The TENGGERESE (Ngoko Javanese : ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ,
Madya Javanese : ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ, Krama Javanese :
ꦥꦿꦶꦪꦤ꧀ꦠꦸꦤ꧀ꦡꦼꦁꦒꦼꦂ, Ngoko Gêdrìk :
WòNG TĕNGGĕR, Madya Gêdrìk : TIYANG TĕNGGĕR, Krama Gêdrìk :
PRIYANTUN TĕNGGĕR, Indonesian : SUKU TENGGER) people are a Javanese
ethnic group in eastern
Scattered communities of Tenggerese also exist in the Pasuruan , Probolinggo , Malang , and Lumajang Regencies of eastern Java. They are traditionally believed to be the descendants of legendary Roro Anteng and Joko Seger. The Tenggerese are considered an ethnic sub-group of the Javanese people .
* 1 History * 2 Language * 3 Religion * 4 Lifestyle
* 5 Festivals
* 5.1 Yadnya Kasada
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
Before the 15th century, the past of the Tenggerese was linked with the Majapahit and other kingdoms from the earlier period. According to legend, Jaka Seger and Roro Anteng are the ancestors of the Tenggerese.
The Tenggerese speak an archaic Javanese (Majapahit) dialect called Tengger Javanese . Elements of modern Javanese influences can be heard in their speech. They have their own written Kavi script based on the old Javanese Brahmi type.
Tengger priests during the
Dutch East Indies
The Tenggerese generally profess
The Tenggerese also worship a host of spirits (ancestor worship ). They include cikal bakal, the spirits of the founders of the village, the roh bahurekso, the village guardian spirits and the roh leluhur, the spirits of the ancestors. Rituals to propitiate these spirits are conducted by special priests. During these rites small doll-like figures representing the spirits are clothed in batik cloth and are presented with food and drink. It is believed that the spirits partake of the essence of these offerings. The Bromo volcano is considered one of the most sacred places. If it erupts, they believe that their god is very angry.
The Tenggerese give food offerings to the gods.
* Sajenan is presented to the guardian deities by the priest in formal liturgy. For different occasions foods are offered as Sajenan. For instance, during weddings a cone of rice, Tumpeng Walagara, is offered. It is considered to be a source of blessing for the couple and the whole village. * Suguhan are offered by ordinary Tengger Hindus to their ancestral spirits. * Tamping are food offerings to evil spirits to ward off bad luck and typically consist of meat, rice and bananas wrapped up in leaves and put at places such as cemeteries, bridges, and road intersections.
The priests are called Dukun or Resi Pujangga; they play a middle role in their religious worship. They are believed to possess spiritual knowledge of the gods and the spirits called Ilmu, which they carefully guard from ordinary Tenggers. Priesthood is hereditary and generally passes down from father to son. Each village has only one of these priests, with three assistants — Legen, Sepuh, and Dandan.
In the past few decades, due to overpopulation in
Madura , many
Madurese settlers exploited the Tenggerese land by clearing some of
their nature reserves and converting 2-3% (up to 10,000) of the
The Tenggerese are basically either agriculturalists or nomadic herders. The agriculturalists generally live on the lower altitudes, while the nomads live on the higher altitudes, riding on small horses.
Tenggerese children at a wedding in traditional attire.
The main festival of the Tenggerese is the Yadnya Kasada, which lasts about a month. On the 14th day of the Kasada, the Tenggerese go to Poten Bromo and ask for blessing from the main deity Hyang Widi Wasa and Mahadeva, the God of the Mountain (Mount Semeru), by offerings rice, fruit, vegetables, flowers, livestock and other local produce. They also see the examination of the medicine men memorizing prayers. The medicine man who passes the exam is chosen to be the spiritual leader of the Tengger tribe.
The origin of this festival is a legend that dates back to the Majapahit kingdom, during the reign of King Brawijaya; the queen of the kingdom gave birth to a daughter named Roro Anteng, who married Jaka Seger, a young man from the Brahmin caste.
According to the legend, Roro Anteng and Jaka Seger were among many
others who fled from the tattering
Majapahit kingdom during the 15th
century, when the declining kingdom was in the brink of collapse while
the rapid spread of
For a few years the
* ^ "Tengger in Indonesia". Joshua Project . Retrieved 2015-10-05. * ^ A B David Priyasidharta (26 December 2015). "Begini Perayaan Natal dan Maulid Nabi di Kawasan Tengger". Tempo. Retrieved 2016-11-26. * ^ "Index". sp2010.bps.go.id. * ^ Kamus Pepak Basa Jawa,Sudaryanto/Pranowo, 2001, #1359 * ^ See: Javanese language: Politeness * ^ See: Javanese language: Politeness * ^ Harjawiyana, Haryana; Theodorus Supriya, (2001). Kamus unggah-ungguh basa Jawa. Kanisius. p. 185. ISBN 978-979-672-991-3 . * ^ Mount Bromo East Java tourism * ^ "Lands of the Monsoon Shows BBC Nordic BBC Worldwide Nordic". BBC Worldwide Nordic. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
Media related to Tengger people at Wikimedia Commons