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Taxila
Taxila
or Takshashila was an ancient city in what is now northern Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site and in 1980, was declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[6] Its ruins lie near modern Taxila, in Punjab, Pakistan, about 35 km (22 mi) northwest of Rawalpindi.[7] Taxila
Taxila
was situated at the pivotal junction of the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. Its origin as a city goes back to c. 1000 BCE. Some ruins at Taxila
Taxila
date to the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in the 6th century BCE, followed successively by Mauryan, Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian, and Kushan
Kushan
periods. Owing to its strategic location, Taxila
Taxila
has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control. When the great ancient trade routes connecting these regions ceased to be important, the city sank into insignificance and was finally destroyed by the nomadic Hunas in the 5th century. The archaeologist Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
rediscovered the ruins of Taxila
Taxila
in the mid-19th century. Taxila
Taxila
was a centre of learning and is considered by some to have been one of the earliest universities in the world.[8][9][10][11] Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Taxila,[12] in contrast to the later Nalanda
Nalanda
university in eastern India.[7][13][14] In 2006 Taxila
Taxila
was ranked as the top tourist destination in Pakistan by The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper.[15] In a 2010 report, Global Heritage Fund identified Taxila
Taxila
as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and damage, citing insufficient management, development pressure, looting, and war and conflict as primary threats.[16]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 In traditional sources 3 History

3.1 Early settlement 3.2 Achaemenid 3.3 Hellenistic 3.4 Mauryan 3.5 Indo-Greek 3.6 Kushan 3.7 Gupta 3.8 Decline

4 Centre of learning

4.1 Notable students and teachers

5 Ruins

5.1 World Heritage Site

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] Taxila
Taxila
was known in Pali
Pali
as Takkasilā,[17] and in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as तक्षशिला (Takshashila, IAST: Takṣaśilā; "City of Cut Stone"). The Greeks pared the city's name down to Taxila[7][18] which became the name that the Europeans were familiar with ever since the time of Alexander the Great.[19] Takshashila can also alternately be translated to "Rock of Taksha" in reference to the Ramayana
Ramayana
which states that the city was named in honour of Bharata's son and first ruler, Taksha.[7] According to another derivation, Takshashila is related to Takshaka
Takshaka
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "carpenter") and is an alternate name for the Nāga, a non-Indo-Iranian people of ancient India.[20] In traditional sources[edit] In Vedic texts such as the Shatapatha Brahmana, it is mentioned that the Vedic philosopher Uddalaka Aruni
Uddalaka Aruni
(c. 7th century BCE) had travelled to the region of Gandhara. In later Buddhist texts, the Jatakas, it is specified that Taxila
Taxila
was the city where Aruni and his son Setaketu each had received their education.[21] One of the earliest mentions of Taxila
Taxila
is in Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī,[17] a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar treatise dated to the 4th century BCE. Much of the Hindu
Hindu
epic, the Mahabharata, is a conversation between Vaishampayana (a pupil of the sage, Vyasa) and King Janamejaya. It is traditionally believed that the story was first recited by Vaishampayana at the behest of Vyasa
Vyasa
during the snake sacrifice performed by Janamejaya at Takshashila.[7] The audience also included Ugrashravas, an itinerant bard, who would later recite the story to a group of priests at an ashram in the Naimisha Forest
Naimisha Forest
from where the story was further disseminated.[22] The Kuru Kingdom's heir, Parikshit (grandson of Arjuna) is said to have been enthroned at Takshashila.[23] The Ramayana
Ramayana
describes Takshashila as a magnificent city famed for its wealth which was founded by Bharata, the younger brother of Rama. Bharata, who also founded nearby Pushkalavati, installed his two sons, Taksha and Pushkala, as the rulers of the two cities.[24] In the Buddhist Jatakas, Taxila
Taxila
is described as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara
Gandhara
and a great centre of learning with world-famous teachers.[7] The Takkasila Jataka, more commonly known as the Telapatta Jataka, tells the tale of a prince of Benares
Benares
who is told that he would become the king of Takkasila if he could reach the city within seven days without falling prey to the yakkhinis who waylaid travellers in the forest.[25][26] According to the Dipavamsa, one of Taxila's early kings was a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
named Dipankara who was succeeded by twelve sons and grandsons. Kuñjakarṇa, mentioned in the Avadanakalpalata, is another king associated with the city.[24] In the Jain
Jain
tradition, it is said that Rishabha, the first of the Tirthankaras, visited Taxila
Taxila
millions of years ago. His footprints were subsequently consecrated by Bahubali who erected a throne and a dharmachakra ("wheel of the law") over them several miles in height and circumference.[24] History[edit] Early settlement[edit] The region around Taxila
Taxila
was settled by the neolithic era, with some ruins at Taxila
Taxila
dating to 3360 BCE.[27] Ruins dating from the Early Harappan period around 2900 BCE have also been discovered in the Taxila
Taxila
area,[27] though the area was eventually abandoned after the collapse of the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
Civilisation. The first major settlement at Taxila
Taxila
was established around 1000 BCE.[28][29][30] By 900 BCE, the city was already involved in regional commerce, as discovered pottery shards reveal trading ties between the city and Puṣkalāvatī.[31] Taxila
Taxila
was sometimes ruled as part of the Gandhara
Gandhara
kingdom (whose capital was Pushkalavati), particularly after the Achaemenid period, but Taxila
Taxila
sometimes formed its own independent district or city-state.[32][33] Taxila
Taxila
was founded in a strategic location along the ancient "Royal Highway" that connected the Mauryan
Mauryan
capital at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in Bihar, with ancient Peshawar, Puṣkalāvatī, and onwards towards Central Asia via Kashmir, Bactria, and Kāpiśa.[34] Taxila
Taxila
thus changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control.

Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire

Achaemenid[edit] See also: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in the 6th century BCE. In 516 BCE, Darius I
Darius I
embarked on a campaign to conquer Central Asia, Ariana
Ariana
and Bactria, before marching onto what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northern Pakistan. Emperor Darius spent the winter of 516-515 BCE in the Gandhara
Gandhara
region surrounding Taxila, and prepared to conquer the Indus Valley, which he did in 515 BCE,[35] after which he appointed Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the mouth of the Indus to the Suez. Darius then returned to Persia
Persia
via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century.[36] Hellenistic[edit] See also: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great

A map of Alexander's campaign in ancient India.

During his invasion of the Indus Valley, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
was able to gain control of Taxila
Taxila
in 326 BCE without a battle, as the city was surrendered by its ruler, king Omphis (Āmbhi).[36] Greek historians accompanying Alexander described Taxila
Taxila
as “wealthy, prosperous, and well governed.”[36] Mauryan[edit] By 317 BCE, the Greek satraps left by Alexander were driven out[37], and Taxila
Taxila
came under the control of Chandragupta Maurya, who turned Taxila
Taxila
into a regional capital. His advisor, Kautilya, was said to have taught at Taxila's university.[38] Under the reign of Ashoka, the city was made a great seat of Buddhist learning, though the city was home to a minor rebellion during this time.[39] Indo-Greek[edit] In the 2nd century BCE, Taxila
Taxila
was annexed by the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom of Bactria. Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
built a new capital, Sirkap, on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila.[40] During this new period of Bactrian Greek rule, several dynasties (like Antialcidas) likely ruled from the city as their capital. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city's autonomous coinage. In about the 1st century BCE or 1st century CE, an Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king named Azilises
Azilises
had three mints, one of which was at Taxila, and struck coins with obverse legends in Greek and Kharoṣṭhī. The last Greek king of Taxila
Taxila
was overthrown by the Indo-Scythian chief Maues
Maues
around 90 BCE.[41] Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom, conquered Taxila
Taxila
around 20 BCE, and made Taxila his capital.[42] According to early Christian legend, Thomas the Apostle visited Gondophares
Gondophares
IV around 46 CE,[43] possibly at Taxila given that that city was Gondophares' capital city. Kushan[edit] In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean
Neopythagorean
philosopher Apollonius of Tyana
Apollonius of Tyana
visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh. Inscriptions dating to 76 CE demonstrate that the city had come under Kushan
Kushan
rule by this time, after the city was captured from the Parthians by Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan
Kushan
Empire.[44] The great Kushan
Kushan
ruler Kanishka
Kanishka
later founded Sirsukh, the most recent of the ancient settlements at Taxila. Gupta[edit] In the mid Fourth Century CE, the Gupta Empire occupied the territories in Eastern Gandhara, establishing a Kumaratya's post at Taxila. The City became well known for its Trade links- including Silk, Sandalwood, Horses, Cotton, Silverware, Pearls, and Spices. It is during this time that the City heavily features in Classical Indian Literature- both as a centre of Culture as well as a militarised border City.[45][46] Taxila's university remained in existence during the travels of Chinese pilgrim Faxian, who visited Taxila
Taxila
around 400 CE.[8] He wrote that Taxila's name translated as "the Severed Head", and was the site of a story in the life of Buddha
Buddha
"where he gave his head to a man".[47] Decline[edit] The Kidarites, vassals of the Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
are known to have invaded Taxila
Taxila
in c. 450 CE. Though repelled by the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta, the city would not recover- probably on account of the strong Hunnic presence in the area, breakdown of trade as well as the three-way war between Persia, the Kidarite State, and the Huns in Western Gandhara. The White Huns swept over Gandhāra and Punjab
Punjab
around 470 CE, causing widespread devastation and destruction of Taxila's famous Buddhist monasteries and stupas, a blow from which the city would never recover. From 500 CE to 540 CE, the city fell under the control of the Hunnic Empire in South Asia and languished.[48] Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited India between 629 to 645 CE. Taxila
Taxila
which was desolate and half-ruined was visited by him in 630 CE, and found most of its sangharamas still ruined and desolate. Only a few monks remained there. He adds that the kingdom had become a dependency of Kashmir
Kashmir
with the local leaders fighting amongst themselves for power. He noted that it had some time previously been a subject of Kapisa. By the ninth century, it became a dependency of the Kabul Shahis.[49][50] Centre of learning[edit]

A view over the ruins of Sirkap.

Main article: Ancient higher-learning institutions By some accounts, Taxila
Taxila
was considered to be one of the earliest (or the earliest) universities in the world.[8][51][52] Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Taxila,[53][54] in contrast to the later Nalanda
Nalanda
university in eastern India.[7][13][14] Taxila
Taxila
became a noted centre of learning (including the religious teachings of Buddhism) at least several centuries BCE, and continued to attract students from around the old world until the destruction of the city in the 5th century. It has been suggested that at its height, Taxila
Taxila
exerted a sort of "intellectual suzerainty" over other centres of learning in India and its primary concern was not with elementary, but higher education.[52] Generally, a student entered Taxila
Taxila
at the age of sixteen. The ancient and the most revered scriptures, and the Eighteen Silpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science.[55] Students came to Taxila
Taxila
from far-off places such as Kashi, Kosala
Kosala
and Magadha, in spite of the long and arduous journey they had to undergo, on account of the excellence of the learned teachers there, all recognised as authorities on their respective subjects.[56][page needed][57] Notable students and teachers[edit] Taxila
Taxila
had great influence on Hindu
Hindu
culture and the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. It is perhaps best known for its association with Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the strategist who guided Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and assisted in the founding of the Mauryan
Mauryan
empire. Chanakya's Arthashastra
Arthashastra
(The knowledge of Economics) is said to have been composed in Taxila
Taxila
itself.[58][not in citation given][59] The Ayurvedic
Ayurvedic
healer Charaka
Charaka
also studied at Taxila.[55] He also started teaching at Taxila
Taxila
in the later period.[60][unreliable source?] Pāṇini, the grammarian who codified the rules that would define Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of the community at Taxila.[61][page needed] The institution is significant in Buddhist tradition since it is believed that the Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna
branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
took shape there.[citation needed] Jivaka, the court physician of the Magadha emperor Bimbisara
Bimbisara
who once cured the Buddha, and the Buddhism-supporting ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, are some important personalities mentioned in Pali
Pali
texts who studied at Taxila.[62][page needed] No external authorities like kings or local leaders subjected the scholastic activities at Taxila
Taxila
to their control. Each teacher formed his own institution, enjoying complete autonomy in work, teaching as many students as he liked and teaching subjects he liked without conforming to any centralised syllabus. Study terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the student's level of achievement. In general, specialisation in a subject took around eight years, though this could be lengthened or shortened in accordance with the intellectual abilities and dedication of the student in question. In most cases the "schools" were located within the teachers' private houses, and at times students were advised to quit their studies if they were unable to fit into the social, intellectual and moral atmosphere there.[63] Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money, and hence any stipulation that fees ought to be paid was vigorously condemned[citation needed]. Financial support came from the society at large, as well as from rich merchants and wealthy parents[citation needed]. Though the number of students studying under a single Guru sometimes numbered in the hundreds, teachers did not deny education even if the student was poor; free boarding and lodging was provided, and students had to do manual work in the household[citation needed]. Paying students, such as princes, were taught during the day, while non-paying ones were taught at night.[64] Gurudakshina was usually expected at the completion of a student's studies, but it was essentially a mere token of respect and gratitude - many times being nothing more than a turban, a pair of sandals, or an umbrella. In cases of poor students being unable to afford even that, they could approach the king, who would then step in and provide something. Not providing a poor student a means to supply his Guru's Dakshina was considered the greatest slur on a King's reputation.[65] Examinations were treated as superfluous, and not considered part of the requirements to complete one's studies[citation needed]. The process of teaching was critical and thorough- unless one unit was mastered completely, the student was not allowed to proceed to the next[citation needed]. No convocations were held upon completion, and no written "degrees" were awarded, since it was believed that knowledge was its own reward. Using knowledge for earning a living or for any selfish end was considered sacrilegious.[63] Students arriving at Taxila
Taxila
usually had completed their primary education at home (until the age of eight), and their secondary education in the Ashrams (between the ages of eight and twelve), and therefore came to Taxila
Taxila
chiefly to reach the ends of knowledge in specific disciplines.[66] Ruins[edit]

The Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa

The sites of a number of important cities noted in ancient Indian texts were identified by scholars early in the 19th century. The lost city of Taxila, however, was not identified until later, in 1863-64. Its identification was made difficult partly due to errors in the distances recorded by Pliny in his Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
which pointed to a location somewhere on the Haro river, two days march from the Indus. Alexander Cunningham, the founder and the first director-general of the Archaeological Survey of India, noticed that this position did not agree with the descriptions provided in the itineraries of Chinese pilgrims and in particular, that of Xuanzang, the 7th-century Buddhist monk. Unlike Pliny, these sources noted that the journey to Taxila from the Indus took three days and not two. Cunningham's subsequent explorations in 1863–64 of a site at Shah-dheri convinced him that his hypothesis was correct.[3]

Now as Hwen Thsang, on his return to China, was accompanied by laden elephants, his three days' journey from Takhshasila [sic] to the Indus at Utakhanda, or Ohind, must necessarily have been of the same length as those of modern days, and, consequently, the site of the city must be looked for somewhere in the neighbourhood of Kâla-ka-sarâi. This site is found near Shah-dheri, just one mile to the north-east of Kâla-ka-sarâi, in the extensive ruins of a fortified city, around which I was able to trace no less than 55 stupas, of which two are as large as the great Manikyala
Manikyala
tope, twenty eight monasteries, and nine temples. — Alexander Cunningham, [67]

Taxila's archaeological sites lie near modern Taxila
Taxila
about 35 km (22 mi) northwest of the city of Rawalpindi.[7] The sites were first excavated by John Marshall, who worked at Taxila
Taxila
over a period of twenty years from 1913.[4]

Panorama of the Jaulian
Jaulian
monastery

The vast archaeological site includes neolithic remains dating to 3360 BCE, and Early Harappan remains dating to 2900–2600 BCE at Sarai Kala.[27] Taxila, however, is most famous for ruins of several settlements, the earliest dating from around 1000 BCE. It is also known for its collection of Buddhist religious monuments, including the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
stupa, the Jaulian
Jaulian
monastery, and the Mohra Muradu monastery. The main ruins of Taxila
Taxila
include four major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period, at three different sites. The earliest settlement at Taxila
Taxila
is found in the Hathial
Hathial
section, which yielded pottery shards that date from as early as the late 2nd millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE. The Bhir Mound
Bhir Mound
ruins at the site date from the 6th century BCE, and are adjacent to Hathial. The ruins of Sirkap
Sirkap
date to the 2nd century BCE, and were built by the region's Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled in the region following Alexander the Great's invasion of the region in 326 BCE. The third and most recent settlement is that of Sirsukh, which was built by rulers of the Kushan
Kushan
empire, who ruled from nearby Purushapura (modern Peshawar). World Heritage Site[edit] Taxila
Taxila
was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1980 in particular for the ruins of the four settlement sites which "reveal the pattern of urban evolution on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
through more than five centuries". The serial site includes a number of monuments and other historical places of note in the area besides the four settlements at Bhir, Saraikala, Sirkap, and Sirsukh.[6] They number 18 in all:[68]

Khanpur Cave Saraikala, prehistoric mound Bhir Mound Sirkap
Sirkap
(fortified city) Sirsukh
Sirsukh
(fortified ruined city) Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
stupa and monastery Khader Mohra (Akhuri) Kalawan
Kalawan
group of buildings Giri complex of monuments Kunala stupa and monastery Jandial
Jandial
complex Lalchak and Badalpur Buddhist stuppa Mohra Moradu stupa and monastery Pippala stupa and monastery Jaulian
Jaulian
stupa and monastery Lalchak mounds Buddhist remains around Bhallar stupa Giri Mosque and tombs

In a 2010 report, Global Heritage Fund identified Taxila
Taxila
as one of 12 worldwide sites most "on the Verge" of irreparable loss and damage, citing insufficient management, development pressure, looting, and war and conflict as primary threats.[69] In 2017, it was announced that Thailand
Thailand
would assist in conservation efforts at Taxila, as well as at Buddhist sites in the Swat Valley.[70] Gallery[edit]

A coin from 2nd century BCE Taxila.

The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Antialcidas
Antialcidas
ruled in Taxila
Taxila
around 100 BCE, according to the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
inscription.

Jaulian, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
at Taxila.

Jaulian
Jaulian
silver Buddhist reliquary, with content. British Museum.

Jain
Jain
Temple at Sirkap

Stupa
Stupa
base at Sirkap, decorated with Hindu, Buddhist and Greek temple fronts.

Stupa
Stupa
in Taxila.

A Taxila
Taxila
coin, 200–100 BCE. British Museum.

Archaeological artifacts from the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
strata at Taxila
Taxila
from John Marshall " Taxila
Taxila
Archeological excavations").

See also[edit]

Taxila
Taxila
(satrapy) Harappa Gandhara

Notes[edit]

^ "Post- Mauryan
Mauryan
(Punjab). Taxila
Taxila
(local coinage). Circa 220-185 BC. Æ (17x18mm, 7.71 g)". www.cngcoins.com. Classical Numismatic Group Inc. Retrieved 28 June 2017.  ^ Allchin & Allchin 1988, p. 314. ^ a b Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2008, p. 265. ^ a b Wheeler 2008. ^ a b Allchin 1993, p. 69. ^ a b "Taxila". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Taxila, ancient city, Pakistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 May 2017.  ^ a b c Needham 2005, p. 135. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004: "In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist scholarship was the University
University
of Taxila." ^ Mookerji 1989, p. 478: "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila
Taxila
which exercised a kind of intellectual suzerainty over the wide world of letters in India." ^ Mookerji 1989, p. 479: "This shows that Taxila
Taxila
was a seat not of elementary, but higher, education, of colleges or a university as distinguished from schools." ^ Altekar 1965, p. 109. ^ a b "Nalanda" (2007). Encarta. ^ a b "Nalanda" (2001). Columbia Encyclopedia. ^ Windsor, Antonia (17 October 2006). "Out of the rubble". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ Global Heritage Fund GHF Archived 20 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Scharfe 2002, pp. 140,141. ^ Lahiri 2015, Chapter 3. ^ Marshall 1951, p. 1. ^ Kosambi 1975, p. 129. ^ Raychaudhuri, Hem Chandra (1923), Political history of ancient India, from the accession of Parikshit
Parikshit
to the extinction of the Gupta dynasty, p. 17-18, 25-26  ^ Davis 2014, p. 38. ^ Kosambi 1975, p. 126. ^ a b c Marshall 1960, p. 10. ^ Malalasekera 1937, Telapatta Jātaka
Jātaka
(No.96): "The Bodhisatta was once the youngest of one hundred sons of the king of Benares. He heard from the Pacceka Buddhas, who took their meals in the palace, that he would become king of Takkasilā if he could reach it without falling a prey to the ogresses who waylaid travellers in the forest. Thereupon, he set out with five of his brothers who wished to accompany him. On the way through the forest the five in succession succumbed to the charms of the ogresses, and were devoured. One ogress followed the Bodhisatta right up to the gates of Takkasilā, where the king took her into the palace, paying no heed to the Bodhisatta's warning. The king succumbed to her wiles, and, during the night, the king and all the inhabitants of the palace were eaten by the ogress and her companions. The people, realising the sagacity and strength of will of the Bodhisatta, made him their king." ^ Appleton 2016, pp. 23,82. ^ a b c Allchin & Allchin 1988, p. 127. ^ Allchin & Allchin 1988, p. 314: "The first city of Taxila at Hathial
Hathial
goes back at least to c. 1000 B.C." ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "Taxila". whc.unesco.org.  ^ Scharfe 2002, p. 141. ^ Mohan Pant, Shūji Funo, Stupa
Stupa
and Swastika: Historical Urban Planning Principles in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. NUS Press, 2007 ISBN 9971693720, citing Allchin: 1980 ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=pNUwBYGYgxsC&pg=PA36 ^ Marshall 1951, p. 16-17,30,71. ^ Thapar 1997, p. 237. ^ "Darius the Great - 8. Travels - Livius". www.livius.org.  ^ a b c Marshall 1951, p. 83. ^ Mookerji 1988, p. 31. ^ Mookerji 1988, p. 22,54. ^ Thapar 1997, p. 52. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 75. ^ Marshall 1951, p. 84. ^ Marshall 1951, p. 85. ^ Medlycott 1905, Chapter: The Apostle Thomas and Gondophares
Gondophares
the Indian King. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 80. ^ https://www.academia.edu/30145861/Treasures_of_the_Gupta_Empire_-_A_Catalogue_of_Coins_of_the_Gupta_Dynasty ^ Ancient India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hsien of his Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline, Chapter 11 ^ Marshall 1951, p. 86. ^ A Guide to Taxila. Cambridge University
University
Press. pp. 39, 46.  ^ Elizabeth Errington, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis. Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring Ancient Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. British Museum Press. p. 134. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 157. ^ a b Mookerji 1989, pp. 478,479. ^ Altekar 1965, p. 109: "It may be observed at the outset that Taxila
Taxila
did not possess any colleges or university in the modern sense of the term." ^ Marshall 1951, p. 81: "We come across several Jātaka
Jātaka
stories about the students and teachers of Takshaśilā, but not a single episode even remotely suggests that the different 'world renowned' teachers living in that city belonged to a particular college or university of the modern type."author=F. W. Thomas (1944) ^ a b Mookerji 1989, pp. 478–489. ^ Prakash 1964: "Students from Magadha traversed the vast distances of northern India in order to join the schools and colleges of Taxila. We learn from Pali
Pali
texts that Brahmana youths, Khattiya princes and sons of setthis from Rajagriha, Kashi, Kosala
Kosala
and other places went to Taxila
Taxila
for learning the Vedas and eighteen sciences and arts." ^ Apte, p. 9. ^ Kautilya. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived 10 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mookerji 1988, p. 17. ^ "Takshila university". Retrieved 1 April 2012.  ^ Prakash 1964: " Pāṇini
Pāṇini
and Kautilya, two masterminds of ancient times, were also brought up in the academic traditions of Taxila" ^ Prakash 1964: "Likewise, Jivaka, the famous physician of Bimbisara who cured the Buddha, learnt the science of medicine under a far-famed teacher at Taxila
Taxila
and on his return was appointed court-physician at Magadha. Another illustrious product of Taxila
Taxila
was the enlightened ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, who is intimately associated with the events of the time of the Buddha." ^ a b Apte, pp. 9,10. ^ Apte, pp. 16,17. ^ Apte, pp. 18,19. ^ Apte, p. 11. ^ Cunningham 1871, p. 105. ^ " Taxila
Taxila
Map". whc.unesco.org. UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 29 June 2017.  ^ " Global Heritage Fund - GHF". Archived from the original on 20 August 2012.  ^ " Thailand
Thailand
to provide assistance for restoration of Ghandhara Archelogical [sic] sites". The Nation. 16 January 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 

References[edit]

Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1989) [1951]. Ancient Indian education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (2nd ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0423-6.  Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [1966]. Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and his times (4th ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0405-8.  Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (4th ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32919-1.  Allchin, Bridget; Allchin, Raymond (1988). The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 052128550X.  Lahiri, Nayanjot (2015). Ashoka
Ashoka
in Ancient India. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674915251. Retrieved 16 May 2017.  Scharfe, Hartmut (2002). Education in ancient India. Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. ISBN 9789004125568.  Thapar, Romila (1997). Aśoka and the decline of the Mauryas (Rev. ed.). Delhi: Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 0-19-563932-4.  Medlycott, A.E. (1905). India and the Apostle Thomas. London: David Nutt.  Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India (6th ed.). Nand Kishore.  Needham, Joseph (2005) [1969]. Within the four seas : the dialogue of East and West. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36166-4.  Apte, DG (c. 1950). Universities in ancient India. Baroda: Faculty of Education and Psychology, Maharaja Sayajirao University. [unreliable source?] Prakash, Buddha
Buddha
(1964). Political And Social Movements In Ancient Punjab. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120824584.  Kosambi, Damodar Dharmanand (1975) [first published 1956]. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History (Revised Second ed.). Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 126.  Marshall, John (2013) [1960]. A guide to Taxila
Taxila
(Fourth ed.). ISBN 9781107615441.  Marshall, John (1951). Taxila: Structural remains — Volume 1. University
University
Press.  Trautmann, Thomas R. (1971), Kauṭilya and the Arthaśāstra: a statistical investigation of the authorship and evolution of the text, Brill  Singh, Upinder (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. ISBN 9788131711200.  Cunningham, Alexander (1871). The Ancient Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University
University
Pres. ISBN 9781108056458.  Davis, Richard H. (2014). The "Bhagavad Gita": A Biography. Princeton University
University
Press. ISBN 9781400851973.  Malalasekera, G. P. (1937). Dictionary of Pali
Pali
Proper Names. Asian Educational Services (published 2003). ISBN 9788120618237.  Appleton, Naomi (2016). Jataka Stories in Theravada Buddhism: Narrating the Bodhisatta Path. Routledge. ISBN 9781317111252.  Wheeler, Mortimer (2004). "Marshall, Sir John Hubert (1876–1958)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University
University
Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34896. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Allchin, F. Raymond (1993). "The Urban Position of Taxila
Taxila
and Its Place in Northwest India-Pakistan". Studies in the History of Art. 31: 69–81. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taxila.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Taxila.

Explore Taxila
Taxila
with Google Earth on Global Heritage Network Guide to Historic Taxila
Taxila
by Ahmad Hasan Dani in 10 chapters "Taxila", by Jona Lendering Map of Gandhara
Gandhara
archaeological sites, from the Huntington Collection, Ohio State University
University
(large file) Taxila: An Ancient Indian University
University
by S. Srikanta Sastri John Marshall, A guide to Taxila
Taxila
(1918) on Archive.org Telapatta Jataka also known as the Takkasila Jataka

v t e

Archaeological sites of Taxila

Cities

Hathial Bhir Mound Sirkap Sirsukh

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Dharmarajika Jaulian Kalawan Mohra Muradu

Temples

Jandial

v t e

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Taxila Nalanda Somapura Vikramashila

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v t e

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Takht-i-Bahi
and Sahr-i-Bahlol Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
and Shalamar Gardens Makli Necropolis Rohtas Fort Taxila

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