Battles and wars
War in Afghanistan
War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan (TTP; Urdu: تحریک طالبان
Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively
referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella
organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in
Taliban groups in
Pakistan coalesce under the TTP.
In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of
Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban. Among the
Taliban stated objectives are resistance against the
Pakistani state, Pakistani army enforcement of their interpretation of
sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in
The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan
led by Haibatullah Akhundzada, with both groups differing greatly in
their histories, strategic goals and interests although they are both
predominantly Pashtun. The Afghan Taliban, with the
alleged support of Pakistani Taliban, operate against international
coalition and Afghan security forces in
Afghanistan but are strictly
opposed to targeting the Pakistani state. The TTP in contrast has
almost exclusively targeted elements of the Pakistani state although
it took credit for the 2009
Camp Chapman attack
Camp Chapman attack and the 2010 Times
Square car bombing attempt.
Maulana Fazlullah became the group's new leader in late 2013. In the
following year the TTP fragmented into at least four groups, with the
defections said to have left the group in considerable disarray.
1.1 Roots and development
1.2 Threats beyond
1.3 Leadership crisis
1.4 Designation as a terrorist organization
1.5 Internal splits
2 Organizational structure
2.2 Current leaders
Taliban but not allied to TTP
2.3 Current spokesmen
3 Relations with other militant groups
3.1 Afghan Taliban
3.1.1 Cross-border controversy
3.3 Ghazi Abdul Rashid Shaheed Brigade
3.4 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
3.6 Other groups
4 Foreign support/linkages
5 Claimed and alleged attacks
6 Involvement in the Syrian Civil War
7 See also
9 Further reading
Roots and development
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan
The roots of the TTP as an organization began in 2002 when the
Pakistani military conducted incursions into the tribal areas to
originally combat foreign (Afghan,
Arab and Central Asian) militants
fleeing from the war in
Afghanistan into the neighbouring tribal areas
of Pakistan. A 2004 article by the
The military offensive had been part of the overall war against
al-Qaeda. ... Since the start of the operation, the [Pakistani]
military authorities have firmly established that a large number of
Uzbek, Chechen and
Arab militants were in the area. ... It was in July
2002 that Pakistani troops, for the first time in 55 years, entered
Tirah Valley in Khyber tribal agency. Soon they were in Shawal
valley of North Waziristan, and later in South Waziristan. ... This
was made possible after long negotiations with various tribes, who
reluctantly agreed to allow the military's presence on the assurance
that it would bring in funds and development work. But once the
military action started in
South Waziristan a number of Waziri
sub-tribes took it as an attempt to subjugate them. Attempts to
persuade them into handing over the foreign militants failed, and with
an apparently mishandling by the authorities, the security campaign
against suspected al-Qaeda militants turned into an undeclared war
between the Pakistani military and the rebel tribesmen.
Many of the TTP's leaders are veterans of the fighting in Afghanistan
and have supported the fight against the NATO-led International
Security Assistance Force by providing soldiers, training, and
logistics. In 2004 various tribal groups, as explained above, that
would later form the TTP, effectively established their authority in
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) by concurrently
engaging in military attacks and negotiating with Islamabad. By this
time, the militants had killed around 200 rival tribal elders in the
region to consolidate control. Several Pakistani analysts also
cite the inception of U.S. missile strikes in the FATA as a catalyzing
factor in the rise of tribal militancy in the area. More specifically
they single out an October 2006 strike on a madrassah in
was run by the
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi as a turning
In December 2007, the existence of the Tehrik-i-
officially announced under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud.
On 25 August 2008,
Pakistan banned the group, froze its bank accounts
and assets, and barred it from media appearances. The government also
announced that bounties would be placed on prominent leaders of the
In late December 2008 and early January 2009, Mullah Omar sent a
delegation, led by former Guantanamo Bay detainee Mullah Abdullah
Zakir, to persuade leading members of the TTP to put aside differences
and aid the Afghan
Taliban in combating the American presence in
Afghanistan. Baitullah Mehsud, Hafiz Gul Bahadur, and Maulavi
Nazir agreed in February and formed the
Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen
(SIM), also transliterated as
Shura Ittehad-ul-Mujahideen and
translated into English as the Council of United
Mujahedeen. In a written statement circulated in a
one-page Urdu-language pamphlet, the three affirmed that they would
put aside differences to fight American-led forces and reasserted
their allegiance to Mullah Omar and Osama bin Laden. However,
the SIM did not last very long and collapsed shortly after its
Mehsud indicated in a video recorded in April 2010 the TTP would
make cities in the
United States a "main target" in response to U.S.
drone attacks on TTP leaders. The TTP claimed responsibility for
the December 2009 suicide attack on
CIA facilities in Camp Chapman in
Afghanistan, as well as the attempted bombing in
Times Square in May
In July 2012, the TTP threatened to attack Myanmar in the wake of
sectarian violence against
Rohingya Muslims in the Arakan state. TTP
spokesman Ehsanullah demanded the Pakistani government to sever
relations with Myanmar and close down the Burmese embassy in
Islamabad, and warned of attacks against Burmese interests if no
action was taken. While the TTP has been conducting an insurgency in
Pakistan, its ability to expand operations to other countries has been
questioned. This was a rare occasion in which it warned of violence in
In August 2009, a missile strike from a suspected U.S. drone killed
Baitullah Mehsud. The TTP soon held a shura to appoint his
successor. Government sources reported that fighting broke out
during the shura between
Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman. While
Pakistani news channels reported that Hakimullah had been killed in
the shooting, Interior Minister
Rehman Malik could not confirm his
death. On 18 August, Pakistani security officials announced the
capture of Maulvi Omar, chief spokesperson of the TTP. Omar, who had
denied the death of Baitullah, retracted his previous statements and
confirmed the leader's death in the missile strike. He also
acknowledged turmoil among TTP leadership following the killing.
After Omar's capture, Maulana
Faqir Mohammed announced to the
he would assume temporary leadership of the TTP and that Muslim Khan
would serve as the organization's primary spokesperson. He also
maintained that Baitullah had not been killed, but rather was in bad
health. Faqir further elaborated that decisions over leadership of the
umbrella group would only be made in consultation and consensus with a
variety of different TTP leaders. "The congregation of
has 32 members and no important decision can be taken without their
consultation," he told the BBC. He reported to the AFP that
Hakimullah Mehsud and
Wali-ur-Rehman had approved his appointment
as temporary leader of the militant group. Neither militant had
publicly confirmed Faqir's statement, and analysts cited by Dawn News
believed the assumption of leadership actually indicated a power
Two days later
Faqir Mohammed retracted his claims of temporary
leadership and said that
Hakimullah Mehsud had been selected leader of
the TTP. Faqir declared that the 42-member shura had also decided
that Azam Tariq would serve as the TTP's primary spokesperson, rather
than Muslim Khan.
Under the leadership of Hakimullah, the TTP intensified its suicide
campaign against the Pakistani state and against civilian
Ahmedi and Sufi) targets.
Designation as a terrorist organization
On 1 September 2010, the
United States designated the TTP as a Foreign
Terrorist Organization (FTO) and identified
Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali
ur-Rehman as specially designated global terrorists. The designation
of the TTP as an FTO makes it a crime to provide support or to do
business with the group and also allows the U.S. to freeze its assets.
US State Department
US State Department also issued a $5 million reward for
information on the two individuals' locations.
In January 2011, the British government moved to classify the TTP as a
banned terrorist organization under its Terrorism Act 2000.
In July 2011, the Canadian government also added the TTP to its list
of banned terrorist organizations.
In February 2014, a group of TTP jihadists under the lead of Maulana
Umar Qasmi broke away from the organisation to form the Ahrar-ul-Hind,
in protest against the TTP's negotiations with the Pakistan
In May 2014 the
Mehsud faction of the TTP defected from the main group
to form a breakaway unit called Tehrik-i-
South Waziristan led
by Khalid Mehsud. The breakaway group was unhappy with the various
activities of the TTP, saying in a statement "We consider kidnapping
for ransom, extortion, damage to public facilities and bombings to be
Mehsud group believes in stopping the
oppressor from cruelty, and supporting the oppressed." The Mehsuds
were widely seen as the most important group in the TTP and their loss
was regarded as a major blow. In February 2017, the TTP announced
Mehsud faction had rejoined the group, following the
"defection of the rogue elements to the rival parties".
In August 2014, hardline elements of the TTP from four of the seven
tribal districts formed a separate group called Tehrik-i-Taliban
Pakistan Jamaat-ul-Ahrar, led by the Mohmand Agency commander Omar
Khalid Khorosani, after disagreeing with Fazlullah's order to
fight the Pakistani Army's
Operation Zarb-e-Azb offensive in the
Tribal Areas. However, in March 2015, Jamaat-ul-Ahrar's spokesman
announced that they were rejoining the TTP. Some Uzbek and Arab
fighters previously working with the TTP reportedly began leaving
Pakistan to go to
Iraq to fight alongside the Islamic State of Iraq
and the Levant. In the same month, Asmatullah Muawiya, the commander
of the Punjabi Taliban, announced that his faction was ending their
armed struggle against the Pakistani state.
In October 2014, the TTP's spokesman, Shahidullah Shahid, and the
group's commanders in Orakzai, Kurram and Khyber tribal regions and
Peshawar and Hangu Districts defected from the TTP and pledged
allegiance to Islamic State (IS).
The TTP differs in structure to the Afghan
Taliban in that it lacks a
central command and is a much looser coalition of various militant
groups, united by hostility towards the central government in
Islamabad. Several analysts describe the TTP's structure
as a loose network of dispersed constituent groups that vary in size
and in levels of coordination. The various factions of the TTP
tend to be limited to their local areas of influence and often lack
the ability to expand their operations beyond that territory.
In its original form, the TTP had
Baitullah Mehsud as its amir. He was
followed in the leadership hierarchy by
Hafiz Gul Bahadur as naib
amir, or deputy.
Faqir Mohammed was the third most influential
leader. The group contained members from all of FATA's seven
tribal agencies as well as several districts of the North-West
Frontier Province (NWFP), including Swat, Bannu, Tank, Lakki Marwat,
Dera Ismail Khan, Kohistan, Buner, and Malakand. Some 2008
estimates placed the total number of operatives at 30–35,000,
although it is difficult to judge the reliability of such
In the aftermath of Baitullah Mehsud's death, the organization
experienced turmoil among its leading militants. By the end of August
2009, however, leading members in the TTP had confirmed Hakimullah
Mehsud as its second amir. Government and some TTP sources told the
Hakimullah Mehsud was killed in January 2010 by injuries
sustained during a U.S. drone attack. Unconfirmed reports from Orakzai
Agency stated, after the death of Hakimullah Mehsud, Malik Noor Jamal,
alias Maulana Toofan, had assumed leadership of the TTP until the
group determined how to proceed.
Reuters, citing a report from The Express Tribune, indicated in July
2011 that Hakimullah Mehsud's grip on the TTP leadership was weakening
after the defection of Fazal Saeed Haqqani, the
Taliban leader in the
Kurram region, from the umbrella militant group. Haqqani cited
disagreements over attacks on civilians as reason for the split. The
paper quoted an associate of Mehsud's as saying that "it looks as
though he is just a figurehead now... He can hardly communicate with
his commanders in other parts of the tribal areas ... he is in total
isolation. Only a few people within the TTP know where he is." A
December 2011 report published in
The Express Tribune
The Express Tribune further
described the network as "crumbling" with "funds dwindling and
infighting intensifying." According to various TTP operatives, the
difficulties stemmed from differences of opinion within TTP leadership
on pursuing peace talks with Islamabad. In December 2012 senior
Pakistan military officials told
Hakimullah Mehsud had
lost control of the group and that
Wali-ur-Rehman was expected to be
formally announced as the head of the TTP. However a video
released later in the month showed
Hakimullah Mehsud and
Wali-ur-Rehman seated next to each other, with
Mehsud calling reports
of a split between the two as propaganda.
Mullah Fazlullah – Emir (chief) of Tehrik-i-
Sheikh Khalid Haqqani – Naib emir (deputy chief) of TTP and
leader of central / supreme shura.
Mangal Bagh Afridi – Head of
Lashkar-e-Islam faction (based in
Omar Mansoor (alias Omar Khalifa / Omar Naray / Omar Adinzai) –
deceased Commander of TTP in
Darra Adam Khel
Darra Adam Khel and
Geedar Afridi group).
Mehsud (alias Shahbaz) – Commander of North Waziristan
Khalid Mehsud (alias Khan Said Sajna) –
South Waziristan (Eastern
Taliban splinter group.
Hafiz Gul Bahadur – Commander of a powerful militant faction based
North Waziristan and allied to TTP.
Mansoor Mohmand – Mohmand Agency TTP.
Sheikh Gul Muhammad –
Bajaur Agency TTP.
Mufti Noor Wali – Chief of
Karachi chapter (Sajna group).
Adnan Rasheed – Chief of Ansar Al-Aseer (TTP's unit tasked to free
Taliban but not allied to TTP
Bahawal Khan Wazir (alias Salahuddin Ayubi) – South Waziristan
(Western Half) – Successor of Maulvi Nazir.
Asmatullah Muawiya – Leader of Punjabi Taliban. He is part of
Maulana Muhammad Ali Balti (alias Muhammad Khurasani alias Mufti
Khalid) – Central spokesman of TTP (Fazlullah group).
Salahuddin Ayubi – Spokesman for
Lashkar-e-Islam (TTP faction based
in Khyber Agency).
Mehsud (alias Haji Daud) – Spokesman for North Waziristan
TTP led by Sheharyar Mehsud.
Mehsud (alias Azam Tariq) – Spokesman for Mehsud
Taliban (TTP splinter group led by
Khalid Mehsud and based in South
Ahmadi – Spokesman for
Hafiz Gul Bahadur group.
Fahad Marwat – Spokesman for Jundullah splinter group.
The TTP's "media arm" is "Umar Media". Umar Media provides a
"behind the scenes" look at
Taliban attacks. Video clips are made in
Urdu subtitles. Umar Media also reportedly
Facebook page which had been created in September 2012 and
had a few "likes" and a "handful of messages written in English".
According to then TTP spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan, the page was being
"temporarily" used before the TTP would plan to launch its own
website. SITE Intelligence Group described the
Facebook page as a
"recruitment center" looking for people to edit the TTP's quarterly
magazine and videos. The page was soon removed by
the account suspended.
Relations with other militant groups
This section is missing information about TTP's relationship with the
Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant. Please expand the section to
include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page.
In a May 2010 interview, U.S.
Gen. David Petraeus
Gen. David Petraeus described the TTP's
relationship with other militant groups as difficult to decipher:
"There is clearly a symbiotic relationship between all of these
different organizations: al-Qaeda, the Pakistani Taliban, the Afghan
Taliban, TNSM [Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi]. And it's very
difficult to parse and to try to distinguish between them. They
support each other, they coordinate with each other, sometimes they
compete with each other, [and] sometimes they even fight each other.
But at the end of the day, there is quite a relationship between
Director of National Intelligence
Director of National Intelligence and
United States Navy Admiral,
Dennis C. Blair, told U.S. senators that the Pakistani state and army
meanwhile draw clear distinctions among different militant groups.
While links exist between the Pakistani and Afghan Taliban, the two
groups are distinct enough for the Pakistani military to be able to
view them very differently. American officials said that the S
Wing of the Pakistani ISI provided direct support to three major
groups carrying out attacks in Afghanistan: the Afghan
in Quetta, Pakistan, commanded by Mullah Muhammad Omar; the militant
network run by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar; and a different group run by the
guerrilla leader Jalaluddin Haqqani, all considered a strategic asset
Pakistan in contrast to the TTP run by Hakimullah Mehsud, which has
engaged the Pakistani army in combat.
Main article: Taliban
Taliban and the Tehrik-i-
Pakistan differ greatly in
their history, leadership and goals although they are both
predominantly Pashtun. The two groups are distinct, though
linked, movements. An Afghan
Taliban spokesman told The New
York Times: "We don’t like to be involved with them, as we have
rejected all affiliation with Pakistani
Taliban fighters ... We have
sympathy for them as Muslims, but beside that, there is nothing else
between us." Peshawar-based security analyst Brigadier (retd)
Muhamaad Saad believes the
Taliban are not a monolithic entity. "They
can be divided into three broad categories: [Afghan] Kandahari
Taliban, led by Mullah Omar; [Afghan] Paktia Taliban, led by
Jalaluddin Haqqani and his son Sirajuddin Haqqani; and [Pakistani]
Taliban [TTP]," he said. "It’s the Salfi
Taliban who pose a
real threat to Pakistan. They may not be obeying the
leader Mullah Omar." Some regional experts state that the common
name "Taliban" may be more misleading than illuminating. Gilles
Dorronsoro of the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace believes
that "[t]he fact that they have the same name causes all kinds of
confusion." As the Pakistani Army began offensives against the
Pakistani Taliban, many unfamiliar with the region mistakenly thought
that the assault was against the Afghan
Taliban of Mullah Omar.
Although the TTP has claimed allegiance with the Afghan
Taliban in the
Afghan Taliban's insurgency in Afghanistan, the two groups have no
direct affiliation. The TTP has almost exclusively targeted
elements of the Pakistani state. The Afghan
Taliban however have
historically relied on support from the Pakistani army in their
campaign to control Afghanistan. Regular Pakistani army troops
fought alongside the Afghan
Taliban in the War in Afghanistan
(1996–2001). Major leaders of the Afghan
Jalaluddin Haqqani and
Siraj Haqqani are believed to
enjoy safe haven in Pakistan. In 2006,
Jalaluddin Haqqani was
called a 'Pakistani asset' by a senior official of Pakistan's
Pakistan regards the Haqqanis as an
important force for protecting its interests in
therefore has been unwilling to move against them.
Before the creation of the TTP some of their leaders and fighters were
among the 10,000 Pakistani,
Arab and Central Asian militants fighting
as part of a 25,000 force in the War in
Afghanistan (1996–2001) and
the War in
Afghanistan (2001-present) against the anti-
Islamic Front and
NATO forces. A 1998 U.S. State Department report
stated that "20–40 percent of [regular]
Taliban soldiers [were]
Pakistani." After the fall of the Afghan
Taliban in late 2001,
Taliban militants, including members of today's TTP,
sought refuge in Pakistan. Afghan
Taliban maintaining contacts to
Pakistan's ISI also fled for
Pakistan where they regrouped,
maintain safe havens and training camps and from where they launched
their insurgency in Afghanistan. Members of the two groups easily
cross back and forth across the border between the two countries.
A journalist embedded with Canadian troops in
Kandahar Province in the
summer of 2006 indicated that "Pakistani
Taliban were routinely
captured" at the time. Captured fighters admitted to being
recruited and trained in Pakistan.
In 2007, Pakistani militants loyal to
Baitullah Mehsud created the
Pakistan and killed around 200 rival Pakistani
leaders. They officially defined goals to establish their rule over
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas subsequently engaging
the Pakistani army in heavy combat operations. Intelligence analysts
believe that these TTP's attacks on the Pakistani government, police
and army strained relations between the Pakistani
Taliban and the
Afghan Taliban. Afghan
Taliban leader Mullah Omar asked the
Pakistan in late 2008 and early 2009 to stop attacks
inside Pakistan, to change their focus as an organization and to fight
Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army and
ISAF forces in
In February 2009, the three dominant Pakistani
Taliban leaders agreed
to put aside their differences to help counter a planned increase in
American troops in
Afghanistan and reaffirmed their allegiance to
Mullah Omar (and to Osama bin Laden). The agreement among the TTP
leaders was short-lived, however, and instead of fighting alongside
Taliban the rival Pakistani factions soon engaged in combat
with each other.
In early January 2012, TTP spokesman Ihsanullah Ihsan announced that
Taliban groups had made a new attempt to unite under a
five-member council called the Shura-e-Murakeba at the behest of
Mullah Omar. The TTP, he said, had agreed to Mullah Omar's demand to
end suicide attacks, attacks against the Pakistani military,
kidnappings for ransom, and the killing of innocent Pakistanis so that
they could help focus on US forces in Afghanistan. Among the factions
in the agreement were those led by Hakimullah Mehsud, Maulvi Nazir,
Hafiz Gul Bahadur and Siraj Haqqani.
Recently following the TTP's
Peshawar school massacre, the leaders of
Taliban condemned the TTP's actions on the school, saying
it was "Un-Islamic" Future relations between the Afghan Taliban
and TTP are unknown.
Further information: Afghanistan–
In July 2011, after Pakistani missile attacks against Afghan
provinces, Pakistani media reports alleged that senior Pakistani
Taliban leaders were operating from
Afghanistan to launch attacks
against Pakistani border posts. According to the reports, Qari
Zia-ur-Rahman hosted Faqir Muhammad in
Kunar province while Sheikh
Dost Muhammad, a local Afghan
Taliban leader, hosted Maulana Fazlullah
in Nuristan province. Faqir Muhammad, who claimed responsibility for a
4 July 2011 attack on a paramilitary checkpoint and for similar
attacks in June 2011 on several border villages in Bajaur, stated
during a radio broadcast, "Our fighters carried out these two attacks
from Afghanistan, and we will launch more such attacks inside
Afghanistan and in Pakistan." Afghan
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah
Mujahid strongly rejected the reports and denied the possibility of
Taliban setting up bases in Afghan Taliban-controlled
areas. Tameem Nuristani, Governor of Afghanistan's Nuristan
The Express Tribune
The Express Tribune that while the "Afghan
never carried out cross-border attacks in Pakistan," TTP militants may
have "safe-havens" in Kunar and Nuristan in "areas where the
government’s writ does not exist".
In June 2012 a spokesman from the TTP's Malakand division revealed to
The Express Tribune
The Express Tribune that TTP militants "regularly move across the
porous border" to stage attacks against
Pakistan but had only been in
Afghanistan for a few months previously, contrary to Pakistani claims
that the TTP had long used Afghan territory as a staging ground.
Both governments blame the other for harboring
Taliban militants along
the shared border. In 2009
Pakistan launched offensives to force
Pakistan from its territory in South
Waziristan. Some analysts say the fighting pushed TTP militants
to the Nuristan and Kunar provinces of Afghanistan, where they have
regrouped to threaten Pakistani border regions. The Pakistani
military claims "scanty presence" of
NATO and Afghan forces along the
border has enabled militants to use these areas as safe havens and
launch repeated attacks inside Pakistan. Afghan officials state
that the withdrawal of US forces out of parts of Kunar province
beginning in 2010 created a power vacuum that militants filled.
They point to the fact that the Afghan state in some areas has little
control due to its war against the Afghan
Taliban which are supported
Pakistan according to many international and Afghan institutions,
analysts and officials.
Pakistan vehemently denies this
claim, although some Afghan
Taliban commanders stated that their
training was indeed overseen by "ISI officers in a camp in Pakistan"
and that they were being armed by
Pakistan to fight the Afghan state
and international troops in Afghanistan. Although the Afghan
Taliban have asked the TTP to stop attacks against the Pakistani
military and state and themselves do not carry out such
attacks, they do not fight TTP militants crossing the
Recently following the TTP's
Peshawar school massacre Afghan taliban
leader's condemned the TTP's actions on the school, saying it was
Pakistan has close ties to Al Qaeda, sharing money
and bomb experts and makers. John Brennan, President Obama’s chief
counterterrorism adviser, said: "It's a group that is closely allied
with al-Qaeda. They train together, they plan together, they plot
together. They are almost indistinguishable." Ambassador-at-large
Daniel Benjamin stated, "The T.T.P. and
Al Qaeda have a symbiotic
relationship: T.T.P. draws ideological guidance from Al Qaeda, while
Al Qaeda relies on the T.T.P. for safe haven in the Pashtun areas
along the Afghan-Pakistani border... This mutual cooperation gives
T.T.P. access to both Al Qaeda’s global terrorist network and the
operational experience of its members. Given the proximity of the two
groups and the nature of their relationship, T.T.P. is a force
multiplier for Al Qaeda."
Ayesha Siddiqa of the Woodrow Wilson
International Center for Scholars describes the TTP as "a franchise of
al Qaeda" and attributes strong ties to al-Qaeda's acquisition of "a
more local character over the years." Since the days of the Soviet
era, some al-Qaeda operatives have established themselves in Pashtun
areas and enmeshed themselves in the local culture.
Baitullah Mehsud met with
Ayman al-Zawahiri in South
Waziristan. Prior to this meeting the Pakistani
Taliban answered to
Taliban and pro-
Pakistan militant commanders. At the time
Pakistani authorities believed that
Mehsud was in fact an al-Qaeda
operative. In February 2009 Baitullah Mehsud, Hafiz Gul Bahadur
Maulavi Nazir released a statement in which they reaffirmed their
allegiance to Osama bin Laden.
Ghazi Abdul Rashid Shaheed Brigade
The Ghazi Abdul Rashid Shaheed Brigade, whose name is commonly
shortened to Ghazi Brigade or Ghazi Force, emerged as a jihadi
organization after the Lal Masjid Operation of 2007. In 2009 the Ghazi
Brigade worked closely with the TTP during military operations in the
Swat Valley, and the two groups jointly planned attacks on western
targets in Islamabad.
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
The TTP and the
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) have a long
history of collaboration. At one point prior to his appointment as TTP
Baitullah Mehsud lived with Tohir Yo'ldosh, the IMU's former
leader, who became an ideological inspiration and offered the services
of his 2,500 fighters to Mehsud. In April 2009
Muslim Khan listed
the IMU among the TTP's allies in an interview with AP. The IMU
posted a video online in September 2010 that featured footage of
Yo'ldosh's successor, Abu Usman Adil, meeting with Hakimullah Mehsud
and Wali-ur Rahman Mehsud. On 8 June 2014, the TTP accepted
responsibility for conducting the Jinnah International Airport attack.
The militants who participated in the attack were
Uzbeks belonging to
the IMU, and the TTP described the attack as a joint operation between
TTP and IMU.
Taliban Punjab (Urdu/Punjabi/Saraiki: تحریک
طالبان پنجاب), alternatively called the Punjabi
Taliban, was a network of members of banned militant groups based in
South Punjab, the southernmost region of Pakistan's most populous
Punjab province. The group was disbanded in September 2014 and is no
longer active. Major factions of the so-called Punjabi
Taliban include operatives of Lashkar-i-Jhangvi, Sipah-i-Sahaba
Pakistan and Jaish-e-Muhammad, who have previously supported the
Kashmir insurgency against
India in Jammu and Kashmir, a disputed
territory administered by
India that is claimed by Pakistan. TTP has
significant recruits from Punjab-based sectarian organizations also
called Punjabi Taliban. The Punjabi
Taliban have reportedly
developed strong connections with the Tehrik-i-
Taliban Pakistan, the
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi and various
other groups based in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). It has
increasingly provided the foot-soldiers for violent acts and has
played an important role in attacking Ahmedi, Shia,
Sufi and other
civilian targets in the Punjab.
The term "Punjabi Taliban" is politically sensitive among
Pakistanis, given that Punjabis are the largest ethnic group in
the country and have historically been disassociated with the Taliban,
an organisation that has Afghan and Pashtun roots. Although the
Taliban are claimed and believed to be an established militant
group, the Government of Punjab has denied and rejected their
existence. Shahbaz Sharif, the Punjab Chief Minister, has claimed
that the term Punjabi
Taliban is "an insult to the Punjabis" and
accuses that it was coined by
Rehman Malik purposely on ethnic
grounds. During a 17 March 2010 cabinet meeting Malik confirmed
that Punjabi militants had joined Waziristan-based
Taliban to stage
attacks inside Punjab. Georgetown University's C. Christine Fair
writes that "the movement is composed of
Pashtuns and Punjabis, among
other Pakistani and even foreign elements."
Lahore police accused them of being responsible for the 3 March
2009 attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team in Lahore.
The group also claimed the 2009
Lahore bombing shortly after the
attack, although the attack was also claimed by Tehrik-i-Taliban
Pakistan, and the May 2010 attacks on
Ahmadi mosques in Lahore
which were aimed at the
Ahmadi minority sect.
Pamphlets found at the scene of the March 2011 assassination of
Shahbaz Bhatti implicated the Punjabi Taliban.
On 24 August 2013, a spokesman for the Tehrik-i-
claimed that the head of the Punjabi
Taliban faction, Asmatullah
Muawiya, had been stripped of his leadership for welcoming the
Pakistani government’s peace talks offer. Muawiya responded by
saying that the
Taliban central shura (council) did not have the
capacity to remove him because the Punjabi
Taliban is a separate
group. He added that his group has its own decision-making body to
decide leadership and other matters. On 13 September 2014,
Muawiya announced that their faction was ending their armed struggle
to implement sharia within Pakistan, however it would continue armed
struggle in Afghanistan. He urged other warring groups to end violence
They are closely related as they operate close to each other
US officials admitted to
The New York Times
The New York Times that they found it
increasingly difficult to separate the operations of the various
Pakistani militant groups active in the tribal areas of Pakistan.
Individuals and groups that are believed to have a supportive
relationship with the TTP include:
Harkat-ul Jihad Islami (HuJI), an al-Qaeda-linked terror group
Ilyas Kashmiri - killed
Qari Saifullah Akhtar
The Pakistani military and civilian leadership have repeatedly alleged
that the Indian intelligence agency RAW has been funding and training
TTP members using a network of Indian consulates in
the Pakistani border. The allegations claim that when
the TTP emerged, Afghan and Indian intelligence agencies were quick to
seize the opportunity to infiltrate and utilise some of its elements,
particularly Baitullah Mehsud’s kin, against the Pakistani
government and its armed forces.
Pakistan claims that NDS
(Afghanistan's intelligence agency) officials have openly admitted to
their involvement with Tehreek-e-Taliban.
In December 2014, after the
Peshawar school massacre in which 132
children were killed, the Pakistani authorities again alleged that
there was significant proof of Indian support of TTP to destabilise
Pakistan and to counter Pakistan's Afghan policy. The Pakistan
Army's official spokesman,
Major General Asim Bajwa, said in the
aftermath of the attack that, "
India is funding
Taliban in the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Balochistan," adding
that "...a banned outfit cannot function on such a big scale unless
foreign powers are funding it." In addition to the Indian RAW
intelligence agency, the Pakistanis claim that Afghan intelligence
agencies are also involved in the support of TTP. Notably, major
TTP leader Latif
Mehsud was caught by U.S. troops in
he was in a convoy escorted by Afghan Intelligence. American forces
captured the TTP leader and handed him over to Pakistani authorities,
much to the anger of Afghan President Hamid Karzai. At the time,
Karzai's spokesman told the Washington Post that
Mehsud was traveling
with a convoy of Afghan intelligence officials who wanted to recruit
him for peace talks, and that the U.S. forcibly removed him.
Pakistanis claim this as a major proof of Afghan Intelligence
agencies' support for TTP.
According to Pakistani ex-President and Army Chief, General Pervez
Pakistan has a history of supporting
Afghanistan are now supporting TTP
Pakistan to counter Pakistan's efforts, giving rise to the
Pakistan and India's proxy wars in
Pakistan. In 2016, Latif
Mehsud gave a public video confession
during which he claimed that Indian and Afghan intelligence agencies
were responsible for supporting the TTP and other militant groups
The Sindh Home Ministry on November 2015, wrote a letter to the
Rangers and Police claiming
Taliban had funded terrorist activities in
Karachi. According to the letter, RAW funded around Rs 20 million for
terrorist activities in Karachi. "The funding has been provided to
Taliban Swat," the letter claimed.
Claimed and alleged attacks
Main article: List of terrorist incidents in
Pakistan since 2001
The Pakistani government implicated the network in the December 2007
assassination of Benazir Bhutto although the group denies the charge.
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency also confirmed its belief of
TTP's involvement in January 2008.
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariate-Mohammadi (TNSM) claimed responsibility
for a 23 December 2007 suicide bombing targeting a military convoy on
behalf of the TTP. The blast in the Mingora area of the Swat Valley
killed five soldiers and six civilians.
Maulvi Umar claimed responsibility of 2008 Dera Ismail
Khan suicide bombing.
Maulvi Umar claimed that the group was responsible for
21 August 2008 suicide bomb attack on a military complex.
TTP claimed responsibility for the 23 August 2008 Swat Valley bombing.
Someone using the name Abdur Rehman claimed that the TTP was behind a
6 November 2008 suicide bombing that targeted tribal elders, who had
gathered in the
Bajaur tribal area to discuss efforts to coordinate
with the government against the Pakistani Taliban. The blast took the
lives of 16 and injured 31.
On 13 November 2008, the TTP intercepted a military convoy along the
Khyber Pass bound for
NATO troops in Afghanistan.
In telephone interviews with news media
Mehsud claimed responsibility
for the 30 March 2009 attack on the police training academy in
Lahore. He told the
BBC that the attack was in retaliation
for continued missile strikes from American drones for which the
Pakistani government shared responsibility. In the same interview
Mehsud claimed two other attacks: a 25 March attack on an Islamabad
police station and a 30 March suicide attack on a military convoy near
Mehsud claimed responsibility for the Binghamton shootings, stating
that they were in retaliation for continued missile strikes from
American drones. The FBI denied this claim and stated this had nothing
to do with Mehsud.
Azam Tariq, spokesman of the TTP, claimed responsibility for a suicide
bombing at a security checkpoint along the Pakistan-Afghan border near
Torkham on 27 August 2009. Tariq said by telephone that the attack was
the first in retaliation for the death of Baitullah Mehsud. Although
the exact number of casualties was unknown, a doctor at a nearby
Dawn News that they had received 22 bodies and local
people working at the blast site said they had retrieved 13
Azam Tariq claimed responsibility for a suicide attack that killed
five at the UN's
World Food Programme
World Food Programme
Islamabad offices on 5 October
The TTP, through Azam Tariq, claimed responsibility for the October
2009 attack on the army's headquarters at Rawalpindi. Tariq told the
Associated Press that the attack was carried out by its "Punjabi
faction" although the military insisted the attack originated in South
The militant group claimed responsibility for three separate
coordinated attacks in Lahore. 10 militants targeted buildings used by
Federal Investigation Agency
Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), the Manawan Police Training
School and the Elite Police Academy.
The Pakistani Taliban, as well as the Afghan Taliban, claimed
responsibility for the 30 December 2009 attack on Camp Chapman, a base
of operations for the CIA, inside Khost Province, Afghanistan. The TTP
released a video of
Hakimullah Mehsud sitting next to the suicide
bomber, Humam Khalil Abu Mulal al-Balawi, a Jordanian national who had
been working with the CIA. In the video, al-Balawi states that the
attack is in retaliation for the killing of Baitullah Mehsud. Many
analysts doubted that the TTP acted alone.
In a video posting on YouTube,
Qari Hussain claimed that the TTP was
behind the May 2010 attempted car bomb in New York City's Times
Square. (Previously the TTP had claimed responsibility for a
shooting at an immigrant centre in NY, but it was dismissed as a hoax
An attack on two minority mosques in
Lahore during May 2010 was
claimed by the Taliban.
In July 2010, the TTP claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing in
the Mohmand Agency. Two blasts occurred outside a senior government
official's office as people gathered to receive relief supplies. As
many as 56 people died and at least 100 suffered injuries.
On 4 October 2010 the TTP claimed responsibility for an attack near
Islamabad on fuel tankers bound for
NATO troops in Afghanistan.
In December 2010, the TTP claimed responsibility for a double suicide
bombing upon administrative buildings in the Mohmand district's
Ghalalnai village. The blast killed 40–50 people. The purported head
of the TTP in Mohmand, Omar Khalid, claimed responsibility in a
telephone call with the AFP. The military's chief spokesman,
Athar Abbas indicated to Al Jazeera that the TTP
attackers were based in neighboring Afghanistan.
In December 2010, the TTP in
South Waziristan kidnapped 23 tribesmen
who had recently attended meetings with the Pakistani military.
The TTP claimed responsibility for a 15 January 2011 attack on NATO
fuel tankers likely bound for the border crossing town of Chaman. Azam
Tariq told the AP, "We have assigned our fighters to go after NATO
supply tankers wherever in Pakistan."
On 31 January 2011 Azam Tariq, on behalf of the TTP, claimed
responsibility of a suicide bombing in
Peshawar that targeted police.
The blast killed 5 people (3 police and 2 civilians) and injured
On 10 February 2011 the TTP claimed responsibility for a suicide
bombing at an army compound in
Mardan that killed at least 31 people.
Azam Tariq told the AFP that the attack was in response to repeated
U.S. drone attacks and military incursions in the tribal areas. He
also threatened further attacks against "those who protect the
The TTP released a video of the execution of a former ISI officer
known as Colonel Imam. The TTP said they had carried out the murder on
17 February 2011. His body was found near Mir Ali, North
On 8 March 2011 a car bomb explosion at a gas station in Faisalabad
killed at least 32 and injured 125. Pakistani
Ehsanullah Ehsan claimed responsibility and stated that the intended
target was a nearby ISI office. He said that the attack was in
retaliation for the death of a
Taliban commander the previous
On 9 March 2011 a suicide bomber attacked a funeral procession in
Peshawar. The procession consisted of many anti-
Spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan said the Pakistani
Taliban had carried out
the attack because the militiamen had allied themselves with the
Pakistani government and, by extension, the United States.
On 4 April 2011 two suicide bombers attacked a
Sufi shrine in Dera
Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. The bombings occurred while thousands of
devotees were gathered for the annual
Urs celebrations at the shrine.
The attack left more than 50 people dead, as well as 120 wounded.
Taliban are ideologically opposed to
Sufism and claimed
responsibility soon after the attacks.
Taliban claimed responsibility for two remotely detonated
explosions that targeted two Pakistani Navy buses in
Karachi on 26
Spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan claimed responsibility for a 28 April 2011
attack upon a Pakistani Navy bus in
Karachi that killed 5.
On 13 May 2011 the TTP claimed responsibility for a dual suicide bomb
attacks on a
Frontier Constabulary (FC) headquarters in Shabqadar, a
town about 30 kilometers north of Peshawar, in Charsadda District. The
attack killed more than 80 and injured at least 115 people. Most of
the casualties were FC cadets. TTP spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan claimed
that the attack was retribution for the killing of Osama bin
The TTP claimed responsibility for a 22 May 2011 attack on a naval
station in Karachi.
A suicide bomber drove an explosives-laden pickup truck into a
Peshawar police building on 25 May 2011. The blast killed six and
wounded 30. The Pakistani
Taliban claimed responsibility.
On 13 September 2011, five militants with assault rifles and rockets
attacked a school bus, killing the driver, four boys aged 10 to 15,
and wounding two seven-year-old girls. TTP claimed
On 1 December 2011 the TTP claimed responsibility for the death of
Hashim Zaman, an anti-TTP tribal leader, who was killed in
TTP militants abducted 15 Pakistani paramilitary soldiers on 23
December 2011 from a fort in Mullazai. TTP spokesperson Ihsanullah
Ihsan announced on 5 January 2012 that the militant group had executed
the 15 paramilitary soldiers. The bodies were recovered
close to a ravine and were mutilated according to locals. On 22
January 2012 the TTP released a video showing the execution of the 15
Ahmed Marwat, a spokesman for a
Jandola faction of the TTP, claimed to
Reuters that Mohammed Merah, a Frenchman of Algerian descent suspected
of killing seven people in Toulouse, France, had received TTP training
in North Waziristan. However, Marwat denied the TTP's involvement in
the shootings, and the head of French intelligence indicated they had
no evidence that Merah belonged to any militant Islamist group.
Pakistani officials allege that the TTP trained 85 French nationals
between 2009 and 2012.
Khyber Agency faction claimed responsibility for a 23 March
2012 bombing that targeted a mosque, run by
Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), in
Kolay village of Tirah Valley. The blast killed more than a dozen
people and injured at least six others. A TTP spokesman told reporters
that the attacks against the LeI would continue.
The TTP claimed responsibility for an 5 April 2012 suicide bombing
targeting a police vehicle in Karachi. The blast killed two and
On 15 April 2012 the TTP claimed responsibility for a prison break in
Bannu. 384 convicts escaped although many were later
A suicide bomb on 4 May 2012 killed 24 and wounded at least 45 in a
Bajaur market . The TTP claimed responsibility.
The Malakand branch of the TTP claimed responsibility for 24 June 2012
attacks on Pakistani security checkpoints near the Afghan border. 13
Pakistani troops were reportedly killed while 14 militants died. The
Pakistani military alleged that the militants had crossed over from
Afghanistan, but the TTP did not confirm in claiming responsibility.
The TTP also denied that it had taken casualties.
On 25 June 2012 the TTP claimed responsibility for gunfire on Aaj News
TV, a local station in Karachi. Two were injured. Ehsanullah Ehsan
said that the TTP was upset that it was not receiving coverage equal
to that of the Pakistani military and government.
On 9 July 2012 militants linked to the TTP attacked an army camp near
Gujrat city that killed seven soldiers and a policeman. A pamphlet
found at the scene indicated that attacks against government
installations would continue as long as
NATO to use
its territory to transport supplies into Afghanistan.
The TTP claimed responsibility for a 16 August 2012 attack on the
Minhas Airbase in Kamra. The two-hour firefight resulted in the deaths
of nine insurgents and two soldiers. Three other soldiers were
On 16 August 2012 militants removed 22 Shiites from buses and executed
them in Mansehra District. The
Darra Adam Khel
Darra Adam Khel faction of the TTP
claimed responsibility in a telephone interview with Reuters.
The TTP claimed responsibility for the 9 October 2012 school-bus
shooting of Malala Yousafzai, a young activist blogger, and two other
schoolgirls. Supporting the attack, TTP spokesman Ehsanullah
Ehsan stated “whom so ever leads a campaign against Islam and
Shariah is ordered to be killed by Shariah.” He added that it is
“not just allowed … but obligatory in Islam” to kill such a
person involved “in leading a campaign against Shariah... ."
The TTP claimed responsibility for the 2014 Jinnah International
Airport attack, which was carried out jointly with the Islamic
Movement of Uzbekistan. The militants who participated in the attack
were Uzbek foreigners.
The TTP claimed responsibility for the 2014
Peshawar school attack
which claimed 141 lives, including 132 school children between eight
and 18 years of age, with the remaining nine fatalities being staff
members of the school.
A commander within the TTP claimed responsibility for the Bacha Khan
University attack, in which at least thirty students and teachers were
killed by as yet unidentified gunmen. However, a spokesperson for the
Taliban denied the group's involvement.
Involvement in the Syrian Civil War
Main article: Foreign rebel fighters in the Syrian Civil War
Taliban have limited aims and focused objectives. Tahreek Taliban
Pakistan (TTP) is anti-
Pakistan and Afghan
Taliban are struggling to
end the foreign occupation of
Afghanistan and to get on power in both
of countries. There are unconfirmed reports that the
set up camps and reinforced hundreds of fighters to
Syria to fight
alongside rebels opposed to
Bashar al-Assad in continuity of
cementation of ties with al Qaeda.
Taliban commanders in Pakistan
said that they had decided to join the cause, saying hundreds of
fighters had gone to
Syria to fight alongside their "Mujahedeen
Taliban commander termed the
Arab fighters as their
friends. Media reported the visit and setup of a Pakistani Taliban
Syria to assess "the needs of the jihad". The Taliban
commander said: "Since our
Arab brothers have come here for our
support, we are bound to help them in their respective countries and
that is what we did in Syria" At least 12 experts in information
technology and warfare were sent to
Syria in the last two months to
aid the Mujahideen. The Pakistani government consider such report as
fake and an effort to gain sympathies of other Muslims.
Taliban fatality reports in Pakistan
Terrorism in Pakistan
List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War
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Taliban will fight in
Afghanistan". The Friday Times. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ Zia Ur Rehman (14 November 2014). "TTP is crumbling". The Friday
Times. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
Lashkar-e-Islam spokesperson phones to deny death". The Express
Tribune. Reuters. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
^ Sherazi, Zahir Shah (14 April 2014). "Afghan
tribesmen's help to stop TTP infighting". dawn.com. Retrieved 31 March
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in SWA". The Nation (Pakistan). Retrieved 13 May 2014.
^ Bergen, Peter; Tiedemann, Katherine (2013). Talibanistan:
Negotiating the Borders Between Terror, Politics, and Religion. Oxford
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'jihad'". The Express Tribune. 26 October 2014. Retrieved 31 March
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CIA in bin Laden hunt killed in Pakistan". CNN. Retrieved
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Facebook shuts down
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Pakistan Help, U.S. Aides Say". New York Times.
^ a b Waldman, Matt (June 2010), "The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship
between Pakistan's ISI and Afghan Insurgents" (PDF), Crisis States
Discussion Papers (PDF)format= requires url= (help), London: Crisis
States Research Centre, p. 3, Separately, there are a wide range
of Islamist militant groups, principally based in north-west Pakistan,
a large number of which coalesced under the banner of
Tehrik-e-Taleban-e- Pakistan, also known as the Pakistani Taliban
(Franco 2009:269). Although the ISI previously supported many of these
groups, since 2007 the militants have increasingly turned their fire
on Pakistani state.8 Consequently, the Pakistani military has
undertaken extensive operations against their strongholds in the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.9
While there are undoubtedly links between the Pakistani and Afghan
Taliban, they appear to be sufficiently distinct for the Pakistani
military and ISI to treat them very differently.
^ a b c d "TTP says Osama welcome in Swat:
Taliban reject peace
accord". Lahore: Daily Times. 22 April 2009. Archived from the
original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2009. Muslim Khan
counted the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, the Jaish-e-Muhammad, the Islamic
Movement of Uzbekistan, Al Qaeda, and the
his allies. "If we need, we can call them and if they need, they can
call us," he said. He said his forces would go to help the
Afghanistan if the
United States and
NATO continue to fight
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^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan
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Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York
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Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". London: Ahmed
Rashid in the Telegraph. 11 September 2001.
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^ Roggio, Bill (10 June 2010). "Afghan
Taliban deny being supported by
Pakistan". The Long War Journal. Public Multimedia Inc. Retrieved 14
February 2011. After the US ousted Mullah Omar from power in 2001 and
Taliban and al Qaeda regrouped in the Pakistani province of
Baluchistan as well as in northwestern Pakistan. The Afghan Taliban
teamed up with Pakistani
Taliban factions and maintain safe havens and
training camps in
Pakistan to this day.
^ a b "Is
Pakistan Doing All It Should to Secure Its Afghan Border?".
7 March 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2011. To ignore that the Taliban
Afghanistan receive very real support from
Pakistan understates the
severity of the problem. When thousands of
been positively identified as organizing, arming, training, and
raiding from camps in Waziristan and Bajaur, this isn't a problem that
can be easily swept under the rug. While I was embedded with the
Canadian Army in Kandahar last summer, Pakistani
routinely captured. Last fall, captured fighters admitted to being
recruited and trained in Pakistan. “Mullahs in
preaching to us that we are obliged to fight jihad in Afghanistan,”
said a Pakistani
Taliban fighter named Alahuddin. “A Pakistani
Taliban commander, Saifullah, introduced us to a guide who escorted us
to Barmal.” The unit he crossed over with was largely from North
Waziristan, and Maulivi Saifullah signed the Waziristan Accord. There
are numerous accounts such as this.
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back on the air in Pakistan". Seattle Times. Associated Press.
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Pakistan strongly denied
BBC report that alleged the Pakistani military, along with
its intelligence arm, supplied and protected the Afghan
Taliban and al
Qaeda". Reuters. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
Taliban Chiefs Admit Close Links to
International Business Times. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 1 December
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BBC News – Afghanistan: Pakistan
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Latest news, Breaking news,
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jihadist websites. SITE Intelligence, an American group tracking jihad
websites, reported the claim late on Wednesday.
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Retrieved 10 February 2011. Officials maintain that the 17-year-old
bomber was the only person involved in the attack. But Umar Hassan
Ihravi, a spokesman for the area's Pakistani
Taliban chapter, claiming
responsibility for the attack, told reporters in the area that the
bombing was carried out by two militants. One, he said, served as a
lookout and escaped after the attack. Ihravi did not say how old the
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Who is Who in the Pakistani Taliban: A Sampling of Insurgent
Personalities in Seven Operational Zones in Pakistan’s Federally
Administered Tribal Area (FATA) and North Western Frontier Province
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Program for Culture and Conflict Studies
Interview with Tehrik-i-
Muslim Khan by Radio
France Internationale in English April 2009
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(eds), Escaping Quagmire: Security, Strategy and the Future of
Pakistan, Continuum, 2010.
Ben Brumfield, Who are the Pakistani Taliban?, CNN
Hakimullah Mehsud †
Baitullah Mehsud †
Faqir Mohammed (POW)
Khalid Mehsud †
Qari Hussain †
Sher Muhammad Qusab †
Maulvi Omar (POW)
Ehsanullah Ehsan (POW)
Muslim Khan (POW)
War in North-West Pakistan
Assassination of Benazir Bhutto
Kidnapping of Tariq Azizuddin
Battle of Bajaur
2008 Wah bombing
PNS Mehran attack
Assassination attempt on Malala Yousufzai
Assassination of Chaudhry Aslam Khan
Jinnah International Airport attack
Peshawar school massacre
Drone strikes in Pakistan
Taliban fatality reports in Pakistan
Afghanistan to Pakistan
Pakistan to Afghanistan
Afghans in Pakistan
Pakistanis in Afghanistan
Religion in Afghanistan
Religion in Pakistan
Persian and Urdu
Events and conflicts
1995 attack on the Pakistani embassy in Kabul
Pakistan border skirmish
United Nations Good Offices Mission in
Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pakistan sentiment in Afghanistan
Islamism in South Asia
Jamaat al Dawa al Quran
Haji Namdar Group
Al-Badr (Jammu and Kashmir)
Tehreek-e-Azaadi Jammu and Kashmir
Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam
Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh
Popular Front of India
Students Islamic Movement of
Karnataka Forum for Dignity
Mullah Akhtar Mansour
Mullah Muhammad Rasul
Hafiz Muhammad Saeed
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Part of Islamism