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TENNESSEE (/tɛnᵻˈsiː/ (_ listen )) ( Cherokee
Cherokee
: ᏔᎾᏏ, translit. Tanasi_) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States
United States
. Tennessee
Tennessee
is the 36th largest and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States
United States
. Tennessee
Tennessee
is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
to the north, North Carolina
North Carolina
to the east, Georgia , Alabama
Alabama
, and Mississippi
Mississippi
to the south, and Arkansas
Arkansas
and Missouri
Missouri
to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a population of 660,388. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis , which has a population of 652,717.

The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
is rooted in the Watauga Association , a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee
Tennessee
was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory
Territory
. Tennessee
Tennessee
was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee
Tennessee
was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.

Tennessee
Tennessee
furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, and more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting. This sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee
Tennessee
transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge . This city was established to house the Manhattan Project 's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world\'s first atomic bomb , which was used during World War II
World War II
.

Tennessee's major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Poultry , soybeans , and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park , the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, and a section of the Appalachian Trail roughly follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga ; Dollywood
Dollywood
in Pigeon Forge ; Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies and Ober Gatlinburg in Gatlinburg ; the Parthenon
Parthenon
, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum , and Ryman Auditorium in Nashville; the Jack Daniel\'s Distillery in Lynchburg ; Elvis Presley's Graceland
Graceland
residence and tomb, the Memphis Zoo , and the National Civil Rights Museum
National Civil Rights Museum
in Memphis; and Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Nickname

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 East Tennessee
East Tennessee
* 2.2 Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
* 2.3 West Tennessee
West Tennessee
* 2.4 Public lands * 2.5 Climate

* 3 Major cities

* 4 History

* 4.1 Early history * 4.2 Statehood (1796) * 4.3 Civil War and Reconstruction * 4.4 20th century * 4.5 21st century

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Birth data * 5.2 Religion

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Tax * 6.2 Tourism

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Music * 7.2 Literature

* 8 Transportation

* 8.1 Interstate highways * 8.2 Airports * 8.3 Railroads

* 9 Governance

* 9.1 Politics

* 9.2 Law enforcement

* 9.2.1 State agencies * 9.2.2 Local * 9.2.3 Firearms * 9.2.4 Capital punishment

* 9.3 Tribal

* 10 Media

* 11 Education

* 11.1 Colleges and universities * 11.2 Local school districts

* 12 Sports * 13 State symbols * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Monument near the old site of Tanasi
Tanasi
in Monroe County

The earliest variant of the name that became _Tennessee_ was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo , the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina
South Carolina
. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee
Cherokee
town named Tanasi
Tanasi
(or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee . The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River ), and appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River
French Broad River
, near modern Newport .

The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee
Cherokee
modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney , the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost.

The modern spelling, _Tennessee_, is attributed to James Glen , the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake 's "Draught of the Cherokee
Cherokee
Country " in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina
North Carolina
created " Tennessee
Tennessee
County ", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
. ( Tennessee
Tennessee
County was the predecessor to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County .) When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory , it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state.

NICKNAME

Tennessee
Tennessee
is known as THE VOLUNTEER STATE, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans
New Orleans
. Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican–American War . This explanation is more likely, because President Polk\'s call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican-American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee
Tennessee
alone, largely in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee
Tennessee
Governor and then Texas politician, Sam Houston .

GEOGRAPHY

See also: List of counties in Tennessee and Geology of Tennessee Map of Tennessee
Tennessee

Tennessee
Tennessee
borders eight other states: Kentucky
Kentucky
and Virginia
Virginia
to the north; North Carolina
North Carolina
to the east; Georgia , Alabama
Alabama
, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas
Arkansas
and Missouri
Missouri
on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the west. Tennessee
Tennessee
ties Missouri
Missouri
as the state bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River .

The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m). Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail , and is the third highest peak in the United States
United States
east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. The state line between Tennessee
Tennessee
and North Carolina
North Carolina
crosses the summit. The state's lowest point is the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at the Mississippi
Mississippi
state line: 178 feet (54 m). The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro .

The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
is geographically, culturally, economically, and legally divided into three Grand Divisions : East Tennessee
East Tennessee
, Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
, and West Tennessee
West Tennessee
. The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee
Tennessee
Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards.

Tennessee
Tennessee
features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge , the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau , the Highland Rim , the Nashville Basin , and the Gulf Coastal Plain . Tennessee
Tennessee
is home to the most caves in the United States, with over 10,000 documented caves to date.

EAST TENNESSEE

Main article: East Tennessee
East Tennessee
Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting East Tennessee
Tennessee

The Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, bordering North Carolina. This region of Tennessee
Tennessee
is characterized by the high mountains and rugged terrain of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into several subranges, namely the Great Smoky Mountains , the Bald Mountains , the Unicoi Mountains , the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands , and the Iron Mountains .

The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. Clingmans Dome , the state's highest point, is located in this region. The Blue Ridge area was never more than sparsely populated, and today much of it is protected by the Cherokee National Forest , the Great Smoky Mountains National Park , and several federal wilderness areas and state parks. Bald Mountains

Stretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately 55 miles (89 km) is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley . This area of Tennessee
Tennessee
is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain . The western section of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley . In this valley are numerous towns and two of the region's three urban areas, Knoxville , the third largest city in the state, and Chattanooga , the fourth largest city in the state. The third urban area, the Tri-Cities , comprising Bristol , Johnson City , and Kingsport and their environs, is located to the northeast of Knoxville.

The Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
rises to the west of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley; this area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
ranges from 1,500 to about 2,000 feet (460 to about 610 m) above sea level.

East Tennessee
East Tennessee
has several important transportation links with Middle and West Tennessee, as well as the rest of the nation and the world, including several major airports and interstates. Knoxville's McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) and Chattanooga's Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), as well as the Tri-Cities' Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), provide air service to numerous destinations. I-24 , I-81 , I-40 , I-75 , and I-26 along with numerous state highways and other important roads, traverse the Grand Division and connect Chattanooga, Knoxville, and the Tri-Cities, along with other cities and towns such as Cleveland , Athens , and Sevierville .

MIDDLE TENNESSEE

Main article: Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee

West of the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
is the Highland Rim , an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin . The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau ; it is located primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and great diversity of natural wildlife.

Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians from Virginia
Virginia
in the late 18th century and early 19th century. An important trading route called the Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
, created and used for many generations by American Indians, connected Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
to the lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
town of Natchez . The route of the Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
was used as the basis for a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
Parkway .

Some of the last remaining large American chestnut
American chestnut
trees grow in this region. They are being used to help breed blight -resistant trees.

Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
is one of the primary state population and transportation centers along with the heart of state government. Nashville (the capital), Clarksville , and Murfreesboro are its largest cities. Fifty percent of the US population is within 600 miles (970 km) of Nashville. Interstates I-24, I-40, and I-65 service the Division, meeting in Nashville.

WEST TENNESSEE

Main article: West Tennessee
West Tennessee
Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting West Tennessee
Tennessee

West of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain , which includes the Mississippi
Mississippi
embayment . The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois
Illinois
. In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River in the east to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the west.

The easternmost section, about 10 miles (16 km) in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee
Tennessee
River. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River; this area is called the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms or bottom land. In Memphis, the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the river. To the west of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms is the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain , less than 300 feet (91 m) above sea level. This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as the Delta region. Memphis is the economic center of West Tennessee.

Most of West Tennessee
West Tennessee
remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818 , when the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
ceded their land between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. The portion of the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
Cession that lies in Kentucky
Kentucky
is known today as the Jackson Purchase .

PUBLIC LANDS

View from atop Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park , April 2007

Areas under the control and management of the National Park Service include the following:

* Andrew Johnson National Historic Site in Greeneville * Appalachian National Scenic Trail * Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area * Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park * Cumberland Gap National Historical Park * Foothills Parkway * Fort Donelson National Battlefield and Fort Donelson National Cemetery near Dover * Great Smoky Mountains National Park * Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
Parkway * Obed Wild and Scenic River near Wartburg * Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail * Shiloh National Cemetery and Shiloh National Military Park near Shiloh * Stones River National Battlefield and Stones River National Cemetery near Murfreesboro * Trail of Tears National Historic Trail

Fifty-four state parks, covering some 132,000 acres (530 km2) as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forest , and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are in Tennessee. Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake , originally formed by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes ; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty. See also: List of Tennessee state parks

CLIMATE

A map of Köppen climate types in Tennessee
Tennessee
Autumn in Tennessee. Roadway to Lindsey Lake in David Crockett State Park
David Crockett State Park
, located a half mile west of Lawrenceburg .

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate , with the exception of some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as having a mountain temperate climate or a humid continental climate due to cooler temperatures. The Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year, with highest average monthly precipitation generally in the winter and spring months, between December and April. The driest months, on average, are August to October. On average the state receives 50 inches (130 cm) of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in West Tennessee
Tennessee
to over 16 inches (41 cm) in the higher mountains in East Tennessee.

Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state averaging a high of around 90 °F (32 °C) during the summer months. Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state. The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) at Perryville on August 9, 1930, while the lowest recorded temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) at Mountain City on December 30, 1917.

While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane , the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall, such as Tropical Storm Chris in 1982 and Hurricane
Hurricane
Opal in 1995 . The state averages around 50 days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be severe with large hail and damaging winds. Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West and Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
the most vulnerable. Occasionally, strong or violent tornadoes occur, such as the devastating April 2011 tornadoes that killed 20 people in North Georgia and Southeast Tennessee. On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year. Tornadoes in Tennessee
Tennessee
can be severe, and Tennessee
Tennessee
leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities. Winter storms are an occasional problem, such as the infamous Blizzard of 1993 , although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Fog
Fog
is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in East Tennessee.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee Cities (F)

CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

BRISTOL 44/25 49/27 57/34 66/41 74/51 81/60 85/64 84/62 79/56 68/43 58/35 48/27

CHATTANOOGA 49/30 54/33 63/40 72/47 79/56 86/65 90/69 89/68 82/62 72/48 61/40 52/33

KNOXVILLE 47/30 52/33 61/40 71/48 78/57 85/65 88/69 87/68 81/62 71/50 60/41 50/34

MEMPHIS 49/31 55/36 63/44 72/52 80/61 89/69 92/73 91/71 85/64 75/52 62/43 52/34

NASHVILLE 46/28 52/31 61/39 70/47 78/57 85/65 90/70 89/69 82/61 71/49 59/40 49/32

MAJOR CITIES

See also: List of municipalities in Tennessee and List of largest cities and towns in Tennessee
Tennessee
by population

The capital and largest city is Nashville , though Knoxville , Kingston , and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Nashville's 13-county metropolitan area has been the state's largest since c. 1990. Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has approximately one-third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Nashville. Murfreesboro is the sixth-largest city in Tennessee, consisting of 108,755 residents.

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Tennessee Source:

RANK NAME COUNTY POP.

Nashville

Memphis 1 Nashville Davidson 660,388

Knoxville

Chattanooga

2 Memphis Shelby 652,717

3 Knoxville Knox 186,239

4 Chattanooga Hamilton 177,571

5 Clarksville Montgomery 150,287

6 Murfreesboro Rutherford 131,947

7 Franklin Williamson 74,794

8 Jackson Madison 67,005

9 Johnson City Washington 66,677

10 Bartlett Shelby 58,622

HISTORY

Main article: History of Tennessee

EARLY HISTORY

Mississippian-period shell gorget , Castalian Springs , Sumner County Reconstruction of Fort Loudon , the first British settlement in Tennessee
Tennessee

The area now known as Tennessee
Tennessee
was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12,000 years ago. The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 BC), Woodland (1000 BC–1000 AD), and Mississippian (1000–1600 AD), whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley before Cherokee
Cherokee
migration into the river's headwaters.

The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee
Tennessee
were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers , namely Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which evolved to the state's current name. At that time, Tennessee
Tennessee
was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Indian tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee
Cherokee
moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the Indian populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
and Choctaw
Choctaw
, and ultimately, the Cherokee
Cherokee
in 1838 .

The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee
Tennessee
was built in 1756 by settlers from the colony of South Carolina
South Carolina
at Fort Loudoun , near present-day Vonore . Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. The fort was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. After its completion, Captain Raymond Demeré relinquished command on August 14, 1757, to his brother, Captain Paul Demeré. Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees , and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on August 7, 1760. The following morning, Captain Paul Demeré and a number of his men were killed in an ambush nearby, and most of the rest of the garrison was taken prisoner.

In the 1760s, long hunters from Virginia
Virginia
explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade. The vast majority of 18th century settlers were English or of primarily English descent but nearly 20% of them were also Scotch-Irish . These settlers formed the Watauga Association , a community built on lands leased from the Cherokee peoples.

During the American Revolutionary War , Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton ) was attacked (1776) by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee
Cherokee
who were aligned with the British Loyalists. These renegade Cherokee
Cherokee
were referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga . They opposed North Carolina's annexation of the Washington District and the concurrent settling of the Transylvania Colony further north and west. The lives of many settlers were spared from the initial warrior attacks through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin, Nancy Ward . The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains , to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina
South Carolina
.

Three counties of the Washington District (now part of Tennessee) broke off from North Carolina
North Carolina
in 1784 and formed the State of Franklin . Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties (now numbering eight) had re-joined North Carolina
North Carolina
by 1789. North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory . In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina
North Carolina
ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville ). The Trace was called the " North Carolina
North Carolina
Road" or "Avery\'s Trace ", and sometimes "The Wilderness Road" (although it should not be confused with Daniel Boone 's "Wilderness Road " through the Cumberland Gap ).

STATEHOOD (1796)

Tennessee
Tennessee
was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796 as the 16th state. It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States
United States
federal government. Apart from the former Thirteen Colonies only Vermont
Vermont
and Kentucky
Kentucky
predate Tennessee's statehood, and neither was ever a federal territory. The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia
Virginia
intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina
North Carolina
from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River.

During the administration of U.S. President Martin Van Buren , nearly 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees—were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee
Tennessee
(such as Fort Cass ) toward the more distant Indian Territory west of Arkansas
Arkansas
(now the state of Oklahoma). During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west. In the Cherokee language , the event is called _Nunna daul Isunyi_—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only American Indians forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase " Trail of Tears " is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other American Indian peoples, especially among the " Five Civilized Tribes ". The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw
Choctaw
nation.

CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

Main article: Tennessee
Tennessee
in the American Civil War

In February 1861, secessionists in Tennessee's state government—led by Governor Isham Harris —sought voter approval for a convention to sever ties with the United States, but Tennessee
Tennessee
voters rejected the referendum by a 54–46% margin. The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee
East Tennessee
(which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state ). Following the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee
Tennessee
and other states in response, Governor Isham Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. On June 8, 1861, with people in Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so.

Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee
Tennessee
rivers in February 1862. They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in front of the city. The Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections; this control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863 and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign
Tullahoma Campaign
. The Battle of Franklin
Battle of Franklin
, November 30, 1864

Confederates held East Tennessee
East Tennessee
despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County . The Confederates, led by General James Longstreet , did attack General Burnside 's Fort Sanders at Knoxville and lost. It was a big blow to East Tennessee
East Tennessee
Confederate momentum, but Longstreet won the Battle of Bean\'s Station a few weeks later. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg
Braxton Bragg
, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, Kentucky
Kentucky
to another Confederate defeat at Chattanooga.

The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin , then completely dispersed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Meanwhile, the civilian Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor of the state by President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
.

When the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
was announced, Tennessee
Tennessee
was mostly held by Union forces. Thus, Tennessee
Tennessee
was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly 200,000 in total across the South.

Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865. Voters in the state approved the amendment in March. It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7, 1865.

In 1864, Andrew Johnson (a War Democrat from Tennessee) was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee
Tennessee
was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee
Tennessee
had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment , it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.

After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee
Tennessee
and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century. Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. In 1900, African Americans made up nearly 24% of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state.

In 1897, Tennessee
Tennessee
celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. A full-scale replica of the Parthenon
Parthenon
was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park .

20TH CENTURY

A group of workers at Norris Dam
Norris Dam
construction camp site. The TVA was formed as part of Roosevelt's New Deal legislation.

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee
Tennessee
became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , which provided women the right to vote . Disfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls.

The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression , a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring flooding and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee
Tennessee
quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier.

During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory , the Y-12 National Security Complex , and the East Tennessee
East Tennessee
Technology Park.

Despite recognized effects of limiting voting by poor whites, successive legislatures expanded the reach of the disfranchising laws until they covered the state. Political scientist V. O. Key, Jr. argued in 1949 that:

...the size of the poll tax did not inhibit voting as much as the inconvenience of paying it. County officers regulated the vote by providing opportunities to pay the tax (as they did in Knoxville), or conversely by making payment as difficult as possible. Such manipulation of the tax, and therefore the vote, created an opportunity for the rise of urban bosses and political machines . Urban politicians bought large blocks of poll tax receipts and distributed them to blacks and whites, who then voted as instructed.

In 1953 state legislators amended the state constitution, removing the poll tax. In many areas both blacks and poor whites still faced subjectively applied barriers to voter registration that did not end until after passage of national civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965 .

Tennessee
Tennessee
celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled " Tennessee
Tennessee
200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall ) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville .

The state has had major disasters, such as the Great Train Wreck of 1918 , one of the worst train accidents in U.S. history, and the _Sultana_ explosion on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
near Memphis, the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.

21ST CENTURY

In 2002, businessman Phil Bredesen was elected to become the 48th governor in January 2003. Also in 2002, Tennessee
Tennessee
amended the state constitution to allow for the establishment of a lottery . Tennessee's Bob Corker
Bob Corker
was the only freshman Republican elected to the United States Senate in the 2006 midterm elections . The state constitution was amended to reject same-sex marriage . In January 2007, Ron Ramsey became the first Republican elected as Speaker of the State Senate since Reconstruction , as a result of the realignment of the Democratic and Republican parties in the South since the late 20th century, with Republicans now elected by conservative voters, who previously had supported Democrats.

In 2010, during the 2010 midterm elections , Bill Haslam was elected to succeeded Bredesen, who was term-limited, to become the 49th Governor of Tennessee in January 2011. In April and May 2010, flooding in Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
devastated Nashville and other parts of Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
. In 2011, parts of East Tennessee
East Tennessee
, including Hamilton County and Apison in Bradley County , were devastated by the April 2011 tornado outbreak .

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 35,691

1800 105,602

195.9%

1810 261,727

147.8%

1820 422,823

61.6%

1830 681,904

61.3%

1840 829,210

21.6%

1850 1,002,717

20.9%

1860 1,109,801

10.7%

1870 1,258,520

13.4%

1880 1,542,359

22.6%

1890 1,767,518

14.6%

1900 2,020,616

14.3%

1910 2,184,789

8.1%

1920 2,337,885

7.0%

1930 2,616,556

11.9%

1940 2,915,841

11.4%

1950 3,291,718

12.9%

1960 3,567,089

8.4%

1970 3,923,687

10.0%

1980 4,591,120

17.0%

1990 4,877,185

6.2%

2000 5,689,283

16.7%

2010 6,346,105

11.5%

EST. 2016 6,651,194

4.8%

Source: 1910–2010 2016 estimate

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Tennessee
Tennessee
was 6,651,194 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 304,896 people since the 2010 United States
United States
Census , or 4.8%. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 110,000 people (that is 502,451 births minus 392,451 deaths), and an increase from net migration of 191,384 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 55,613 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 135,771 people.

Twenty percent of Tennesseans were born outside the South in 2008, compared to a figure of 13.5% in 1990. In recent years, Tennessee
Tennessee
has received an influx of people relocating from California, Florida, and several northern states for the low cost of living, and the booming healthcare and automobile industries. Metropolitan Nashville is one of the fastest-growing areas in the country due in part to these factors.

The center of population of Tennessee
Tennessee
is located in Rutherford County , in the city of Murfreesboro .

As of the 2010 census, the racial composition of Tennessee's population was as follows:

RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010 2013 EST.

White 83.0% 80.2% 77.6% 79.1%

Black 16.0% 16.4% 16.7% 17.0%

Asian 0.7% 1.0% 1.4% 1.6%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.2% 1.0% 2.2% –

Two or more races – 1.1% 1.7% 1.7%

In the same year 4.6% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). Tennessee
Tennessee
population density map, 2010

In 2000, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (17.3%), African American
African American
(13.0%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%). Most Tennesseans who self-identify as having American ancestry are of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. An estimated 21–24% of Tennesseans are of predominantly English ancestry. In the 1980 census 1,435,147 Tennesseans claimed "English" or "mostly English" ancestry out of a state population of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time.

According to the 2010 census, 6.4% of Tennessee's population were reported as under 5 years of age, 23.6% under 18, and 13.4% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.

On June 19, 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs granted state recognition to six Indian tribes which was later repealed by the state's Attorney General because the action by the commission was illegal. The tribes were as follows:

* The Cherokee
Cherokee
Wolf Clan in western Tennessee, with members in Carroll County , Benton , Decatur , Henderson , Henry , Weakley , Gibson and Madison counties. * The Chikamaka Band , based historically on the South Cumberland Plateau , said to have members in Franklin, Grundy, Marion, Sequatchie, Warren and Coffee counties. * Central Band of Cherokee, also known as the Cherokee
Cherokee
of Lawrence County, Tennessee
Tennessee
. * United Eastern Lenapee Nation of Winfield, Tennessee . * The Tanasi
Tanasi
Council, said to have members in Shelby, Dyer, Gibson, Humphreys and Perry counties; and * Remnant Yuchi Nation, with members in Sullivan, Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Unicoi, Johnson and Washington counties.

BIRTH DATA

As of 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's population younger than age 1 were minorities.

Live births by race/ethnicity of mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White : 59,804 (74.7%) 61,391 (75.2%) 61,814 (75.7%)

Non-Hispanic White 54,377 (68.0%) 55,499 (68.0%) 55,420 (67.8%)

Black 17,860 (22.3%) 17,791 (21.8%) 17,507 (21.4%)

Asian 2,097 (2.6%) 2,180 (2.7%) 2,153 (2.6%)

Native 231 (0.3%) 240 (0.3%) 211 (0.2%)

_Hispanic _ (of any race) _6,854 (8.6%)_ _6,986 (8.6%)_ _7,264 (8.9%)_

TOTAL TENNESSEE 79,992 (100%) 81,602 (100%) 81,685 (100%)

_Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._

RELIGION

The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee
Tennessee
as of 2014:

* Christian : 81%

* Evangelical Protestant : 52%

* Baptist : 33% * Restorationist : 6% * Non-denominational : 4% * Pentecostal : 4% * Presbyterian : 2%

* Mainline Protestant : 13%

* Methodist
Methodist
: 6% * Episcopalian / Anglican
Anglican
: 1% * Lutheran
Lutheran
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Tennessee
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