved
28 June 2009.
^ "The Royal Tenenbaums". IMDB.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "Wimbledon". IMDB.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "The Squid and the Whale". IMDB.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "Match Point". IMDB.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
^ "Confetti". IMDB.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
Topspin 4 Official Website". 2K Sports. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
Tennis official website". Nintendo. Retrieved 7 May
Barrett, John Wimbledon: The Official History of the Championships
(HarperCollins, 2001) ISBN 978-0-00-711707-9
Collins, Bud History of Tennis — An Authoritative Encyclopedia
and Record Book (New Chapter Press, 2010) ISBN 978-0-942257-70-0
Danzig, Allison and Peter Schwed (ed.) The Fireside Book of Tennis
(Simon & Schuster, 1972) ISBN 978-0-671-21128-8
Doherty, Reginald Frank R.F. and H.L. Doherty — On Lawn Tennis
(Kessinger Publishing, 2010) ISBN 978-1-167-08589-5
Dwight, Eleanor Tie Breaker —
Jimmy Van Alen
Jimmy Van Alen and
Tennis in the
20th century (Scala Books, 2010) ISBN 978-1-905377-40-4
Gillmeister, Heiner Tennis: A Cultural History (Continuum, 1998)
Grimsley, Will Tennis — Its History, People and Events
(Prentice-Hall, 1971) ISBN 0-13-903377-7
King, Billie Jean and Starr, Cynthia We Have Come a Long Way
(McGraw-Hill, 1998) ISBN 0-07-034625-9
Whitman, Malcolm D. Tennis — Origins and Mysteries (Dover
Publications, 2004) ISBN 0-486-43357-9
Find more aboutTennisat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation (ITF)
Tennis Players (ATP) – men's professional tennis
Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association (WTA) – women's professional tennis
Tennis at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Tennis Hall of Fame
Tennis Grand Slam tournaments history
serve and volley
electronic line judge
ATP World Tour
ATP Challenger Tour
ITF Men's Circuit
WTA 125K series
ITF Women's Circuit
World Team Cup
Summer Olympic sports
Paralympic sports and Winter Olympic sports
Tennis records and statistics
Champions by country
Open Era singles
Age of first title
No. 1 rankings
No. 1 rankings
WTA singles and doubles
Ranking per country
BNF: cb11933653f (d