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None ELECTED PRESIDENT

Emilio Aguinaldo Magdalo Party

Site of the Tejeros Convention in present-day Rosario, Cavite, which was formerly part of San Francisco de Malabon

The TEJEROS CONVENTION (alternate names include TEJEROS ASSEMBLY and TEJEROS CONGRESS) was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias , but the site is now at Rosario ), Cavite on March 22, 1897. These are the first presidential and vice presidential elections in Philippine history, although only the Katipuneros (members of the Katipunan) were able to take part, and not the general populace.

CONTENTS

* 1 Convention

* 1.1 Purpose * 1.2 Election results * 1.3 Allegations of fraud

* 2 Post convention events

* 2.1 Aguinaldo * 2.2 Bonifacio

* 3 References

* 3.1 Bibliography

CONVENTION

PURPOSE

The convention was called to discuss the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards during the Philippine Revolution . The contemporary Governor general , Camilo de Polavieja , had regained much of Cavite itself. Instead, the convention became an election to decide the leaders of the revolutionary movement, bypassing the Supreme Council.

ELECTION RESULTS

Tejeros Revolutionary Government

Pamahalaang Panghimagsikan ng Tejeros

Unrecognized state

1897

Flag

Territory claimed by the Tejeros Government in Asia

CAPITAL San Francisco de Malabon , Cavite

LANGUAGES Tagalog , Spanish

RELIGION Roman Catholicism

GOVERNMENT Republic

PRESIDENT Emilio Aguinaldo

VICE PRESIDENT Mariano Trías

HISTORICAL ERA Philippine Revolution

• Established March 22, 1897

• Disestablished November 1, 1897

AREA

• 1897 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)

CURRENCY Peso

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Spanish East Indies

Tagalog Republic#Bonifacio\'s Government

Spanish East Indies

Republic of Biak-na-Bato

WARNING: Value not specified for "common_name "

Andrés Bonifacio , the contemporary Supremo (supreme leader) of the Katipunan presided over the election. He secured the unanimous approval that the decision would not be questioned.

e • d Summary of the March 22, 1897 Philippine presidential election, 1897 CANDIDATE FACTION RESULTS

VOTES %

Emilio Aguinaldo Magdalo 146 57.03%

Andrés Bonifacio Magdiwang 80 31.25%

Mariano Trías Magdiwang 30 11.72%

Valid votes 256 100.00%

Votes cast 256 100.00%

Registered voters 256 100.00%

The results of the election:

POSITION NAME PARTY

President EMILIO AGUINALDO Magdalo

Vice-President MARIANO TRíAS Magdiwang

Captain-General ARTEMIO RICARTE Magdiwang

Director of War EMILIANO RIEGO DE DIOS Magdiwang

Director of the Interior ANDRéS BONIFACIO Magdiwang

Bonifacio, accepted the decision but not before insisting on a recount of the votes. Supporters such as Severino de las Alas made abortive efforts to help make Bonifacio vice president. However, Daniel Tirona objected that the post should not be occupied by a person without a lawyer's diploma. He suggested a lawyer like Jose del Rosario is qualified for the suitable position. Bonifacio was insulted, demanded that Tirona retract the remark. When Tirona made to leave instead, Bonifacio drew a pistol and was about to fire at Tirona, but stopped when Ricarte tried to disarm him. Bonifacio then voided the convention as Supremo of the Katipunan.

The new result of the election:

POSITION NAME PARTY

President EMILIO AGUINALDO Magdalo

Vice-President MARIANO TRíAS Magdiwang

Captain-General ARTEMIO RICARTE Magdiwang

Director of War EMILIANO RIEGO DE DIOS Magdiwang

Director of State JACINTO LUMBRERAS Magdiwang

Director of Finance BALDOMERO AGUINALDO Magdalo

Director of Welfare MARIANO ALVAREZ Magdiwang

Director of Justice SEVERINO DE LAS ALAS Magdiwang

Director of the Interior PASCUAL ALVAREZ Magdiwang

ALLEGATIONS OF FRAUD

In addition to Bonifacio's statement voiding the outcome the probity of the election held has been questioned, with allegations that many ballots distributed were already filled out and that the voters had not done this themselves.

POST CONVENTION EVENTS

AGUINALDO

Emilio Aguinaldo was not present at the convention, but was at a military front at Pasong Santol, a barrio of Dasmariñas , Cavite . He was notified of his election to the Presidency the following day, and his elder brother, Crispulo Aguinaldo , persuaded him to travel to take the oath of office. Leaving Crispulo in command, Aguinaldo traveled to Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza, Cavite ), where he and the others elected, with the exception of Bonaficio, took their oath of office. Crispulo Aguinaldo was among those killed in the Battle of Pasong Santol between March 7 and 24, 1897, which ended with a Spanish victory. After assuming the Presidency, Aguinaldo sent a delegation to contact Bonifacio and persuade him to cooperate with the newly constituted government. The delegation was able to contact Bonifacio, but was unable to persuade him to cooperate.

BONIFACIO

After leaving the convention, Bonifacio met on March 28 with 45 of his followers. Convinced that the election at the convention had been invalid, they drew up a document titled Acta de Tejeros giving their reasons for having rejected the convention results. They then proceeded to Naik and drew up another document, sometimes referred to as the Naik Military Agreement, resolving to establish a government independent of and separate from that established at Tejeros. When the Naik agreement came to the attention of Aguinaldo, he ordered the arrest of Andre Bonifacio and his brother, Procopio . The brothers were tried on charges of treason by Aguinaldo's government and, on May 10, were executed.

REFERENCES

* ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 123. * ^ Alvarez 1992 , p. 107. * ^ A B Alvarez 1992 , p. 108. * ^ A B Agoncillo 1990 , p. 178. * ^ Ambeth Ocampo, Election fraud at the Tejeros Convention (November 5, 2007), Philippine Daily Inquirer. * ^ Agoncillo 1990 , pp. 178-179. * ^ Agoncillo 1990 , pp. 179-181.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TEJEROS CONVENTION .

* The Tejeros Assembly of 1897 MSC Computer Training Center * Katipunan and the Acto de Tejeros, March 23, 1897, Documents of the Katipunan, Katipunan : Documents and studies * Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) . History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. ISBN 971-8711-06-6 . * Alvarez, Santiago V. (1992). Recalling the revolution: memoirs of a Filipino general. University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-1-881261-05-6 .

* v * t * e

Philippine Revolution

* Battles * People

EVENTS

PRELUDE

* Novales Revolt * Palmero Conspiracy * Gomburza

CONCURRENT

* Cry of Pugad Lawin * Bonifacio Plan * Katagalugan (Bonifacio) * Imus Assembly * Tejeros Convention

* Republic of Biak-na-Bato

* Elections * Pact

* Spanish–American War * Declaration of Independence * Malolos Congress * República Filipina * Negros Revolution * Republic of Negros * Republic of Zamboanga

EPILOGUE

* Treaty of Paris * Philippine–American War * Katagalugan (Sacay) * Moro Rebellion * Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 * Commonwealth of the Philippines * Treaty of Manila

ORGANIZATIONS

* American Anti-Imperialist League * Aglipayan Church * Katipunan * La Liga Filipina * Magdalo faction * Magdiwang faction * Philippine Constabulary * Philippine Revolutionary Army * Pulajanes * Propaganda Movement

DOCUMENTS

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SYMBOLS

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* v * t * e

Presidential elections in the Philippines

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