NATIVE SPEAKERS 74,002,586 (2001)
LANGUAGE FAMILY Dravidian
* Telugu languages
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN
Spoken in these States and union territories of
ISO 639-1 te
ISO 639-2 tel
ISO 639-3 tel
GLOTTOLOG telu1262 Telugu oldt1249 Old Telugu
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper
rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other
symbols instead of
TELUGU (English: /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/ ; తెలుగు ) is a
Dravidian language native to
Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Earliest records
* 2.2 Post-Ikshvaku period
* 2.3 Middle Ages
* 3 Epigraphical records
* 3.1 Ancient inscriptions
* 3.1.1 Vishnukundina * 3.1.2 Western Chalukya Dynasty * 3.1.3 Eastern Chalukya Dynasty * 3.1.4 Chola Dynasty * 3.1.5 Early Cholas of Renadu * 3.1.6 Eastern Ganga * 3.1.7 Gajapati * 3.1.8 Kakatiya Dynasty * 3.1.9 Vijayanagara Dynasty
* 4 Telugu region boundaries * 5 Telugu place names
* 6 Dialects
* 6.1 Geographic distribution
* 7 Phonology
* 7.1 Vowels * 7.2 Consonants
* 8 Grammar
* 8.1 Inflection * 8.2 Gender * 8.3 Pronouns
* 9 Vocabulary
* 10.1 Telugu Gunintālu (తెలుగు గుణింతాలు) * 10.2 Number system
* 11 Literature * 12 Telugu support on digital devices * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Bibliography * 16 External links
Bhimeswaram Srisailam Kaleswaram Locations of Trilinga Kshetras
The speakers of the language call it "Telugu". The older forms of the name include Teluṅgu, Tenuṅgu and Teliṅga.
The etymology of Telugu is not certain. Some historical scholars have
suggested a derivation from
Atharvana Acharya in the 13th century wrote a grammar of Telugu, calling it the "Trilinga grammar" (Trilinga Śabdānusāsana). Appa Kavi in the 17th century explicitly wrote that "Telugu" was derived from Trilinga. Scholar Charles P. Brown comments that it was a "strange notion" as all the predecessors of Appa Kavi had no knowledge of such a derivation.
George Abraham Grierson and other linguists doubt this derivation, holding rather that Telugu was the older term and Trilinga must be a later Sanskritisation of it. If so the derivation itself must have been quite ancient because Triglyphum, Trilingum and Modogalingam are attested in ancient Greek sources, the last of which can be interpreted as a Telugu rendition of "Trilinga".
Another view holds that tenugu is derived from the proto-Dravidian
word ten– "south" to mean "the people who lived in the
south/southern direction" (relative to
Telugu Thalli Bomma, the personification of
According to the Russian linguist M. S. Andronov, Proto-South- Dravidian languages split from the Proto-Dravidian language between 1500 and 1000 BC. According to linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti , Telugu, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian , a proto-language . Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic societies of South India.
A legend gives the Lepakshi town a significant place in the Ramayana — this was where the bird Jatayu fell, wounded after a futile battle against Ravana who was carrying away Sita. When Sri Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately, “Le Pakshi” — ‘rise, bird’ in Telugu. This indicates the presence of Telugu Language during Ramayana period.
It has been argued that there is a historical connection between the civilizations of ancient southern Mesopotamia and ancient Telugu speaking peoples.
Dated between 200 BCE – 200 CE, a
Certain exploration and excavation missions conducted by the Archaeological Department in and around the Keesaragutta temple brought to light number of brick temples, cells and other structures encompassed by brick prakara wall along with coins, beads, stucco figures, garbhapatra, pottery, Brahmi label inscriptions datable to 4th – 5th C.A.D. On top of one of the rock-cut caves, an early Telugu label inscription reading as ‘Thulachuvanru’ can be noticed. On the basis of palaeography, the inscription is dated to 4th - 5th century A.D.
The first word in Telugu language, "Nagabu", was found in a Sanskrit
inscription of the 1st century B.C at Amravati. Telugu words were
also found in the Dharmasila inscription of Emperor Ashoka. A number
of Telugu words were found in the
According to the native tradition Telugu grammar has an ancient past. Sage Kanva was said to be the first grammarian of Telugu. A Rajeswara Sarma discussed the historicity and content of Kanva's grammar written in Sanskrit. He cited twenty grammatical aphorisms ascribed to Kanva, and concluded that Kanva wrote an ancient Telugu Grammar which was lost.
Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy
The period from 575 AD to 1022 AD corresponds to the second phase of
Telugu history, after the
Andhra Ikshvaku period. This is evidenced by
the first inscription that is entirely in Telugu, dated 575 AD, which
was found in the
Rayalaseema region and is attributed to the Renati
Cholas , who broke with the prevailing custom of using
The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication
of the literary language. During this period the split of the Telugu
DELHI SULTANATE AND MUGHAL INFLUENCE
With the exception of
Coastal Andhra , a distinct dialect developed
In the princely
The 16th-century Venetian explorer Niccolò de\' Conti , who visited
In the period of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries saw the
influence of the
Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language, has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools and colleges as a standard.
* Telugu is one of the 22 languages with official status in
Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy
According to the famous Japanese Historian
Noboru Karashima who once
served as the President of the Epigraphical Society of
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No. 1. (A. R. No. 581 of 1925) On a white marble pillar near the entrance into the temple of Ramalingavami at Velpuru, Sattenpalli Taluk, Guntur District. Undated. This is the only stone inscription of this dynasty so far found and it is damaged and incomplete. Only the name of the family Vishnukundi and that of a ruler Madhava Varma are legible.
Western Chalukya Dynasty
No. 27. (A. R. No. 596 of 1909.) On the Naga pillar in the temple of Virabhadra outside the village of Gurazala, Palnadu Taluk, same District. S. 51. States that a Brahmin named Dara son of Kommana who was the head of Kummunuru village and who claimed to be an incarnation of the serpent king Sesha, put up a Naga-stambha in front of the temple of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva built by himself and that Betabhupa of the Haihaya family, a dependent of Bhulo Kamalla Deva (Someshvara III) made a gift of four kharis of land to the said temple.
Eastern Chalukya Dynasty
No. 4. (A. R. No. 431 of 1915) On a nandi slab set up near the temple of Someshvara at Eluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, Same District. S. 925. Records the grant of land to god Somanathadeva by Paricheda Chikka Bhimaraju.
No. 64. (A. R. No. 567 of 1925.) On a big white marble pillar set up near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Ramalingesvara, Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1030 Records the gift of a perpetual lamp by Kota Gokaraju son of Bhima to the temple of Ramesvara of Velupuru.
Early Cholas Of Renadu
No. 607. (A. R. No. 380 of 1904.) On two faces of a broken pillar lying in the courtyard of the temple of Chennakesavasvami at Kalamalla, Kamalapuram Taluk, same District. Undated. Damaged and unintelligible. Mentions Dhananjaya MuttaRasu(Raju) and Renadu.He is the descendant of early Tamil cholas .Here in this place these people population is so high.
* The first Telugu inscription known as ‘Kalamalla’ , dating back to 575 AD, found in Sri Chennakesava Swamy temple premises in Kalamalla village in Kadapa district was made by Renati Chola King Erikal Muturaju Dhanunjaya Varma.
No. 651. (A. R. No. 99 of 1909.) On a stone lying near Paravastu Rangacharya's house at Vizagapatam. S. 101 (h) 17th year of Ananta Varma Deva. Records the gift of “perumbadi” (?) by the "city twelve" of Visakhapattanamu alias Kulottunga-Chodapattanamu to Matamana of Malamandala. The description of the donor is not quite intelligible.
No. 675 (A. R. No. 681 of 1926.) On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the temple of Nilakanthesvara, Narayanapuram, Bobbili Taluk, same District. S. 1053. Records gift of a perpetual lamp by Chodaraju Maha Devi (and another ?) to the temple of Nilisvara for the merit of Chodagangadeva.
No. 727. (A. R. No. 827 of 1917.) On a stone lying at the entrance into the temple of Tumbesvara, Pratapur, Chatrapur Taluk, Ganjam District. Year missing. Incomplete. Mentions. Ananta Varma
No. 732. (A. R. No. 802 of 1922.) On the four faces of the Garuda-pillar planted near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Chennakesava, Idupulapadu, same Taluk and District. S. 1422. (Raudri) Records the gift by Pratapa-Radra of the village Idvulapadu to the east of Vinikonda, to Madhava-mantrin of the Bharadvaja-gotra and the Yajnyavalkya-saka. Gives a genealogy of the Gajapatis and of the donor.
No. 733. (A. R. No. 375 of 1926.) On a stone built into a gate of the fort at Tangeda, Palnad Taluk, same District. S. 141 (Sukla) Damaged. Unintelligible; Mentions some Khan. States that Pratapa-Rudradeva Gajapati was ruling.
No. 741. (A. R. No. 54 of 1912.) On a pillar in the temple of Kesavasvami at Chodavaram, Viravalli Taluk, Vizagapatam District. Saka year not given (Kalayukti) Records the consecration of the image of Garutmanta by Bondu Mallayya for the prosperity etc. of Bhupatiraju Vallabha Raju-Mahapatra.
No. 257. (A. R. No. 324 of 1915.) On the Garudastambha in the temple of Venugopalasvami, Uppumaguluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, same District. S. 1133. Damaged and partly illegible. Refers to the gift of an oil-mill and land made by Balli Chodaraju presumably to some temple.
(A. R. No. 138 of 1917.) On a slab lying in front of the temple of Venugopalasvami, Potturu, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1168. Incomplete. The portion which describes the actual grant is missing. The portion available refers to what was probably a gift made to a Siva temple by Paricheda Bhimaraja, Tammu Bhimaraju, Devaraju and Ganapa Deva Raju for the merit of their father Komma Raju and mother Surala Devi. Contains the usual Parichedi titles.
No. 373. (A. R. No. 283 of 1924.) On a pillar lying in the temple of Chandramaulisvara, Anumanchipalli, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1182. (Raudri) States that a certain Brahmin Chavali Bhaskara consecrated the image of Sagi-Ganapesvara and that king Sagi Manma endowed the temple with land. Describes the Sagi family as of Kshatriya caste (bahujakula) and gives the donor's genealogy.
No. 376. (A. R. No. 769 of 1922.) On a stone built into the back wall of the temple of Chennakesavasvami, Nayanipalli, Bapatla Taluk, Guntur District. Year unknown. States that, in the course of his conquest of the South, king Ganapati Deva protected the king of Nelluru have killed his enemies Padihari Bayyana, Tikkana and others, that he vanquished Kulottunga Rajendra Choda of Dravila mandala, that he received presents of elephants from the king of Nelluru, that he saved the Bhringi matha on the Sriparvata and that he consecrated the image of Kumara Ganapesvara-mahadeva after his own name in ... palli. The concluding portion is missing.
No. 381. (A. R. No. 142 of 1913.) On a slab brought from Yanamadala and preserved in the Collector's Office, Guntur, same District. S. 11. 3. Incomplete and somewhat damaged. States that a certain Beta Raju founded the temple of Gopalasvami and endowed it with land, that Queen Ganapama gave it an oil-mill and a garden and that certain merchants assigned to it certain customs duties and taxes. Ganapama was probably the wife of the Kota chief.
No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) On the huge Nandi pillar lying near
the ruined temple in Malkapuram,
(Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society,
Vol. IV, pp. 147–64.) S. 1183. (Durmati) Gives a detailed account of
the Kakatiya family and of the foundation and pontifical succession of
the Golaki-matha of the Saivas and states that king Ganapatideva
promised the village of Mandara in the Velanadu-Kandravati country to
his guru Visvesvara Sivacharya and that Ganapati's daughter
Rudramadevi made a formal gift of that village along with the village
of Velangapundi, that Visvesvara Siva established a new village with
the name of Visvesvara-Golaki and peopled it with person of different
castes brought from various parts of the country, that he also
established the temple of Visvesvara, a
No. 426. (A. R. No. 222 of 1905.) On the north wall of the dark room in the temple of Tripurantakesvara, Tripurantakam, Kurnool District. S. 1192. (Pramoduta). States that Paricheda Vadamani Kota Deva Raju gave 17 cows for a lamp in the temple of Tripurantakadeva.
No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. On a slab set up in front of the Ankalamma temple. Sadasiva Raya, 1543 AD. This is dated Saka 1465, Sobhakrit, Nija-Sravana ba. 10., corresponding to AD 1543, 25 August (Saturday). It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima for the Cherapu (Sirappu) and Paruventa festivals of the goddess Ahankal Amma by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.
No. 139. (A.R. No. 498 of 1906.) Mopuru, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up in front of the central shrine of the Bhairavesvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1545. This is dated Saka 1466, Krodhin, Magha su. 7, Rathasaptami, Monday, corresponding to AD 1545, January 19, ’50. It records the remission of all taxes like Durga Vartana, Danayani Vartana, bedige, kanika and others in favour of the Vidvan mahajanas of the villages belonging to temples and to agraharas in Ghandikota Sakalisima obtained by the donor, Timmaya Deva Maharaju, son of Narasingaya Deva Maharaju and grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhala Deva Maharaju as Nayankara from the king. A similar remission of these taxes in the villages granted to the Bhai Ravesvara temple of Mopura is also recorded with the stipulation that the amount accrued was to be utilised for the daily worship and the rathosvava of the god.
No. 167. (A.R. No. 377 of 1926.) Tangeda, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in front of the deserted temple of Sita Rama Svamin in the fort. Sadasiva, AD 1548. This is dated Saka 1470, Kilaka, vaisakha su. 15, Sunday, lunar eclipse corresponding to AD 1548, 22 April. It registers the grant of the village Kachavaram in Tangedasima to the god Lakshmi Narasimha at Tangeda by Deva Chodaraju, son of Mummaya Deva Chodaraju and the grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Apratika Malla Kurucheti Somaya Deva Chodaraju of the solar race and belonging to the Kasyapa-gotra, apastamba-sutra and Yajus-sakha at the command of Rama Raja Vithalaya Deva Maharaju who is said to have conferred the Tangedasima as nayankara the donor.
No. 175. (A.R. No. 369 of 1920.) Chitrachedu, Gooty Taluk, Anantapur District. On a slab in the compound of the mosque. Sadasiva, AD 1550. This is dated Saka 1473 (current), Sadharana, Ashadha su. 10 corresponding to AD 1550, 23 June, (Monday). This fragmentary record mentions the pontiff Santa Bhiksha Vritti Ayyavaru and his three spiritual sons, the Narapati, Asvapati and Gajapati kings who seem to have made some gifts to god Mallikarjuna of Srisaila worshipped by them.
No. 191. (A.R. No. 584 of 1909.) Macherla, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in the courtyard of the Virabhadresvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1554. The record is dated in Chronogram ‘rasa-saila-veda..’ and the numerals 76, Ananda, Ashadha, su. 15, Friday, lunar eclipse. The word for the numeral 1 is apparently lost. The details of the date correspond to AD 1554, 15 June 1551, if the month was Adhika Ashadha. The inscription which is damaged, records a grant of 14 putti and 10 tumu of land constituting it into a village by name Lingapuram, by Ling Amma, wife of Veligoti Komara Timma Nayaka to the gods Ishta Kamesvara and Viresvara of Macherla situated to the north of Macherla and west of the Chandra Bhaga river, in Nagarjuna-konda-sima which Komara Timma Nayaka is said to have obtained as nayankara from Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju.
No. 201. (A.R. No. 161 of 1905.) Markapur, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District. On the east wall, left of entrance, of the antarala-mandapa in the Chenna-kesava-svamin temple. Sadasiva, AD 1555. This is dated Saka 1476, Ananda, Magha su. 7, corresponding to AD 1555, 29 January.
It records a gift of the various toll incomes due from the 18 villages, viz., Marakarapuram, Channavaram, Konddapuram, Yachavaram, Rayavaram, Gonguladinna, Tarnumbadu, Surepalli, Vanalapuram, Chanareddipalle, Gangireddipalle, Korevanipalle, Medisettipalle, Gollapalle, Jammuladinna, Tellambadu, Kamalpuram and Kondapalli to god Chennakesava by Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Narappadeva Maharaju, son of Aubhalayya Deva Maharaju, grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Singa Raju Deva Maharaju, of Kasyapa-gotra and Surya-vamsa, and nephew of Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju. The gift villages are said to be situated in Kochcherla Kotasima which was held by the donor as Nayankara from the king. Records in addition that the lanjasunkham (levy on prostitutes) collected during the festivals at Marakapuram was also made over to the temple and that five out of every six dishes of offerings to the deity, were to be made over to the satra (feeding house) for feeding paradesi Brahmanas of the smartha sect, the sixth dish being the share of the sthanikas, the adhikaris and the karanas.
TELUGU REGION BOUNDARIES
Andhra is characterised as having its own mother tongue, and its territory has been equated with the extent of the Telugu language. The equivalence between the Telugu linguistic sphere and geographical boundaries of Andhra is also brought out in an eleventh century description of Andhra boundaries. Andhra, according to this text, was bounded in north by Mahendra mountain in the modern Ganjam District of Orissa and to the south by Kalahasti temple in Chittor District. But Andhra extended westwards as far as Srisailam in the Kurnool District, about halfway across the modern state. Page number-36. According to other sources in the early sixteenth century, the northern boundary is Simhachalam and the southern limit is Tirupati or Tirumala Hill of the Telugu Country.
TELUGU PLACE NAMES
Main article: Place names in
Telugu place names are present all around
There are three major dialects: Andhra dialect spoken in the coastal
districts of Andhra Pradesh,
Rayalaseema dialect spoken in the four
Rayalaseema districts of
Waddar , Chenchu , and Manna-Dora are all closely related to Telugu. Dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari and Yanadi.
See also: States of
Telugu is natively spoken in the states of
The Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 in the United States,
with the highest concentration in Central
The roman transliteration of the Telugu script is in National Library at Kolkata romanisation .
Telugu words generally end in vowels. In Old Telugu, this was
absolute; in the modern language m, n, y, w may end a word. Atypically
for a Dravidian language, voiced consonants were distinctive even in
the oldest recorded form of the language.
Telugu does not have contrastive stress , and speakers vary on where they perceive stress. Most place it on the penultimate or final syllable, depending on word and vowel length.
Telugu features a form of vowel harmony wherein the second vowel in disyllabic noun and adjective roots alters according to whether the first vowel is tense or lax. Also, if the second vowel is open (i.e., /aː/ or /a/), then the first vowel is more open and centralized (e.g., 'goat', as opposed to 'nail'). Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes that are harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable.
VOWELS – అచ్చులు ACCULU
/i/ ఇ i /iː/ ఈ ī
/u/ ఉ u /uː/ ఊ ū
/e/ ఎ e /eː/ ఏ ē
/o/ ఒ o /oː/ ఓ ō
/æː/ /a/ అ a /aː/ ఆ ā
/æː/ only occurs in loan words.
Telugu has two diphthongs: /ai/ ఐ ai and /au/ ఔ au .
The table below illustrates the articulation of the consonants.
BILABIAL LABIODENTAL Denti- alveolar RETROFLEX "PALATAL" VELAR
PLOSIVE TENUIS /p/ ప pa
/t̪/ త ta /ʈ/ ట ṭa /t͡ʃ/ చ ca /k/ క ka
VOICED /b/ బ ba
/d̪/ ద da /ɖ/ డ ḍa /d͡ʒ/ జ ja /ɡ/ గ ga
ASPIRATED * /pʰ/ ఫ pha
/t̪ʰ/ థ tha /ʈʰ/ ఠ ṭha /t͡ʃʰ/ ఛ cha /kʰ/ ఖ kha
BREATHY VOICED * /bʱ/ భ bha
/d̪ʱ/ ధ dha /ɖʱ/ ఢ ḍha /d͡ʒʱ/ ఝ jha /ɡʱ/ ఘ gha
NASAL /m/ మ ma
/n̪/ న na /ɳ/ ణ ṇa
/f/ /s̪/ స sa /ʂ/ ష ṣa /ɕ/ శ śa /x/ హ ha
/ʋ/ వ va
/j/ య ya
/l̪/ ల la /ɭ/ ళ ḷa
/r̪/ ర ra
*The aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants occur mostly in loan words, as do the fricatives apart from native /s̪/.
Main article: Telugu grammar
The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam (వ్యాకరణం).
The first treatise on Telugu grammar, the Āndhra Śabda
Cinṭāmaṇi, was written in
In the 19th century, Chinnaya Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bāla Vyākaraṇam, borrowing concepts and ideas from Nannayya's grammar.
SENTENCE రాముడు బడికి వెళ్తాడు.
WORDS రాముడు బడికి వెళ్తాడు.
TRANSLITERATION rāmuḍu baḍiki veḷtāḍu
GLOSS Rama to school goes.
PARTS Subject Object Verb
TRANSLATION Rama goes to school.
This sentence can also be interpreted as 'Rama will go to school', depending on the context, but it does not affect the SOV order.
Telugu nouns are inflected for number (singular, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and case (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, vocative, instrumental, and locative).
Telugu has three genders : masculine, feminine, and neuter.
Telugu pronouns include personal pronouns (the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about); indefinite pronouns; relative pronouns (connecting parts of sentences); and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is acted on by the verb's subject).
Telugu uses the same forms for singular feminine and neuter gender—the third person pronoun (అది /ad̪ɪ/) is used to refer to animals and objects.
The nominative case (karta), the object of a verb (karma), and the
verb are somewhat in a sequence in Telugu sentence construction.
"Vibhakti" (case of a noun) and "pratyāyamulu" (an affix to roots and
words forming derivatives and inflections) depict the ancient nature
and progression of the language. The "Vibhaktis" of
The vocabulary of Telugu, especially in
Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia
because the formal, standardised version of the language is either
The Telugu script is an abugida consisting of 60 symbols – 16 vowels, 3 vowel modifiers, and 41 consonants. Telugu has a complete set of letters that follow a system to express sounds. The script is derived from the Brahmi Script like those of many other Indian languages. The Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters. The script is syllabic in nature—the basic units of writing are syllables. Since the number of possible syllables is very large, syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels (“acchu” or “swaram”) and consonants (“hallu” or “vyanjanam”). Consonants in consonant clusters take shapes that are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere. Consonants are presumed pure consonants, that is, without any vowel sound in them. However, it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied 'a' vowel sound. When consonants combine with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel “mātras”. The shapes of vowel “mātras” are also very different from the shapes of the corresponding vowels.
Historically, a sentence used to end with either a single bar । (“pūrna virāmam”) or a double bar ॥ (“dīrgha virāmam”); in handwriting, Telugu words were not separated by spaces. However, in modern times, English punctuation (commas, semicolon, etc.) has virtually replaced the old method of punctuation.
CONSONANTS – HALLULU (హల్లులు)
Telugu has full-zero (anusvāra ) ( ం ), half-zero (arthanusvāra or candrabindu ) (ఁ) and visarga ( ః ) to convey various shades of nasal sounds. and , and are differentiated.
Telugu has ĉ and ĵ, which are not represented in Sanskrit. Their
pronunciation is similar to the 's' sound in the word treasure (i.e.,
the postalveolar voiced fricative ) and 'z' sound in zebra (i.e., the
alveolar voiced fricative ), respectively. Wall painting at a
shop in India. It first shows the painted party symbols of all the
major political parties in the region during the nationwide elections
TELUGU GUNINTāLU (తెలుగు గుణింతాలు)
These are some examples of combining a consonant with different vowels. క కా కి కీ కు కూ కృ కౄ కె కే కై కొ కో కౌ క్ కం కః ఖ ఖా ఖి ఖీ ఖు ఖూ ఖృ ఖౄ ఖె ఖే ఖై ఖొ ఖో ఖౌ ఖ్ ఖం ఖః
Telugu has ten digits employed with the Hindu–Arabic numeral system
. However, in modern usage, the
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
౦ ౧ ౨ ౩ ౪ ౫ ౬ ౭ ౮ ౯
sunna (Telugu form of
Telugu is assigned
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
The Jain Literature Phase (850- 1000 AD): Prabandha Ratnavali (1918) Anubhavasara, Chennamallu Sisamalu, Vrishadhipa Shataka and Cheturvedasara–in verses; Basavodharana in verses and ragale metre (rhymed couplets in blank verse); and the Basavaragada.
Gona Budda Reddy : His Ranganatha Ramayanam was a pioneering work in
Paravastu Chinnayya Soori (1807–1861) is a well-known Telugu writer who dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature. Sri Chinnayasoori wrote the Bala Vyakaranam in a new style after doing extensive research on Telugu grammar. Other well-known writings by Chinnayasoori are Neethichandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola, and Neeti Sangrahamu.
Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is generally considered the father of modern Telugu literature. His novel Rajasekhara Charitamu was inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield . His work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious Telugu literature and its transition to the modern period, which is also part of the wider literary renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period. Other prominent literary figures from this period are Gurajada Appa Rao , Viswanatha Satyanarayana , Gurram Jashuva , Rayaprolu Subba Rao , Devulapalli Krishnasastri and Srirangam Srinivasa Rao , popularly known as Mahakavi Sri Sri. Sri Sri was instrumental in popularising free verse in spoken Telugu (vaaduka bhasha), as opposed to the pure form of written Telugu used by several poets in his time. Devulapalli Krishnasastri is often referred to as the Shelley of Telugu literature because of his pioneering works in Telugu Romantic poetry.
Viswanatha Satyanarayana won India's national literary honour, the
TELUGU SUPPORT ON DIGITAL DEVICES
Telugu input, display, and support were initially provided on the
* Telugu portal
* Languages portal
Telugu language day
* ^ Telugu at
Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Old Telugu".
Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook,
* ^ Schools, Colleges called for a shutdown in Telugu states
* ^ "Making Telugu compulsory: Mother tongues, the last stronghold
* ^ "LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE
POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER". United States Census Bureau. Note:
Excluding other languages with many speakers outside
* Albert Henry Arden, A Progressive Grammar of the Telugu Language (1873). * Charles Philip Brown, English–Telugu dictionary (1852; revised ed. 1903; * The Linguistic Legacy of Indo-Guyanese http://www.stabroeknews.com/2014/features/in-the-diaspora/04/21/linguistic-legacy-indian-guyanese/ * Languages of Mauritius https://mauritiusattractions.com/mauritius-languages-i-85.html * Charles Philip Brown, A Grammar of the Telugu Language (1857) * P. Percival, Telugu–English dictionary: with the Telugu words printed in the Roman as well as in the Telugu Character (1862, google books edition) * Gwynn, J. P. L. (John Peter Lucius). A Telugu–English Dictionary Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press (1991; online edition). * Uwe Gustafsson, An Adiwasi Oriya–Telugu–English dictionary, Central Institute of Indian Languages Dictionary Series, 6. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Language (1989). * Rao, Velcheru Narayana; Shulman, David (2002), Classical Telugu Poetry: An Anthology, University of California Press * Callā Rādhākr̥ṣṇaśarma, Landmarks in Telugu Literature: A Short Survey of Telugu Literature (1975). * Wilkinson, Robert W. (1974). "Tense/lax vowel harmony in Telugu: The influence of derived contrast on rule application". Linguistic Inquiry. 5 (2): 251–270
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