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The Tehran
Tehran
Conference (codenamed Eureka[1]) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II
World War II
conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom). It closely followed the Cairo Conference
Cairo Conference
which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran
Tehran
Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey
Turkey
and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.

Contents

1 Prelude 2 Proceedings

2.1 Dinner meeting 2.2 Decisions

3 Results 4 Alleged assassination plot 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography 6.3 Primary sources

7 Further reading 8 External links

Prelude[edit] As soon as the German-Soviet war broke out in June 1941, Churchill offered assistance to the Soviets, and an agreement to this effect was signed on 12 July 1941.[2] Delegations had traveled between London and Moscow to arrange the implementation of this support and when the United States
United States
joined the war in December 1941, the delegations met in Washington as well. A Combined Chiefs of Staff
Combined Chiefs of Staff
committee was created to coordinate British and American operations as well as their support to the Soviet Union. The consequences of a global war, the absence of a unified Allied strategy and the complexity of allocating resources between Europe and Asia had not yet been sorted out, and soon gave rise to mutual suspicions between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.[2] There was the question of opening a second front to alleviate the German pressure on the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
on the Eastern Front, the question of mutual assistance (where both Britain and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were looking towards the United States
United States
for credit and material support and there was tension between the United States
United States
and Britain since Washington had no desire to prop up the British Empire in the event of an Allied victory).[2] Also, neither the United States nor Britain were prepared to give Stalin a free hand in Eastern Europe and, lastly, there was no common policy on how to deal with Germany after Hitler. Communications regarding these matters between Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin took place by telegrams and via emissaries—but it was evident that direct negotiations were urgently needed.[2] Stalin was reluctant to leave Moscow and was unwilling to risk journeys by air,[3] while Roosevelt was physically disabled and found travel difficult. Churchill was an avid traveller and, as part of an ongoing series of wartime conferences, had already met with Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa and had also held two prior meetings with Stalin in Moscow.[2] In order to arrange this urgently needed meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to travel to Cairo. Stalin turned down this offer and also offers to meet in Baghdad or Basra, finally agreeing to meet in Tehran
Tehran
in November 1943.[2] Proceedings[edit]

Tehran, Iran, Dec. 1943—Front row: Marshal
Marshal
Stalin, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill on the portico of the Russian Embassy—Back row: General H.H. Arnold, Chief of the U.S. Army Air Force; General Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff; Admiral Cunningham, First Sea Lord; Admiral William Leahy, Chief of staff to President Roosevelt, during the Tehran
Tehran
Conference

The conference was to convene at 16:00 on 28 November 1943. Stalin arrived well before, followed by Roosevelt, brought in his wheelchair from his accommodation adjacent to the venue. Roosevelt, who had traveled 7,000 miles (11,000 km) to attend and whose health was already deteriorating, was met by Stalin. This was the first time that they had met. Churchill, walking with his general staff from their accommodations nearby, arrived half an hour later.[4] According to Charles Bohlen, translator for FDR, FDR was accompanied by Averell Harriman and Harry Hopkins. Stalin was accompanied by Molotov and Voroshilov. Churchill brought Anthony Eden and Lord Ismay, and his translator was Major Arthur Birse.

The Shah of Iran, shortly after his father's forced abdication during the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran, meeting with American president Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
during the Conference

The Shah of Iran (center), pictured to the right of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
at the Tehran
Tehran
Conference (1943)

Play media

Footage from the Cairo and Tehran
Tehran
conferences

As Stalin had been advocating for a second front since 1941, he was very pleased and felt that he had accomplished his principal goal for the meeting. Moving on, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany was defeated.

Stalin pressed for a revision of Poland’s eastern border with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to match the line set by British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon in 1920. In order to compensate Poland for the resulting loss of territory, the three leaders agreed to move the German-Polish border to the Oder and Neisse rivers. This decision was not formally ratified, however, until the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
of 1945.[5]

The leaders then turned to the conditions under which the Western Allies would open a new front by invading northern France (Operation Overlord), as Stalin had pressed them to do since 1941. Up to this point Churchill had advocated the expansion of joint operations of British, American, and Commonwealth forces in the Mediterranean, as Overlord in 1943 was physically impossible due to a lack of shipping, which left the Mediterranean and Italy as viable goals for 1943. It was agreed Overlord would occur by May 1944; Stalin agreed to support it by launching a concurrent major offensive on Germany's eastern front to divert German forces from northern France.[6] Iran and Turkey
Turkey
were discussed in detail. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all agreed to support Iran's government, as addressed in the following declaration:

The Three Governments realize that the war has caused special economic difficulties for Iran, and they all agreed that they will continue to make available to the Government of Iran such economic assistance as may be possible, having regard to the heavy demands made upon them by their world-wide military operations, and to the world-wide shortage of transport, raw materials, and supplies for civilian consumption.[7]

In addition, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was required to pledge support to Turkey if that country entered the war. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed that it would also be most desirable if Turkey
Turkey
entered on the Allies' side before the year was out. Despite accepting the above arrangements, Stalin dominated the conference. He used the prestige of the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk to get his way. Roosevelt attempted to cope with Stalin's onslaught of demands, but was able to do little except appease Stalin. Churchill argued for the invasion of Italy in 1943, then Overlord in 1944, on the basis that Overlord was physically impossible in 1943 due to lack of shipping and it would be unthinkable to do anything major until it could be launched.[8] Churchill proposed to Stalin a moving westwards of Poland, which Stalin accepted, which gave the Poles industrialized German land to the west and gave up marshlands to the east, while providing a territorial buffer to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
against invasion. Dinner meeting[edit] Before the Tripartite Dinner Meeting of 29 November 1943 at the Conference, Churchill presented Stalin with a specially commissioned ceremonial sword (the "Sword of Stalingrad", made in Sheffield), as a gift from King George VI
George VI
to the citizens of Stalingrad and the Soviet people, commemorating the Soviet victory at Stalingrad. When Stalin received the sheathed sword, he took it with both hands and kissed the scabbard. (He then handed it to Marshal
Marshal
Kliment Voroshilov, who mishandled it, causing the sword to fall to the ground.)[9]

Without American production the United Nations could never have won the war. — Joseph Stalin, during the dinner at the Tehran
Tehran
Conference.[10]

Stalin proposed executing 50,000–100,000 German officers so that Germany could not plan another war. Roosevelt, believing Stalin was not serious, joked that "maybe 49,000 would be enough". Churchill, however, was outraged and denounced "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country". He said that only war criminals should be put on trial in accordance with the Moscow Document, which he himself had written. He stormed out of the room, but was brought back in by Stalin who said he was joking. Churchill was glad Stalin had relented, but thought Stalin was testing the waters.[11] Decisions[edit] The declaration issued by the three leaders on conclusion of the conference on 1 December 1943, recorded the following military conclusions:

The Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
should be supported by supplies and equipment and also by commando operations.[12] It would be desirable if Turkey
Turkey
should come into war on the side of the Allies before the end of the year.[12] The leaders took note of Stalin's statement that if Turkey
Turkey
found herself at war with Germany, and as a result Bulgaria declared war on Turkey
Turkey
or attacked her, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would immediately be at war with Bulgaria. The Conference further took note that this could be mentioned in the forthcoming negotiations to bring Turkey
Turkey
into the war.[12] The cross-channel invasion of France (Operation Overlord) would be launched during May 1944, in conjunction with an operation against southern France. The latter operation would be undertaken in as great a strength as availability of landing-craft permitted. The Conference further took note of Joseph Stalin's statement that the Soviet forces would launch an offensive at about the same time with the object of preventing the German forces from transferring from the Eastern to the Western Front.[12] The leaders agreed that the military staffs of the Three Powers should keep in close touch with each other in regard to the impending operations in Europe. In particular it was agreed that a cover plan to mislead the enemy about these operations should be concerted between the staffs concerned.[12]

Political decision... Stalin and Churchill discussed the future borders of Poland and settled on the Curzon line in the east and the Oder-Neisse line in the west. FDR had asked to be excused from any discussion of Poland out of consideration for the effects of any decision on Polish voters in the USA and the upcoming 1944 election.[13] Results[edit] The Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
were given full Allied support, and Allied support to the Yugoslav Chetniks
Chetniks
was halted (they were believed to be cooperating with the occupying Germans rather than fighting them). The Communist Partisans under Tito took power in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
as the Germans gradually retreated from the Balkans in 1944–45.[14] Turkey's president conferred with Roosevelt and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in November 1943, and promised to enter the war when his country was fully armed. By August 1944 Turkey
Turkey
broke off relations with Germany. In February 1945, Turkey
Turkey
declared war on Germany and Japan, which may have been a symbolic move that allowed Turkey
Turkey
to join the future United Nations.[15][16] The invasion of France on 6 June 1944 took place about as planned, and the supporting invasion of southern France also took place (Operation Dragoon). The Soviets launched a major offensive against the Germans on 22 June 1944 (Operation Bagration). Alleged assassination plot[edit] Main article: Operation Long Jump According to Soviet reports, German agents planned to kill the Big Three leaders at the Tehran
Tehran
Conference, but called off the assassination while it was still in the planning stage. Western intelligence dismissed the existence of this plot. Otto Skorzeny, the alleged leader of the operation, claimed that Hitler had dismissed the idea as unworkable before planning had even begun. Nevertheless, the topic continues to be a theme of certain Russian historians.[17][18] See also[edit]

World War II
World War II
portal

List of Allied World War II
World War II
conferences List of Soviet Union– United States
United States
summits Teheran 43

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Churchill, Winston Spencer (1951). The Second World War: Closing the Ring. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. p. 642.  ^ a b c d e f Service, Robert (2005). Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 459–60. ISBN 978-0-674-01697-2.  ^ Tolstoy, Nikolai (1981). Stalin's Secret War. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 57.  ^ Overy, Richard (1996). Why the Allies Won. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-0-393-03925-2.  ^ Office of the Historian (2016). "The Tehran
Tehran
Conference, 1943". Milestones 1937–1945. U.S. Department of State.  ^ "Milestones: 1937–1945". Office of the Historian. US Department of State. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ Declaration of the Three Powers Regarding Iran—1 December 1943 ^ McNeill, American, Britain and Russia (1953). p. 353. ^ Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad. ISBN 978-0-14-024985-9.  ^ "One War Won". TIME. 13 December 1943.  ^ Robert Gellately (2013). Stalin's Curse: Battling for Communism in War and Cold War. Oxford U.P. pp. 177–178.  ^ a b c d e Staff of Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the Department of State (1950). A Decade of American Foreign Policy : Basic Documents, 1941–49. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gov. Printing Office.  ^ Bohlen, Charles E. Witness to History, 1929-1969. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1973 ^ McNeill, America, Britain, and Russia: their co-operation and conflict, 1941–1946 (1953) 388–90 ^ Erik J. Zurcher, Turkey: A Modern History (3rd ed. 2004) pp 203–5 ^ A. C. Edwards, "The Impact of the War on Turkey," International Affairs (1946) 22#3 pp. 389–400 in JSTOR ^ Юрий Львович Кузнец: Тегеран-43 : Крах операции "Длин. прыжок. ЭКСМО, Moskau 2003, ISBN 5-8153-0146-9 ^ Dolgopolov, Nikolai (January 2007). Triple jeopardy: the Nazi plan to kill WWII leaders in Tehran. RIA Nowosti vom 4. 

Bibliography[edit]

Best, Geoffrey. Churchill: A Study in Greatness. London: Hambledon and London, 2001. "Cold War: Teheran Declaration." CNN. 1998. 26 March 2006. Feis, Herbert. Churchill-Roosevelt-Stalin (Princeton U.P. 1967), pp. 191–279 Foster, Rhea Dulles. "The Road to Tehran: The Story of Russia and America, 1781 – 1943." — Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1944. — 279 p. Hamzavi, A. H. "Iran and the Tehran
Tehran
Conference," International Affairs (1944) 20#2 pp. 192–203 in JSTOR McNeill, Robert. America, Britain, & Russia: their cooperation and conflict, 1941–1946 (1953) 348-68 Mastny, Vojtech. "Soviet War Aims at the Moscow and Tehran
Tehran
Conferences of 1943," Journal of Modern History (1975) 47#3 pp. 481–504 in JSTOR Mayle, Paul D. Eureka Summit: Agreement in Principle & the Big Three at Tehran, 1943 (1987, U of Delaware Press) 210p.

Primary sources[edit]

Miscellaneous No. 8 (1947) "Military Conclusions of the Tehran Conference. Tehran, 1 December 1943." British Parliamentary Papers. By Royal Command. CMD 7092 Presented by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

Further reading[edit]

Leighton, Richard M. (2000) [1960]. "Chapter 10: Overlord Versus the Mediterranean at the Cairo- Tehran
Tehran
Conferences". In Kent Roberts Greenfield. Command Decisions. United States
United States
Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tehran
Tehran
Conference.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Tehran
Tehran
Conference

Encyclopædia Britannica, Teheran Conference United States
United States
Department of State

v t e

Diplomatic history of World War II

Conferences

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Atlantic Conference
(1941) First Moscow Conference (1941) Arcadia Conference
Arcadia Conference
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Cairo Conference
(1943) Casablanca Conference
Casablanca Conference
(1943) Tehran
Tehran
Conference (1943) Second Cairo Conference
Cairo Conference
(1943) Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference
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Dumbarton Oaks Conference
(1944) Second Quebec Conference
Second Quebec Conference
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Bretton Woods Conference
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Yalta Conference
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United Nations Conference on International Organization
(1945) Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
(1945)

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Destroyers for Bases Agreement
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Franco-Italian Armistice
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Armistice of Cassibile
(1943) Cairo Declaration (1943) Declaration of the Four Nations (1943) Sino-American New Equal Treaty
Sino-American New Equal Treaty
(1943) Sino-British New Equal Treaty
Sino-British New Equal Treaty
(1943) Moscow Armistice
Moscow Armistice
(1944) Nuremberg Charter (1945) Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
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Potsdam Declaration
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Treaty of San Francisco
(1951)

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v t e

Joseph Stalin

History and politics

Overviews

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Soviet Union
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Tehran
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Soviet Union
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Soviet Union
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Red Army
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Works

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Family

Besarion Jughashvili
Besarion Jughashvili
(father) Keke Geladze
Keke Geladze
(mother) Kato Svanidze
Kato Svanidze
(first wife) Yakov Dzhugashvili
Yakov Dzhugashvili
(son) Konstantin Kuzakov (son) Artyom Sergeyev (adopted son) Nadezhda Alliluyeva (second wife) Vasily Dzhugashvili
Vasily Dzhugashvili
(son) Svetlana Alliluyeva
Svetlana Alliluyeva
(daughter) Yevgeny Dzhugashvili (grandson) Galina Dzhugashvili (granddaughter) Joseph Alliluyev (grandson) Sergei Alliluyev (second father-in-law) Alexander Svanidze
Alexander Svanidze
(brother-in-law) Yuri Zhdanov (son-in-law) William Wesley Peters (son-in-law)

Friends

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v t e

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(1956–1958, four volumes)

Speeches

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Lord Randolph Churchill
Lord Randolph Churchill
(father) Jennie Jerome, Lady Randolph Churchill
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Randolph Churchill
(son) Sarah Churchill (daughter) Marigold Churchill
Marigold Churchill
(daughter) Mary Soames, Baroness Soames (daughter) Descendants John Spencer-Churchill (grandfather) Frances Anne Spencer-Churchill (grandmother) Leonard Jerome
Leonard Jerome
(grandfather) Clarissa Eden
Clarissa Eden
(niece)

v t e

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd President of the United States
United States
(1933–1945) 44th Governor of New York
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(1929–1932) Assistant Secretary of the Navy
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(1913–1920) New York State Senator (1911–1913)

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during World War II

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Declaration by United Nations
(1942)

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Presidential speeches

Commonwealth Club Address Madison Square Garden speech "Four Freedoms" Infamy Speech Arsenal of Democracy "...is fear itself" Fireside chats "Look to Norway" Quarantine Speech "The More Abundant Life" Second Bill of Rights State of the Union Address (1934 1938 1939 1940 1941 1945)

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III (grandson) John Roosevelt Boettiger
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I (father) Sara Ann Delano (mother) James Roosevelt
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