A TELEPHONE, or PHONE, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound , typically and most efficiently the human voice , into electronic signals suitable for transmission via cables or other transmission media over long distances, and replays such signals simultaneously in audible form to its user.
In 1876, Scottish emigrant
Alexander Graham Bell
The essential elements of a telephone are a microphone
(_transmitter_) to speak into and an earphone (_receiver_) which
reproduces the voice in a distant location. In addition, most
telephones contain a _ringer_ which produces a sound to announce an
incoming telephone call, and a dial or keypad used to enter a
telephone number when initiating a call to another telephone. Until
approximately the 1970s most telephones used a rotary dial , which was
superseded by the modern
A traditional landline telephone system, also known as _plain old telephone service _ (POTS), commonly carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair (_C_ in diagram) of insulated wires, the telephone line. The control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, and a dial. The ringer, or beeper, light or other device (A7), alerts the user to incoming calls. The hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call. A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call. Until the 1960s dials used almost exclusively the rotary technology, which was replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) with pushbutton telephones (A4).
A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant. Telephones transmit both the incoming and outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires. A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair. The strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone (transmitter) does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker (receiver) signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil (A3) and other components compensate the imbalance. The junction box (B) arrests lightning (B2) and adjusts the line\'s resistance (B1) to maximize the signal power for the line length. Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths (A8). The line voltages are negative compared to earth, to reduce galvanic corrosion . Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires.
DETAILS OF OPERATION
Further information: Telephone call
The landline telephone contains a switchhook (A4) and an alerting device, usually a ringer (A7), that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook " (i.e. the switch (A4) is open), and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook ". The off-hook components include a transmitter (microphone, A2), a receiver (speaker, A1), and other circuits for dialing, filtering (A3), and amplification.
A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the
telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the
switchhook (A4), which powers the telephone by connecting the
transmitter (microphone), receiver (speaker), and related audio
components to the line. The off-hook circuitry has a low resistance
(less than 300 ohms ) which causes a direct current (DC), which comes
down the line (C) from the telephone exchange. The exchange detects
this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, and sends
a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone ,
the caller then presses the number keys to send the telephone number
of the called party . The keys control a tone generator circuit (not
shown) that makes
The ringer of a telephone (A7) is connected to the line through a capacitor (A6), which blocks direct current but passes the alternating current of the ringing signal. The telephone draws no current when it is on hook, while a DC voltage is continually applied to the line. Exchange circuitry (D2) can send an AC current down the line to activate the ringer and announce an incoming call. When there is no automatic exchange, telephones have hand-cranked magnetos to generate a ringing voltage back to the exchange or any other telephone on the same line. When a landline telephone is inactive (on hook), the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of direct current to indicate that the line is not in use. When a party initiates a call to this line, the exchange sends the ringing signal. When the called party picks up the handset, they actuate a double-circuit switchhook (not shown) which may simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. This, in turn, draws direct current through the line, confirming that the called phone is now active. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal, and both telephones are now active and connected through the exchange. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. When a party hangs up, placing the handset back on the cradle or hook, direct current ceases in that line, signaling the exchange to disconnect the call.
Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over trunk lines which establish connections between exchanges. In modern telephone networks, fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. Satellite technology may be used for communication over very long distances.
In most landline telephones, the transmitter and receiver (microphone and speaker) are located in the handset, although in a speakerphone these components may be located in the base or in a separate enclosure. Powered by the line, the microphone (A2) produces a modulated electric current which varies its frequency and amplitude in response to the sound waves arriving at its diaphragm . The resulting current is transmitted along the telephone line to the local exchange then on to the other phone (via the local exchange or via a larger network), where it passes through the coil of the receiver (A3). The varying current in the coil produces a corresponding movement of the receiver's diaphragm, reproducing the original sound waves present at the transmitter.
Along with the microphone and speaker, additional circuitry is incorporated to prevent the incoming speaker signal and the outgoing microphone signal from interfering with each other. This is accomplished through a hybrid coil (A3). The incoming audio signal passes through a resistor (A8) and the primary winding of the coil (A3) which passes it to the speaker (A1). Since the current path A8 – A3 has a far lower impedance than the microphone (A2), virtually all of the incoming signal passes through it and bypasses the microphone.
At the same time the DC voltage across the line causes a DC current which is split between the resistor-coil (A8-A3) branch and the microphone-coil (A2-A3) branch. The DC current through the resistor-coil branch has no effect on the incoming audio signal. But the DC current passing through the microphone is turned into AC current (in response to voice sounds) which then passes through only the upper branch of the coil's (A3) primary winding, which has far fewer turns than the lower primary winding. This causes a small portion of the microphone output to be fed back to the speaker, while the rest of the AC current goes out through the phone line.
A lineman\'s handset is a telephone designed for testing the telephone network, and may be attached directly to aerial lines and other infrastructure components.
History of the telephoneand Timeline of the telephone
Invention of the telephone,
Alexander Bell telephone controversy , and Canadian Parliamentary
Alexander Graham Bell
Before the development of the electric telephone, the term
"telephone" was applied to other inventions, and not all early
researchers of the electrical device called it "telephone". A
communication device for sailing vessels _The Telephone_ was the
invention of a captain John Taylor in 1844. This instrument used four
air horns to communicate with vessels in foggy weather. Later, c.
Johann Philipp Reis
Credit for the invention of the electric telephone is frequently
disputed. As with other influential inventions such as radio ,
television , the light bulb , and the computer , several inventors
pioneered experimental work on _voice transmission over a wire_ and
improved on each other's ideas. New controversies over the issue still
arise from time to time.
Antonio Meucci, Johann
Philipp Reis ,
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
In 1876, shortly after the telephone was invented, Hungarian engineer Tivadar Puskásinvented the telephone switch, which allowed for the formation of telephone exchanges , and eventually networks.
Timeline of the telephone _ Reis' telephone
Acoustic telephone ad, The Consolidated
Innocenzo Manzettifirst mooted the idea of a "speaking
telegraph" or telephone. Use of the "speaking telegraph" and "sound
telegraph" monikers would eventually be replaced by the newer,
distinct name, "telephone".
* 26 August 1854:
Charles Bourseulpublished an article in the
magazine L\'Illustration _ (Paris): "Transmission électrique de la
parole" (electric transmission of speech), describing a
"make-and-break" type telephone transmitter later created by Johann
* 26 October 1861:
Johann Philipp Reis
EARLY COMMERCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Early telephones were technically diverse. Some used a liquid transmitter , some had a metal diaphragm that induced current in an electromagnet wound around a permanent magnet, and some were "dynamic" - their diaphragm vibrated a coil of wire in the field of a permanent magnet or the coil vibrated the diaphragm. The sound-powered dynamic kind survived in small numbers through the 20th century in military and maritime applications, where its ability to create its own electrical power was crucial. Most, however, used the Edison/Berliner carbon transmitter , which was much louder than the other kinds, even though it required an induction coil which was an impedance matching transformer to make it compatible with the impedance of the line. The Edison patents kept the Bell monopoly viable into the 20th century, by which time the network was more important than the instrument.
Early telephones were locally powered, using either a dynamic transmitter or by the powering of a transmitter with a local battery. One of the jobs of outside plant personnel was to visit each telephone periodically to inspect the battery. During the 20th century, "common battery" operation came to dominate, powered by "talk battery" from the telephone exchange over the same wires that carried the voice signals.
Early telephones used a single wire for the subscriber's line, with ground return used to complete the circuit (as used in telegraphs ). The earliest dynamic telephones also had only one port opening for sound, with the user alternately listening and speaking (or rather, shouting) into the same hole. Sometimes the instruments were operated in pairs at each end, making conversation more convenient but also more expensive.
At first, the benefits of a telephone exchange were not exploited.
Instead telephones were leased in pairs to a subscriber , who had to
arrange for a telegraph contractor to construct a line between them,
for example between a home and a shop. Users who wanted the ability to
speak to several different locations would need to obtain and set up
three or four pairs of telephones.
Signalling began in an appropriately primitive manner. The user alerted the other end, or the exchange operator , by whistling into the transmitter. Exchange operation soon resulted in telephones being equipped with a bell in a ringer box , first operated over a second wire, and later over the same wire, but with a condenser (capacitor ) in series with the bell coil to allow the AC ringer signal through while still blocking DC (keeping the phone "on hook "). Telephones connected to the earliest Strowger automatic exchanges had seven wires, one for the knife switch , one for each telegraph key , one for the bell, one for the push-button and two for speaking. Large wall telephones in the early 20th century usually incorporated the bell, and separate bell boxes for desk phones dwindled away in the middle of the century.
Rural and other telephones that were not on a common battery exchange had a magneto hand-cranked generator to produce a high voltage alternating signal to ring the bells of other telephones on the line and to alert the operator. Some local farming communities that were not connected to the main networks set up barbed wire telephone lines that exploited the existing system of field fences to transmit the signal.
In the 1890s a new smaller style of telephone was introduced, packaged in three parts. The transmitter stood on a stand, known as a "candlestick " for its shape. When not in use, the receiver hung on a hook with a switch in it, known as a "switchhook". Previous telephones required the user to operate a separate switch to connect either the voice or the bell. With the new kind, the user was less likely to leave the phone "off the hook". In phones connected to magneto exchanges, the bell, induction coil, battery and magneto were in a separate bell box or "ringer box ". In phones connected to common battery exchanges, the ringer box was installed under a desk, or other out of the way place, since it did not need a battery or magneto.
Cradle designs were also used at this time, having a handle with the receiver and transmitter attached, now called a handset , separate from the cradle base that housed the magneto crank and other parts. They were larger than the "candlestick" and more popular.
Disadvantages of single wire operation such as crosstalk and hum from nearby AC power wires had already led to the use of twisted pairs and, for long distance telephones, four-wire circuits . Users at the beginning of the 20th century did not place long distance calls from their own telephones but made an appointment to use a special soundproofed long distance telephone booth furnished with the latest technology.
What turned out to be the most popular and longest lasting physical style of telephone was introduced in the early 20th century, including Bell's 202-type desk set. A carbon granule transmitter and electromagnetic receiver were united in a single molded plastic handle, which when not in use sat in a cradle in the base unit. The circuit diagram of the model 202 shows the direct connection of the transmitter to the line, while the receiver was induction coupled. In local battery configurations, when the local loop was too long to provide sufficient current from the exchange, the transmitter was powered by a local battery and inductively coupled, while the receiver was included in the local loop. The coupling transformer and the ringer were mounted in a separate enclosure, called the subscriber set. The dial switch in the base interrupted the line current by repeatedly but very briefly disconnecting the line 1 to 10 times for each digit, and the hook switch (in the center of the circuit diagram) disconnected the line and the transmitter battery while the handset was on the cradle.
In the 1930s, telephone sets were developed that combined the bell
and induction coil with the desk set, obviating a separate ringer box.
The rotary dial becoming commonplace in the 1930s in many areas
enabled customer-dialed service, but some magneto systems remained
even into the 1960s. After World-War II, the telephone networks saw
rapid expansion and more efficient telephone sets, such as the model
500 telephone in the United States, were developed that permitted
larger local networks centered around central offices. A breakthrough
new technology was the introduction of Touch-Tone signaling using
push-button telephones by American
Ericsson DBH 1001 (ca. 1931), the first combined telephone made with a Bakelite housing and handset. *
Video shows the operation of an Ericofon *
A candlestick phone *
Modern sound-powered emergency telephone *
A mobile phone , also called a cell phone
DIGITAL TELEPHONES AND VOICE OVER IP
An IP desktop telephone attached to a computer network, with touch-tone dialing Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007
The invention of the transistor in 1947 dramatically changed the technology used in telephone systems and in the long-distance transmission networks. With the development of electronic switching systems in the 1960s, telephony gradually evolved towards digital telephony which improved the capacity, quality, and cost of the network.
The development of digital data communications method, such as the
protocols used for the
As of January 2005, up to 10% of telephone subscribers in
From a customer perspective, IP telephony uses a high-bandwidth
In addition, many computer software vendors and telephony operators provide softphone application software that emulates a telephone by use of an attached microphone and audio headset, or loud speaker .
Despite the new features and conveniences of IP telephones, some may
have notable disadvantages compared to traditional telephones. Unless
the IP telephone's components are backed up with an uninterruptible
power supply or other emergency power source, the phone ceases to
function during a power outage as can occur during an emergency or
disaster when the phone is most needed. Traditional phones connected
to the older
Graphic symbols used to designate telephone service or phone-related information in print, signage , and other media include ℡ (U+ 2121), ☎ (U+ 260E), ☏ (U+ 260F), ✆ (U+ 2706), and ⌕ (U+ 2315).
By the end of 2009, there were a total of nearly 6 billion mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers worldwide. This included 1.26 billion fixed-line subscribers and 4.6 billion mobile subscribers.
* US 174,465—_Telegraphy_ (Bell's first telephone
patent)—Alexander Graham Bell
* US 186,787—_Electric Telegraphy_ (permanent magnet
receiver)—Alexander Graham Bell
* US 474,230—_Speaking Telegraph_ (graphite transmitter)—Thomas
* US 203,016—_Speaking Telephone_ (carbon button
* US 222,390—_Carbon Telephone_ (carbon granules
* US 485,311—_Telephone_ (solid back carbon transmitter)—Anthony
C. White (Bell engineer) This design was used until 1925 and installed
phones were used until the 1940s.
* US 3,449,750—_Duplex Radio Communication and Signalling
Appartus_—G. H. Sweigert
* US 3,663,762—_Cellular Mobile Communication System_—Amos
Edward Joel (Bell Labs)
* US 3,906,166—_Radio
* ^ Dodd, Annabel Z., _The Essential Guide to Telecommunications_.
Prentice Hall PTR, 2002, p. 183.
* ^ Timbs, John; "Year Book of Facts in Science and Art", 1844
edition, p. 55. Google Books. This citation is referred to also in the
* Brooks, John (1976). _Telephone: The first hundred years_.
* Bruce, Robert V. (1990). _Bell:
Alexander Graham Bell
* t * e
Cable protection system
Edwin Howard Armstrong
Network topology and switching
* Terminal node
* Network switching (circuit
* packet )
* Space-division * Frequency-division * Time-division * Polarization-division * Orbital angular-momentum * Code-division
* GND : 4016854-2 * HDS : 27832 * NDL : 00561474
Links: ------ /wiki/Telecommunication /wiki/Sound /wiki/Human_voice