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Tbilisi
Tbilisi
(English: /təbɪˈliːsi, təˈbɪlɪsi/ tə-bih-LEE-see, tə-BIL-ih-see;[3] Georgian: თბილისი [tʰbilisi] ( listen)), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis[4] (/ˈtɪflɪs/ TIF-liss),[3] is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people. Founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang I of Iberia, since then Tbilisi
Tbilisi
served as the capital of various Georgian kingdoms and republics. Between 1801 and 1917, then part of the Russian Empire, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was the seat of the Imperial Viceroy, governing both Southern and Northern Caucasus. Because of its location on the crossroads between Europe
Europe
and Asia, and its proximity to the lucrative Silk Road, throughout history Tbilisi was a point of contention between various global powers. The city's location to this day ensures its position as an important transit route for various energy and trade projects. Tbilisi's diverse history is reflected in its architecture, which is a mix of medieval, neoclassical, Beaux Arts, Art Nouveau, Stalinist and Modern structures. Historically, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has been home to people of multiple cultural, ethnic, and religious backgrounds, though it is currently overwhelmingly Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christian. Its notable tourist destinations include cathedrals Sameba and Sioni, Freedom Square, Rustaveli Avenue
Rustaveli Avenue
and Agmashenebeli Avenue, medieval Narikala
Narikala
Fortress, the pseudo-Moorish Opera Theater, and the Georgian National Museum.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Foreign domination 1.3 Capital of Georgia 1.4 Mongol domination and the following period of instability 1.5 Iranian control 1.6 Russian control 1.7 Brief independence 1.8 Soviet rule 1.9 Post-independence

2 Politics and administration 3 Geography

3.1 Location 3.2 Climate

4 People and culture

4.1 Demographics 4.2 Sports 4.3 Media 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Main sights 4.6 Nightlife

5 Economy 6 Transport

6.1 Airport 6.2 Metro 6.3 Tram 6.4 Minibus 6.5 Municipal bus 6.6 Aerial tramways

7 Education 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns and sister cities 8.2 Partnerships

9 See also 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Tbilisi
History of Tbilisi
and Timeline of Tbilisi Early history[edit] Archaeological studies of the region have indicated human settlement in the territory of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
as early as the 4th millennium BC. According to legend, the present-day territory of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was covered by forests as late as 458. One widely accepted variant of Tbilisi foundation myth states that King Vakhtang I of Iberia went hunting in the heavily wooded region with a falcon (sometimes the falcon is replaced with either a hawk or other small birds of prey in the legend). The King's falcon allegedly caught or injured a pheasant during the hunt, after which both birds fell into a nearby hot spring and died from burns. King Vakhtang became so impressed with the hot springs that he decided to clear the forest and build a city on the location. The name Tbilisi
Tbilisi
derives from Old Georgian
Old Georgian
T'bilisi (თბილისი), and further from T'pili (თბილი, "warm""). The name "T'bili" or "T'bilisi" (literally, "warm location") was therefore given to the city because of the area's numerous sulphuric hot springs that came out of the ground. King Dachi of Iberia, the successor of Vakhtang I, moved the capital of Iberia from Mtskheta
Mtskheta
to Tbilisi. During his reign began construction of the fortress wall that lined the city's new boundaries. From the 6th century, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
grew at a steady pace due to the region's strategic location along important trade and travel routes between Europe
Europe
and Asia. Foreign domination[edit]

Detail from the Nautical chart by Angelino Dulcert, depicting Georgian Black Sea
Black Sea
coast and Tiflis, 1339.

Tbilisi's favorable trade location, however, did not necessarily bode well for its survival. Located strategically in the heart of the Caucasus
Caucasus
between Europe
Europe
and Asia, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became an object of rivalry between the region's various powers such as the Roman Empire, Parthia, Sassanid Persia, Arabs, the Byzantine Empire, and the Seljuk Turks. The cultural development of the city was somewhat dependent on who ruled the city at various times, although Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was fairly cosmopolitan. From 570–580, the Persians ruled the city until 627, when Tbilisi was sacked by the Byzantine/Khazar armies and later, in 736–738, Arab armies entered the town under Marwan II
Marwan II
Ibn-Muhammad. After this point, the Arabs established an emirate centered in Tbilisi. In 764, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
– still under Arab control – was once again sacked by the Khazars. In 853, the armies of Arab leader Bugha Al-Turki invaded Tbilisi
Tbilisi
in order to enforce its return to Abbasid allegiance. The Arab domination of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
continued until about 1050. In 1068, the city was once again sacked, only this time by the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan. Capital of Georgia[edit] In 1122, after heavy fighting with the Seljuks, the troops of the King of Georgia David the Builder entered Tbilisi. After the battles for Tbilisi
Tbilisi
concluded, David moved his residence from Kutaisi
Kutaisi
(Western Georgia) to Tbilisi, making it the capital of a unified Georgian State and thus inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age. From 12–13th centuries, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became a regional power with a thriving economy and astonishing cultural output. By the end of the 12th century, the population of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
had reached 100,000. The city also became an important literary and a cultural center not only for Georgia but for the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
world of the time. During Queen Tamar's reign, Shota Rustaveli
Shota Rustaveli
worked in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
while writing his legendary epic poem, The Knight in the Panther's Skin. This period is often referred to as "Georgia's Golden Age"[5] or the Georgian Renaissance.[6]

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
according to French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671

Mongol domination and the following period of instability[edit] Tbilisi's "Golden Age" did not last for more than a century. In 1226, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was captured by the refugee Khwarezmian Empire Shah
Shah
Jalal ad-Din and its defences severely devastated and prone to Mongol armies. In 1236, after suffering crushing defeats to the Mongols, Georgia came under Mongol domination. The nation itself maintained a form of semi-independence and did not lose its statehood, but Tbilisi was strongly influenced by the Mongols for the next century both politically and culturally. In the 1320s, the Mongols retreated from Georgia and Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became the capital of an independent Georgian state once again. An outbreak of the plague struck the city in 1366. From the late 14th until the end of the 18th century, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
came under the rule of various foreign invaders once again and on several occasions was completely burnt to the ground. In 1386, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was invaded by the armies of Tamerlane. In 1444, the city was invaded and destroyed by Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
(the Shah
Shah
of the town of Tabriz
Tabriz
in Persia). From 1477 to 1478 the city was held by the Ak Koyunlu tribesmen of Uzun Hassan. Iranian control[edit]

A 1717 illustration of Teflis by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

See also: Safavid Georgia As early as the 1510s, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
(and the kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti) were made vassal territories of Safavid Iran.[7] In 1522, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was garrisoned for the first time by a large Safavid force.[8][9] Following the death of king (shah) Ismail I
Ismail I
(r. 1501-1524), king David X of Kartli
David X of Kartli
expelled the Iranians. During this period, many parts of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
were reconstructed and rebuilt. The four campaigns of king Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
(r. 1524-1576) resulted in the reoccupation of Kartli and Kakheti, and a Safavid force was permanently stationed in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
from 1551 onwards.[8][10] With the 1555 Treaty of Amasya, and more firmly from 1614 to 1747, with brief intermissions, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was an important city under Iranian rule, and it functioned as a seat of the Iranian vassal kings of Kartli whom the shah conferred with the title of vali. Under the later rules of Teimuraz II and Heraclius II, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became a vibrant political and cultural center free of foreign rule—but, fearful of the constant threat of invasion, Georgia's rulers sought Russian protection in the 1783 Treaty of Georgievsk. Despite this agreement, the city was captured and devastated in 1795 by the Iranian Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan, who sought to re-establish Iran's traditional suzerainty over the region.[11][12][13] Russian control[edit] See also: Georgia within the Russian Empire

The coat of arms of Tiflis under Russian rule

In 1801, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
annexed the Georgian kingdom of Kartli- Kakheti
Kakheti
(of which Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was the capital), later cementing its rule with the Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan
of 1813,[14][15] which ended Iranian control of Georgia.[16] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became the center of the Tbilisi Governorate (Gubernia). Russian Imperial administrators implemented a new European-style city plan and commissioned new buildings in Western styles. Roads and railroads were built to connect Tbilisi
Tbilisi
to other important cities in the Russian Empire, such as Batumi
Batumi
and Poti. By the 1850s, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
once again emerged as a major trade and a cultural center. The likes of Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Mirza Fatali Akhundzade, Iakob Gogebashvili, Alexander Griboyedov
Alexander Griboyedov
and many other statesmen, poets and artists all found their home in Tbilisi. The city was visited on numerous occasions by and was the object of affection of Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Mikhail Lermontov, the Romanov family and others. The main new artery built under Russian administration was Golovin Avenue (present-day Rustaveli Avenue), on which the Viceroys of the Caucasus
Caucasus
established their residence. For much of the 19th century, Tbilisi's largest ethnic group was Armenian, who, at some point, formed 74.3% of the population.[17]

"Dry Bridge", constructed by Italian architect Antonio Scudieri

View on Rustaveli Avenue
Rustaveli Avenue
as seen form the site of present-day Freedom Square

Building of the current Tbilisi
Tbilisi
City Hall

Grand Hotel "Kavkaz" in central Tbilisi, c 1900

Building of the current Art Museum of Georgia, built at the end of the 1830s, photo ca. 1900

Tatar bazaar and with the Metekhi
Metekhi
Orthodox church seen on the cliff.

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, demolished by the Soviets to make way for the present Parliament building

Tiflis by Mikhail Lermontov, 1837.

Brief independence[edit] After the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, the city served as a location of the Transcaucasus interim government which established, in the spring of 1918, the short-lived independent Transcaucasian Federation with the capital in Tbilisi. At this time, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
had roughly the same number of Armenians as Georgians, with Russians
Russians
being the third largest ethnic group.[18] It was here, in the former Caucasus
Caucasus
Vice royal Palace, where the independence of three Transcaucasus nations – Georgia, Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
– was declared on 26 to 28 May 1918. After this, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
functioned as the capital of the Democratic Republic of Georgia until 25 February 1921. From 1918 to 1919 the city was also consecutively home to a German and British military headquarters. Under the national government, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
turned into the first Caucasian University City after the Tbilisi State University
Tbilisi State University
was founded in 1918.[19] On 25 February 1921, the Bolshevist Russian 11th Red Army invaded [20][21] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
after bitter fighting at the outskirts of the city and declared Soviet rule. Soviet rule[edit]

The Red Army
Red Army
entered Tbilisi
Tbilisi
on 25 February 1921.

In 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia
Democratic Republic of Georgia
was occupied by the Soviet Bolshevik forces from Russia, and until 1936 Tbilisi
Tbilisi
functioned first as the capital city of the Transcaucasian SFSR (which included Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and afterwards until 1991 as the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. During Soviet rule, Tbilisi's population grew significantly, the city became more industrialized, and it also came to be an important political, social, and cultural centre of the Soviet Union. In 1980 the city housed the first state-sanctioned rock festival in the USSR. As a major tourist destination for both Soviet citizens and foreign visitors, Tbilisi's "Old Town" (the neighborhoods within the original city walls) was reconstructed in the 1970s and 1980s.[22] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
witnessed mass anti-Russian demonstrations during 1956 in the 9 March Massacre, in protest against the anti-Stalin policies of Nikita Khrushchev. Peaceful protests occurred in 1978, and in 1989 the April 9 tragedy
April 9 tragedy
was a peaceful protest that turned violent. Post-independence[edit] Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has experienced periods of significant instability and turmoil. After a brief civil war, which the city endured for two weeks from December 1991 to January 1992 (when pro-Gamsakhurdia and Opposition forces clashed), Tbilisi
Tbilisi
became the scene of frequent armed confrontations between various mafia clans and illegal business operators. Even during the Shevardnadze Era (1993–2003), crime and corruption became rampant at most levels of society. Many segments of society became impoverished because of unemployment caused by the crumbling economy. Average citizens of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
started to become increasingly disillusioned with the existing quality of life in the city (and in the nation in general). Mass protests took place in November 2003 after falsified parliamentary elections forced more than 100,000 people into the streets and concluded with the Rose Revolution. Since 2003, Tbilisi has experienced considerably more stability with decreasing crime rates, an improved economy, and a real estate boom.[23] During the 2008 South Ossetia war the Tbilisi
Tbilisi
area was hit by multiple Russian air attacks. After the war, several large-scale projects were started, including a streetcar system,[24] a railway bypass and a relocation of the central station[25] and new urban highways.[26] In June 2015, a flood killed at least twelve people and caused animals from the city's zoo to be released into the streets.[27] Politics and administration[edit]

City Council of Tbilisi

See also: List of mayors of Tbilisi The status of Tbilisi, as the nation's capital, is defined by the Article 10 in the Constitution of Georgia (1995) and the Law on Georgia's Capital – Tbilisi
Tbilisi
(20 February 1998).[28] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is governed by the Tbilisi City Assembly
Tbilisi City Assembly
(Sakrebulo) and the Tbilisi City Hall
Tbilisi City Hall
(Meria). The City Assembly is elected once every four years. The mayor is elected once every four years by direct elections. The Mayor of Tbilisi is Kakha Kaladze
Kakha Kaladze
and the Chairman of the Tbilisi
Tbilisi
city Assembly is Giorgi Alibegashvili.

A police station on Agmashenebeli Avenue

Administratively, the city is divided into raions (districts), which have their own units of central and local government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs. This subdivision was established under Soviet rule in the 1930s, following the general subdivision of the Soviet Union. Since Georgia regained independence, the raion system was modified and reshuffled. According to the latest revision, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
raions include:

Old Tbilisi
Old Tbilisi
(ძველი თბილისი) Vake-Saburtalo (ვაკე-საბურთალო) Didube-Chugureti (დიდუბე-ჩუღურეთი) Gldani-Nadzaladevi (გლდანი-ნაძალადევი) Isani-Samgori (ისანი-სამგორი) Didgori (ka) (დიდგორი), 2007–2013

Most of the raions are named after respective historical neighbourhoods of the city. The citizens of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
widely recognise a system of the smaller non-formal historical neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhoods are several, however, constituting a kind of hierarchy, because most of them have lost their distinctive topographic limits. The natural first level of subdivision of the city is into the Right Bank and the Left Bank of the Mt'k'vari. The names of the oldest neighbourhoods go back to the early Middle Ages and sometimes pose a great linguistic interest. The newest whole-built developments bear chiefly residential marketing names. In pre-Revolution Tiflis, the Georgian quarter was confined to the southeastern part of the city; Baedeker describes the layout succinctly:

In the north part of the town, on the left bank of the Kurá and to the south of the railway station, stretches the clean German Quarter, formerly occupied by German immigrants from Württemberg (1818). To the south is the Gruzinian or Georgian Quarter (Avlabár). On the right bank of the Kurá is the Russian Quarter, the seat of the officials and of the larger business firms. This is adjoined on the south by the Armenian and Persian Bazaars. — Karl Baedeker, Russia: A Handbook for Travelers[29]

Avlabari
Avlabari
is considered "the integral component of the so-called 'old Tbilisi'" and is currently the object of planning and cultural heritage preservation.[30] Geography[edit]

The National Botanical Garden of Georgia
National Botanical Garden of Georgia
in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is concealed from view as it resides between the hills of the Sololaki Range

Location[edit] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is located in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
at 41° 43' North Latitude and 44° 47' East Longitude. The city lies in Eastern Georgia on both banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The elevation of the city ranges from 380–770 metres above sea level (1,250–2,530 ft) and has the shape of an amphitheatre surrounded by mountains on three sides. To the north, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is bounded by the Saguramo Range, to the east and south-east by the Iori Plain, to the south and west by various endings (sub-ranges) of the Trialeti Range. The relief of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is complex. The part of the city which lies on the left bank of the Mt'k'vari River extends for more than 30 km (19 mi) from the Avchala District to River Lochini. The part of the city which lies on the right side of the Mt'k'vari River, on the other hand, is built along the foothills of the Trialeti Range, the slopes of which in many cases descend all the way to the edges of the river Mt'k'vari. The mountains, therefore, are a significant barrier to urban development on the right bank of the Mt'k'vari River. This type of a geographic environment creates pockets of very densely developed areas while other parts of the city are left undeveloped due to the complex topographic relief. To the north of the city, there is a large reservoir (commonly known as the Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sea) fed by irrigation canals. Climate[edit]

Tbilisi Sea
Tbilisi Sea
is the largest body of water in Tbilisi.

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has a humid subtropical ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Cfa) with considerable continental (Dfa) influences. The city experiences very warm summers and moderately cold winters. Like other regions of Georgia, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
receives significant rainfall throughout the year with no distinct dry period. The city's climate is influenced both by dry (Central Asian/Siberian) air masses from the east and oceanic (Atlantic/Black Sea) air masses from the west. Because the city is bounded on most sides by mountain ranges, the close proximity to large bodies of water (Black and Caspian Seas) and the fact that the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains Range (further to the north) blocks the intrusion of cold air masses from Russia, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has a relatively mild microclimate compared to other cities that possess a similar climate along the same latitudes. The average annual temperature in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is 13.3 °C (55.9 °F). January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 2.3 °C (36.1 °F). July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 24.9 °C (76.8 °F). Daytime high temperatures reach or exceed 32 °C (90 °F) on an average of 22 days during a typical year. The absolute minimum recorded temperature is −24.4 °C (−11.9 °F) on January 1883 and the absolute maximum is 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) on 17 July 1882.[31] Average annual precipitation is 495.5 mm (19.5 in). May is the wettest month (averaging 77.6 mm (3.1 in) of precipitation) while January is the driest (averaging 18.9 mm (0.7 in) of precipitation). Snow falls on average 15–25 days per year. The surrounding mountains often trap the clouds within and around the city, mainly during the Spring and Autumn months, resulting in prolonged rainy and/or cloudy weather. Northwesterly winds dominate in most parts of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
throughout the year. Southeasterly winds are common as well.

Climate data for Tbilisi

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.5 (67.1) 22.4 (72.3) 28.9 (84) 34.4 (93.9) 35.1 (95.2) 40.2 (104.4) 42.0 (107.6) 40.4 (104.7) 37.9 (100.2) 33.3 (91.9) 27.2 (81) 22.8 (73) 42.0 (107.6)

Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.7 (45.9) 12.6 (54.7) 18.9 (66) 23.1 (73.6) 28.1 (82.6) 31.2 (88.2) 30.9 (87.6) 26.4 (79.5) 19.8 (67.6) 12.8 (55) 8.4 (47.1) 18.9 (66)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 3.1 (37.6) 7.2 (45) 12.7 (54.9) 17.2 (63) 21.7 (71.1) 24.9 (76.8) 24.7 (76.5) 20.2 (68.4) 14.2 (57.6) 7.9 (46.2) 3.7 (38.7) 13.3 (55.9)

Average low °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 0.0 (32) 3.2 (37.8) 8.4 (47.1) 12.4 (54.3) 16.5 (61.7) 19.8 (67.6) 19.5 (67.1) 15.4 (59.7) 10.4 (50.7) 4.9 (40.8) 1.3 (34.3) 9.3 (48.7)

Record low °C (°F) −24.4 (−11.9) −14.8 (5.4) −12.8 (9) −3.8 (25.2) 1.0 (33.8) 6.3 (43.3) 9.3 (48.7) 8.9 (48) 0.8 (33.4) −6.4 (20.5) −7.1 (19.2) −20.5 (−4.9) −24.4 (−11.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.9 (0.744) 25.8 (1.016) 30.3 (1.193) 50.5 (1.988) 77.6 (3.055) 76 (2.99) 44.9 (1.768) 47.5 (1.87) 35.6 (1.402) 37.5 (1.476) 29.9 (1.177) 21 (0.83) 495.5 (19.508)

Average precipitation days 4 4.6 5.9 7.6 9.7 8.7 5.7 5.7 5 5.6 4.4 4 70.9

Average relative humidity (%) 74 72 68 66 67 64 61 62 66 73 76 76 69

Mean monthly sunshine hours 99 102 142 171 213 249 256 248 206 164 103 93 2,046

Source: Pogoda.ru.net (Temperatures, humidity),[31] WMO (Precipitation, precipitation days),[32] NOAA (Sunshine hours)[33]

People and culture[edit] See also: Tbilisoba Demographics[edit]

Main ethnic groups of Tbilisi

Year

Georgians

%

Armenians

%

Russians

%

TOTAL

1801-3[17] 4,300 21.5% 14,860 74.3%

20,000

1864/65 winter[34] 14,878 24.8% 28,404 47.3% 12,462 20.7% 60,085

1864/65 summer[34] 14,787 20.8% 31,180 43.9% 12,142 17.1% 71,051

1876[35] 22,156 21.3% 37,610 36.1% 30,813 29.6% 104,024

1897[36] 41,151 29.5% 47,133 36.4% 44,823 28.1% 159,590

1926[18] 112,014 38.1% 100,148 34.1% 45,937 15.6% 294,044

1939[18] 228,394 44% 137,331 26.4% 93,337 18% 519,220

1959[18] 336,257 48.4% 149,258 21.5% 125,674 18.1% 694,664

1970[18] 511,379 57.5% 150,205 16.9% 124,316 14% 889,020

1979[18] 653,242 62.1% 152,767 14.5% 129,122 12.3% 1,052,734

2002 [37] 910,712 84.2% 82,586 7.6% 32,580 3% 1,081,679

2014 [38] 996,804 89.9% 53,409 4.8% 13,350 1.2% 1,108,717

As a multicultural city, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is home to more than 100 ethnic groups. Around 89% of the population consists of ethnic Georgians, with significant populations of other ethnic groups such as Armenians, Russians, and Azerbaijanis. Along with the above-mentioned groups, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is home to other ethnic groups including Ossetians, Abkhazians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Germans, Jews, Estonians, Kurds, Assyrians & Yazidis, and others.[17] [18] [34] [34] [35] [39] More than 95% of the residents of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
practise forms of Christianity (the most predominant of which is the Georgian Orthodox Church). The Russian Orthodox Church, which is in Full communion with the Georgian, and the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
have significant followings within the city as well. A minority of the population (around 1.5%) practises Islam
Islam
(mainly Shia Islam), while about 0.1% of Tbilisi's population practises Judaism.[40] There is also Roman Catholic church and the Yazidi Sultan
Sultan
Ezid Temple.[41][42] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has been historically known for religious tolerance.[citation needed] This is especially evident in the city's Old Town, where a mosque, synagogue, and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches can be found less than 500 metres (1,600 ft) from each other. Sports[edit] Up until the beginning of the 19th century, sports such as horse-riding (polo in particular), wrestling, boxing, and marksmanship were the most popular city sports. Influence from the Russian Empire brought more Western sports and activities (billiards, fencing) to Tbilisi. The Soviet period brought an increased popularization of sports that were common in Europe
Europe
and to a certain extent, the United States. At the same time, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
developed the necessary sports infrastructure for professional sports. By 1978, the city had around 250 large and small sports facilities, including among others, four indoor and six outdoor Olympic sized pools, 185 basketball courts and halls, 192 volleyball facilities, 82 handball arenas, 19 tennis courts, 31 football fields, and five stadiums. The largest stadium in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is the Dinamo Arena
Dinamo Arena
(55,000 seats) and the second largest is the Mikheil Meskhi Stadium (24,680 seats). The Sports Palace which usually hosts basketball games with high attendance and tennis tournaments can seat approximately 11,000 people. Vere Basketball
Basketball
Hall is a smaller indoor sports arena with a 2,500 seating capacity. The most popular sports in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
today are football, rugby union, basketball, and wrestling. Also, popular sports include tennis, swimming and water polo. There are several professional football and rugby teams as well as wrestling clubs. U.S. National Basketball Association players Zaza Pachulia
Zaza Pachulia
and Nikoloz Tskitishvili
Nikoloz Tskitishvili
are Tbilisi natives. Outside of professional sports, the city has a number of intercollegiate and amateur sports teams and clubs. Tbilisi's signature football team, Dinamo Tbilisi, has not won a major European championship since the 1980–1981 season, when it won the European UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
and became the easternmost team in Europe
Europe
to achieve the feat. The basketball club Dinamo Tbilisi
Tbilisi
won the Euroleague
Euroleague
in 1962 but also never repeated any such feat.

Preparations for the 2015 UEFA Super Cup
2015 UEFA Super Cup
at the Dinamo Arena
Dinamo Arena
in Tbilisi.

Club Sport Stadium

Lelo Saracens Rugby Union Lelo Sport Centre

RC Armazi Tbilisi Rugby Union Shevardeni Stadium

RC Locomotive Tbilisi Rugby Union Avchala Stadium

RC Army Tbilisi Rugby Union Avchala Stadium

FC Dinamo Tbilisi Football Boris Paichadze Stadium

FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi Football Mikheil Meskhi Stadium

FC Saburtalo Tbilisi Football Bendela Stadium

BC Dinamo Tbilisi Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

BC TSU Tbilisi Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

BC MIA Academy Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

BC Armia Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

Maccabi Brinkford Tbilisi Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

B.C. VITA Tbilisi Basketball Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sports Palace

Media[edit] The large majority of Georgia's media companies (including television, newspaper, and radio) are headquartered in Tbilisi. The city is home to the popular Rustavi 2
Rustavi 2
television channel which gained considerable fame after its coverage of the Rose Revolution. In addition to Rustavi 2, the remaining three out of the four major public television channels of Georgia (including Imedi TV Mze and the Public Broadcasting Channel) are based in the city. Tbilisi's television market has experienced notable changes since the second half of 2005 when Rustavi 2
Rustavi 2
successfully bought out the Mze TV company and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation
News Corporation
became a shareholder of Imedi Media Holding at the beginning of 2006. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has a number of newspaper publishing houses. Some of the most noteworthy newspapers include the daily 24 Saati ("24 Hours"), Rezonansi ("Resonance"), Alia, the English-language daily The Messenger, weekly FINANCIAL, Georgia Today, and the English-language weekly The Georgian Times. Out of the city's radio stations Imedi Radio (105.9 FM), Fortuna, and Radio 105 are some of the most influential competitors with large national audiences. Radio stations in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
include 5 Lines Radio (93.8 FM), Europe + Tbilisi
Tbilisi
(99.6 FM), and Georgian Patriarchy Radio (105.4 FM).[43] Architecture[edit]

Rustaveli Theatre
Rustaveli Theatre
seen on the Rustaveli Avenue.

The architecture in the city is a mixture of local (Georgian) and Byzantine, Neoclassical, Art Nouveau, Beaux-Arts, Middle Eastern, and Soviet modern styles.[44] Very few buildings survived the destruction of the city in 1795, so most historical buildings in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
date to the Russian Imperial period (1801-1917). The oldest parts of the city (Kala, Abanotubani, Avlabari) were largely rebuilt on their medieval street plans, and some old houses were even rebuilt on much older foundations. The areas of downtown Tbilisi
Tbilisi
which were developed according to a European-style plan by Russian authorities (Sololaki, Rustaveli Avenue, Vera, etc.) have a Western appearance, with a mix of styles popular in Europe
Europe
at the time: Beaux Arts, Orientalist, and various period revival styles. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is most notable for its abundance of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
buildings and details (common in Sololaki and Chughureti), which flourished from the mid-1890s to through the end of Russian rule. Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
was decreed as bourgeois by communist authorities, who introduced experimental modern architecture. The more conservative and historically-inflected Stalinist architecture
Stalinist architecture
in Georgia is embodied by the 1938 Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute building ("Imeli"), now housing the Biltmore Hotel Tbilisi.[2]

Open air cafes in Old Tbilisi.

Tbilisi's postwar architecture is similar to the brand of midcentury modernism found across the Soviet Union. The city expanded dramatically in response to a housing crisis after World War II. Entire neighborhoods (Saburtalo, Dighomi) appeared on the outskirts of the city in a matter of decades, built with advances in mass-production technology. Georgian architects produced some of the Soviet Union's most interesting architectural achievements, including Tbilisi's 1975 Ministry of Roads and the 1984 Wedding Palace. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the urban landscape is largely characterized by unregulated construction. New towers occupy formerly public spaces and overcrowded apartment buildings sprout "kamikaze loggia" overnight. Since 2004, the city government has taken new initiatives to curb uncontrolled construction projects with mixed success. In the near future, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
will have three skyscraper complexes. The Axis Towers, Redix Chavchavadze 64, and the new Ajara Hotel/Business Complex, which is currently under construction will be the tallest buildings/skyscrapers in the Caucasus.[3] Main sights[edit]

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Opera and Ballet Theatre.

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has important landmarks and sightseeing locations. The Parliament and the government (State Chancellery) buildings of Georgia, as well as the Supreme Court of Georgia, are in Tbilisi. The city has important cultural landmarks such as the Georgian National Museum, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Conservatoire, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Opera and Ballet Theatre, Shota Rustaveli
Shota Rustaveli
State Academic Theatre, Marjanishvili State Academic Theatre, the Sameba Cathedral, the Vorontsov's Palace (also known as the Children's Palace today), many state museums, the National Public Library of the Parliament of Georgia, the National Bank of Georgia, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Circus, The Bridge of Peace and other important institutions. During the Soviet times, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
continuously ranked in the top four cities in the Soviet Union for the number of museums. Out of the city's historic landmarks, the most notable are the Narikala
Narikala
fortress (4th–17th century), Anchiskhati Basilica
Anchiskhati Basilica
(6th century, built up in the 16th century), Sioni Cathedral (8th century, later rebuilt), and Church of Metekhi. Nightlife[edit] Beyond tradition attractions, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has developed burgeoning nightclub culture which started to attract international media attention in the 2010s. The leading clubs such as Bassiani, Mtkvarze, Khidi, and Café Gallery have featured major international DJs as well as local performers.[45][46] Economy[edit] With a GDP at basic prices of 12,147 Million Georgian lari
Georgian lari
in 2014, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is the economic center of the country, generating almost 50 percent of Georgia's GDP. The service sector, including government services, is dominating and contributes 88 percent to GDP. Its GDP per capita of 10,336 Georgian Lari is exceeding the national average by more than 50 percent. The service sector itself is dominated by the wholesale and retail trade sector, reflecting the role of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
as transit and logistics hub for the country and the South Caucasus. The manufacturing sector contributes only 12 percent to Tbilisi's GDP, but is much larger, by employment and total value added, than the manufacturing sectors in any other region of Georgia. The unemployment rate in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is – with 22.5 percent – significantly higher in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
than in the regions.[47] Transport[edit]

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
International Airport

Airport[edit] Shota Rustaveli
Shota Rustaveli
Tbilisi International Airport
Tbilisi International Airport
is Tbilisi's only airport, located about 17 kilometres (11 miles) southeast of the city center. Handling 1.85 million passengers in 2015, it is the busiest airport in Georgia and the twenty-fifth-busiest airport in the former Soviet Union. The airport has experienced rapid growth, having more than doubled passenger numbers from roughly 822,000 in 2010 to approximately 1,847,000 in 2015.[48] Tbilisi International Airport
Tbilisi International Airport
in 2016 started to utilize solar energy and became the first "green airport" in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region in 2008. The airport is the base of the Georgian flag carrier Georgian Airways.[49] Natakhtari
Natakhtari
Airfield, located at 33 km of Tbilisi, is in the town of Natakhtari. It is used only for domestic flights to Mestia, Batumi and Kutaisi. A new airport between Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and Mtskheta
Mtskheta
is under construction.[when?] Metro[edit]

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Metro, known for its depth, transports nearly 9 million commuters per month.

The Tbilisi Metro
Tbilisi Metro
serves the city with rapid transit subway services. It was Soviet Union's fourth metro system. Construction began in 1952 and was finished in 1966. The system operates two lines, the Akhmeteli-Varketili Line and the Saburtalo Line. It has 23 stations and 186 metro cars. Most stations, characteristic to Soviet-built metro systems, are extravagantly decorated. Trains run from 6:00 am to midnight. Due to the uneven ground, the rail lines run above ground in some areas. Two of the stations are above ground. Tram[edit] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
had a tram network, since 1883 starting from horse-driven trams and from 25 December 1904 electric tramway. When the Soviet Union disintegrated, electric transport went to a degradation state within the years and finally the only tram line left was closed on 4 December 2006 together with two trolleybus lines which were left.[50][51] There are plans to construct a modern tram network.[52][53] Minibus[edit] The most dominant form of transportation is the marshrutka. An elaborate marshrutka system has grown in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
over the recent years. In addition to the city, several lines also serve the surrounding countryside of Tbilisi. Throughout the city, a fixed price is paid regardless of the distance (80 tetri in 2014). For longer trips outside the city, higher fares are common. There are no predefined stops for the marshrutka lines, they are hailed from the streets like taxis and each passenger can exit whenever he likes. Municipal bus[edit]

Tbilisi's municipal bus MAN Lion's City
MAN Lion's City
at Shota Rustaveli
Shota Rustaveli
Ave.

The second largest form of transportation are the municipal buses which are operated by Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Transport Company. As of July 2016, 672 buses of various size were servicing the city, all of them were Ukrainian Bogdan A144 (148 buses) and A092 (524 buses) models.[54] In accordance to the Tbilisi
Tbilisi
City Hall's 4-year-long renovation program for the municipal buses on July 13, 2016 was signed an agreement with MAN Truck & Bus company to purchase 143 new energy efficient buses MAN Lion's City.[55] On October 6, 2016 first new 10 buses were put into service on route 61. As it is planned rest of the buses will be received till the end of March, 2017.[56] Aerial tramways[edit]

Aerial tramway connecting Europe
Europe
Square to Narikala, the fortress that overlooks the city.

Historically, the city had seven different aerial tramways, but all of them closed after the Soviet era. Some of the Soviet-time aerial tramways are reopening in 2016 and some are due to reopen in 2017.[citation needed] Since 2012, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has a modern, high-capacity gondola lift which operates between Rike Park and the Narikala
Narikala
fortress; each gondola can carry up to 8 persons. The system was built by the Italian manufacturer Leitner ropeways.[57] Since October 12, 2016, Turtle Lake aerial tramway (originally opened in 1965) reopened after seven years out of service. It underwent major reconstruction but kept the old designs of gondolas and stations. This tramway connects Vake Park with Turtle Lake. Reconstruction was carried out by L.T.D. Bagirmsheni. Since October 2016, another Soviet-era aerial tramway between State University (Maglivi) and University Campus (Bagebi) in Saburtalo District (originally opened in 1982) is being reconstructed after 13 years of abandonment and is due for opening in April 2018. The original Italian-produced cabins produced by Lovisolo and provided by Ceretti & Tanfani, with a capacity of 40 passengers each, are being kept as well as the stations. Due to mismanagement at the hands of Soviet authorities[citation needed], one of the main aerial trams experienced a major malfunction, causing the 1990 Tbilisi
Tbilisi
cable car accident and remaining closed ever since.[58] Since October 2017, the aerial tram has been under reconstruction, keeping the old culturally significant lower station but with plans for new gondolas, masts, upper station and other infrastructure. The project is carried out by Doppelmayr Garaventa Group. Education[edit]

Public School Number 1 of Tbilisi, also known as the First Classical Gymnasium

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is home to several major institutions of higher education including the Tbilisi State Medical University
Tbilisi State Medical University
and the Petre Shotadze Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Medical Academy, famous for their internationally recognised medical education system. The biggest Georgian university is Tbilisi State University which was established on 8 February 1918. TSU is the oldest university in the whole Caucasus
Caucasus
region. Over 35,000 students are enrolled and the number of faculty and staff (collaborators) is approximately 5,000. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is also home to the largest medical university in Caucasus
Caucasus
region — Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Medical University, which was founded as Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Medical Institute in 1918 and became the Faculty of Medicine within the Tbilisi State University
Tbilisi State University
(TSU) in 1930. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Medical Institute was renamed to Medical University in 1992. Since that university operates as an independent educational institution, TSMU became one of the high-ranking state-supported institutions of higher education in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. Currently, there are almost 5000 undergraduate and 203 postgraduate students at the university of whom 10% come from foreign countries. Georgia's main and largest technical university, Georgian Technical University, is in Tbilisi. Georgian Technical University
Georgian Technical University
was founded in 1922 as a polytechnic faculty of the Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State University. The first lecture was read by the world-famous Georgian mathematician Professor Andria Razmadze. It achieved University status by 1990. The three most popular private higher educational institution in Georgia —The University of Georgia (Tbilisi), Caucasus
Caucasus
University, and the Free University of Tbilisi
Free University of Tbilisi
— are in Tbilisi.

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State University, Building I

The University of Georgia (Tbilisi) is the largest private University in Georgia, with more than 3500 international and local students. It was established in 2005 and soon became a market leader within Georgian educational sector. In 2010, the UG received financing from OPIC (Overseas Private Investment Corporation) for a development of the University's infrastructure and technical equipment. The University of Georgia has various undergraduate and graduate programs and it's the first company in Georgia which offers international certificate programs of the Oracle Corporation, Microsoft,Zend technologies and Cisco Academy. Caucasus
Caucasus
University was established in 2004 as an expansion of the Caucasus
Caucasus
School of Business (CSB) (established in 1998) by a consortium consisting of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State University and Georgian Technical University
Georgian Technical University
in partnership with Georgia State University (Atlanta, USA). The Free University of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was established in 2007 through the merger of two higher education schools: European School of Management (ESM-Tbilisi) and Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Institute of Asia
Asia
and Africa (TIAA). Today Free University comprises three schools — Business School (ESM), Institute of Asia and Africa and Law School — delivering academic programs at the undergraduate, graduate and doctorate levels. In addition, Free University conducts a wide array of short-term courses and runs several research centers and summer school programs. Higher educational institutions in Tbilisi:

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State University Ilia State University Georgian Technical University Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Conservatory Shota Rustaveli
Shota Rustaveli
Theatre and Film University Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Academy of Arts The University of Georgia (Tbilisi) Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State Medical University Caucasus
Caucasus
University Caucasus
Caucasus
International University Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Medical Academy Free University of Tbilisi Grigol Robakidze University – Alma Mater Georgian American University International Black Sea
Black Sea
University Georgian Institute of Public Affairs Agricultural University of Georgia International School of Economics (ISET) The University of Geomedi New Vision University[59]

Panoramic view of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
from Narikala
Narikala
in 2016.

International relations[edit]

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Platz in Saarbrücken, Germany.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Georgia Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Tbilisi
Tbilisi
is twinned with:[60]

Saarbrücken, Germany
Germany
(1975)[60] Nantes, France
France
(1979)[60] Ljubljana, Slovenia
Slovenia
(1977)[60][61] Innsbruck, Austria
Austria
(1982)[60] Atlanta, United States
United States
(1987)[60] Palermo, Italy
Italy
(1987)[60] Bristol, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1988)[60][62] Bilbao, Spain
Spain
(1989)[60] Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(1996)[60][63][64] Kiev, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1999)[60]

Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(2005)[60] Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuania
(2009)[60] Chișinău, Moldova
Moldova
(2011)[65] Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(2012) Doha, Qatar
Qatar
(2012) Tehran, Iran
Iran
(2015)[66] Minsk, Belarus
Belarus
(2015) (partner since 1994) Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(2016) (partner since 2006)[67] Sofia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2016)

Partnerships[edit]

Odessa, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1996) Ankara, Turkey
Turkey
(1996) Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(1997) Athens, Greece
Greece
(1997) Paris, France
France
(1997) Jerusalem, Israel
Israel
(1998) Riga, Latvia
Latvia
(2007) Kraków, Poland[68] (2009) Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(2010)

Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(2011) Kharkiv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(2012) Lviv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(2013) Lincoln, United States
United States
(2013) Guangzhou, China
China
(2014) Lublin, Poland
Poland
(2014) Dublin, Ireland
Ireland
(2014) Prague, Czech Republic[69]

See also[edit]

Georgia (country)
Georgia (country)
portal

Abo Tbileli, the patron saint of Tbilisi Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline List of Tbilisians National Botanical Garden of Georgia Tbilisi
Tbilisi
TV Broadcasting Tower Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Zoo

References[edit]

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Tbilisi
is known by its former name Tiflis in a number of languages, notably in Persian, German, Turkish and others. Pre-1936 Russian sources use "Tiflis" as well. ^ "The Golden Age Of Georgia". Dictionary of Georgian National Biography. Retrieved 2 February 2008.  ^ "Country Overview". Invest in Georgia. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2008. This early Georgian renaissance ... preceded its European analogue by several hundred years  ^ Rayfield 2013, pp. 164, 166. ^ a b Hitchins 2001, pp. 464-470. ^ Rayfield 2013, p. 166. ^ Floor 2008, pp. 295-296. ^ Kazemzadeh 1991, pp. 328-330. ^ Suny, pp. 58–59 ^ "Relations between Tehran
Tehran
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Stalinist architecture
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Municipality. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "Tbilisi- Tehran
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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Tbilisi

Abuladze, David; Kurtishvili, Irina (March 2016). Stiller, Adolph, ed. Tiflis: Architektur am Schnittpunkt der Kontinente (in English and German). Salzburg: Muery Salzmann. ISBN 978-3990141366.  Baulig, Josef; Maia Mania; Hans Mildenberg; Karl Ziegler. Architekturführer Tbilisi
Tbilisi
(in German and Georgian). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken/Technische Universität Kaiserslautern. ISBN 3-936890-39-0.  Floor, Willem M. (2008). Titles and Emoluments in Safavid Iran: A Third Manual of Safavid Administration, by Mirza Naqi Nasiri. Washington, DC: Mage Publishers. pp. 1–324. ISBN 978-1933823232.  Hitchins, Keith (2001). "GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 4. pp. 464–470.  Kazemzadeh, Firuz (1991). "Iranian relations with Russia and the Soviet Union, to 1921". In Peter, Avery; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran
Iran
(Vol. 7). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521200950.  Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 628. ISBN 978-1442241466.  Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1780230702.  Salukvadze, Joseph; Golubchikov, Oleg (March 2016). "City as a geopolitics: Tbilisi, Georgia — A globalizing metropolis in a turbulent region". Cities. 52: 39–54. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2015.11.013. 

External links[edit]

Look up თბილისი in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Look up Tbilisi
Tbilisi
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tbilisi.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tbilisi.

Official website of the City of Tbilisi

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Historic capitals of Georgia

Mtskheta Tbilisi Kutaisi

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Cities, towns and townlets in Georgia

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Sokhumi Akhali Atoni Gagra Gali Gudauta Ochamchire Tkvarcheli Bichvinta Gantiadi Gulripshi Leselidze Miusera

Autonomous Republic of Adjara

Batumi Kobuleti Makhinjauri Chakvi Ochkhamuri Keda Khelvachauri Shuakhevi Khulo

Guria

Ozurgeti Lanchkhuti Chokhatauri Kveda Nasakirali Laituri Naruja Ureki

Imereti

Kutaisi Chiatura Baghdati Khoni Sachkhere Samtredia Terjola Tkibuli Tsqaltubo Vani Zestaponi Kharagauli Kulashi Shorapani

Kakheti

Telavi Akhmeta Dedoplistsqaro Gurjaani Lagodekhi Sagarejo Sighnaghi Kvareli Tsnori Mirzaani

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

Mtskheta Dusheti Akhalgori Sioni Stepantsminda Tianeti Zhinvali

Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti

Zugdidi Abasha Anaklia Jvari Khobi Martvili Poti Senaki Tsalenjikha Chkhorotsqu Mestia Ushguli

Samtskhe-Javakheti

Akhaltsikhe Akhalkalaki Borjomi Ninotsminda Vale Abastumani Adigeni Akhaldaba Aspindza Bakuriani Bakurianis Andeziti Tsagveri

Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti

Ambrolauri Oni Tsageri Kharistvala Kvaisa Lentekhi

Kvemo Kartli

Rustavi Bolnisi Gardabani Dmanisi Tetritskaro Marneuli Tsalka Bediani Kazreti Manglisi Shaumiani Tamarisi Trialeti

Shida Kartli

Gori Kaspi Kareli Tskhinvali Khashuri Agara Java Surami Kornisi

Cities with local government

Tbilisi Batumi Kutaisi Rustavi Gori Zugdidi Poti Telavi Akhaltsikhe Ozurgeti Mtskheta Ambrolauri

Capital city

Tbilisi

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Administrative divisions of Georgia

Autonomous Republics

Abkhazia Adjara

Regions

Guria Imereti Kakheti Kvemo Kartli Mtskheta-Mtianeti Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Samtskhe-Javakheti Shida Kartli

City with special status

Tbilisi (capital)

Other

South Ossetia

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Georgia articles

History

Early

Prehistoric Georgia Shulaveri-Shomu culture Kura–Araxes culture Trialeti culture Colchian culture Diaokhi Kingdom of Colchis Kingdom of Iberia Kingdom of Lazica Roman Georgia

Middle

Christianization of Iberia Sasanian Iberia Principality of Iberia Bagrationi dynasty Arab rule in Georgia Emirate of Tbilisi Kingdom of Abkhazia Principality of Hereti Principality of Kakheti Duchy of Kldekari Principality of Tao-Klarjeti Kingdom of Hereti Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti Kingdom of Georgia Byzantine–Georgian wars Georgian–Seljuk wars
Georgian–Seljuk wars
(Battle of Didgori) Georgian Golden Age Mongol invasions of Georgia Timur's invasions of Georgia Principality of Samtskhe Turkmen invasions of Georgia Kingdom of Imereti

Principality of Abkhazia Principality of Svaneti Principality of Guria Principality of Mingrelia

Kingdom of Kartli Kingdom of Kakheti Shah
Shah
Abbas I's invasions of Georgia Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti 1795 Persian Invasion Absorption by the Russian Empire

Modern

Democratic Republic of Georgia Georgian–Armenian War Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Georgia Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic April 9 tragedy Independent Georgia Georgian Civil War War in Abkhazia Rose Revolution Russo-Georgian War

By topic

Name of Georgia Monarchs States Military history Wars Battles Timeline of Georgian history more

Geography

Birds Black Sea Climate Earthquakes Environmental issues Glaciers Greater Caucasus Lakes Lesser Caucasus Mammals National parks Protected areas Rivers Volcanoes more

Subdivisions

Administrative divisions Cities and towns Tbilisi Regions more

Politics

Cabinet Constitution Elections Human rights

LGBT

Law enforcement Military

Air Force Coast Guard Land Forces

National Assembly Political parties President Prime Minister

Foreign relations

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Embassies in Georgia / of Georgia European Union NATO Georgian–Abkhaz conflict Georgian–Ossetian conflict

Economy

Agriculture Central bank Companies Energy International rankings Lari (currency) Mining Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism

visa policy

Transport

Airports Autoroutes Railway Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Metro

Stations

more

Culture

Alphabet Architecture Art Chokha Cinema Cuisine

Wine

Dance Georgian language

Laz Mingrelian Svan

Media Music Mythology Names Public holidays Sports World Heritage Sites more

Demographics

Education Ethnic
Ethnic
minorities Georgians

List Diaspora

Health care Women more

Religion

Georgian Orthodox Church Islam Catholicism Judaism Bahá'í Freedom of religion Secularism and irreligion more

Symbols

Anthem Bolnisi
Bolnisi
cross Borjgali Coat of arms Flag Motto Saint George

cross

Saint Nino

cross

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 14145376423683721470 LCCN: n79104

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