The TEHRAN CONFERENCE (codenamed EUREKA ) was a strategy meeting of
Joseph Stalin ,
Franklin D. Roosevelt , and
Winston Churchill from 28
November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of
* 1 Prelude
* 2 Proceedings
* 2.1 Dinner meeting * 2.2 Decisions
* 3 Results * 4 Alleged assassination plot * 5 See also
* 6 References
* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Bibliography * 6.3 Primary sources
* 7 Further reading * 8 External links
As soon as the German-Soviet war broke out in June 1941, Churchill
offered assistance to the Soviets, and an agreement to this effect was
signed on 12 July 1941. Delegations had traveled between London and
Moscow to arrange the implementation of this support and when the
Stalin was reluctant to leave Moscow and was unwilling to risk
journeys by air, while Roosevelt was physically disabled and found
travel difficult. Churchill was an avid traveller and, as part of an
ongoing series of wartime conferences , had already met with Roosevelt
five times in North America and twice in Africa and had also held two
prior meetings with Stalin in Moscow. In order to arrange this
urgently needed meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to travel
to Cairo. Stalin turned down this offer and also offers to meet in
Baghdad or Basra, finally agreeing to meet in
Teheran, Iran, Dec. 1943—Front row: Marshal Stalin, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill on the portico of the Russian Embassy—Back row: General H.H. Arnold, Chief of the U.S. Army Air Force; General Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff; Admiral Cunningham, First Sea Lord; Admiral William Leahy, Chief of staff to President Roosevelt, during the Teheran Conference
The conference was to convene at 16:00 on 28 November 1943. Stalin
arrived well before, followed by Roosevelt, brought in his wheelchair
from his accommodation adjacent to the venue. Roosevelt, who had
traveled 7,000 miles (11,000 km) to attend and whose health was
already deteriorating, was met by Stalin. This was the first time that
they had met. Churchill, walking with his general staff from their
accommodations nearby, arrived half an hour later. According to
Charles Bohlen, translator for FDR, FDR was accompanied by Averell
Harriman and Harry Hopkins. Stalin was accompanied by Molotov and
Voroshilov. Churchill brought Anthony Eden and Lord Ismay, and his
translator was Major Arthur Birse. The Shah of
As Stalin had been advocating for a second front since 1941, he was very pleased and felt that he had accomplished his principal goal for the meeting. Moving on, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany was defeated.
Stalin pressed for a revision of Poland’s eastern border with the
The leaders then turned to the conditions under which the Western Allies would open a new front by invading northern France (Operation Overlord ), as Stalin had pressed them to do since 1941. Up to this point Churchill had advocated the expansion of joint operations of British, American, and Commonwealth forces in the Mediterranean, as Overlord in 1943 was physically impossible due to a lack of shipping, which left the Mediterranean and Italy as viable goals for 1943. It was agreed Overlord would occur by May 1944; Stalin agreed to support it by launching a concurrent major offensive on Germany's eastern front to divert German forces from northern France.
The Three Governments realize that the war has caused special
economic difficulties for Iran, and they all agreed that they will
continue to make available to the Government of
In addition, the
Despite accepting the above arrangements, Stalin dominated the conference. He used the prestige of the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk to get his way. Roosevelt attempted to cope with Stalin's onslaught of demands, but was able to do little except appease Stalin. Churchill argued for the invasion of Italy in 1943, then Overlord in 1944, on the basis that Overlord was physically impossible in 1943 due to lack of shipping and it would be unthinkable to do anything major until it could be launched.
Churchill proposed to Stalin a moving westwards of Poland, which
Stalin accepted, which gave the Poles industrialized German land to
the west and gave up marshlands to the east, while providing a
territorial buffer to the
Before the Tripartite Dinner Meeting of 29 November 1943 at the
Conference, Churchill presented Stalin with a specially commissioned
ceremonial sword (the "
Sword of Stalingrad ", made in
Without American production the United Nations could never have won the war. — Joseph Stalin, during the dinner at the Tehran Conference.
Stalin proposed executing 50,000–100,000 German officers so that Germany could not plan another war. Roosevelt, believing Stalin was not serious, joked that "maybe 49,000 would be enough". Churchill, however, was outraged and denounced "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country". He said that only war criminals should be put on trial in accordance with the Moscow Document , which he himself had written. He stormed out of the room, but was brought back in by Stalin who said he was joking. Churchill was glad Stalin had relented, but thought Stalin was testing the waters.
The declaration issued by the three leaders on conclusion of the conference on 1 December 1943, recorded the following military conclusions:
Yugoslav Partisans should be supported by supplies and
equipment and also by commando operations.
* It would be desirable if
Political decision... Stalin and Churchill discussed the future borders of Poland and settled on the Curzon line in the east and the Oder-Neisse line in the west. FDR had asked to be excused from any discussion of Poland out of consideration for the effects of any decision on Polish voters in the USA and the upcoming 1944 election.
The Yugoslav Partisans were given full Allied support, and Allied support to the Yugoslav Chetniks was halted (they were believed to be cooperating with the occupying Germans rather than fighting them). The Communist Partisans under Tito took power in Yugoslavia as the Germans retreated from the Balkans.
Turkey's president conferred with Roosevelt and Churchill at the
Cairo Conference in November 1943, and promised to enter the war when
his country was fully armed. By August 1944
The invasion of France on 6 June 1944 took place about as planned, and the supporting invasion of southern France also took place ( Operation Dragoon ). The Soviets launched a major offensive against the Germans on 22 June 1944 ( Operation Bagration ).
ALLEGED ASSASSINATION PLOT
Main article: Operation Long Jump
According to Soviet reports, German agents planned to kill the Big
Three leaders at the
* _ World War II portal
* ^ Churchill, Winston Spencer (1951). _The Second World War:
Closing the Ring_. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. p. 642.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Service, Robert (2005). _Stalin: A
Biography_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 459–60.
ISBN 978-0-674-01697-2 .
* ^ Tolstoy, Nikolai (1981). _Stalin's Secret War_. Holt, Rinehart
and Winston. p. 57.
* ^ Overy, Richard (1996). _Why the Allies Won_. New York: W.W.
Norton & Company. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-0-393-03925-2 .
* ^ Office of the Historian (2016). "The
* Best, Geoffrey. _Churchill: A Study in Greatness_. London:
Hambledon and London, 2001.
* "Cold War: Teheran Declaration." CNN. 1998. 26 March 2006.
* Feis, Herbert. _Churchill-Roosevelt-Stalin_ (Princeton U.P. 1967),
* Foster, Rhea Dulles. "The Road to Tehran: The Story of Russia and
America, 1781 – 1943." — Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1944. — 279 p.
* Hamzavi, A. H. "
* Miscellaneous No. 8 (1947) "Military Conclusions of the Tehran Conference. Tehran, 1 December 1943." British Parliamentary Papers. By Royal Command. CMD 7092 Presented by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Parliament by Command of His Majesty.