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The Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
(Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ), Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey
Turkey
from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir
Lake Eğirdir
in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates
Euphrates
and Tigris
Tigris
rivers in the east. It is a part of the Alpide belt
Alpide belt
in Eurasia. The Taurus mountains are divided into three chains from west to east as follows;

Western Taurus (Batı Toroslar)

Akdağlar, the Bey Mountains, Katrancık Mountain, Geyik Mountain

Central Taurus (Orta Toroslar)

Akçalı Mountains, Bolkar Mountains, Anti-Taurus Mountains, Tahtalı Mountains, Aladaglar Mountain

Southeastern Taurus (Güneydoğu Toroslar)

Nurhak Mountains, Malatya Mountains, Maden Mountains, Genç Mountains, Bitlis Mountains

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-history to early Roman period 1.2 Late Roman period to present

2 Geography 3 Attractions 4 Western Taurus 5 Central Taurus 6 Southeastern Taurus 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Amanus Mts. near the Gulf of Issus and Antioch

Pre-history to early Roman period[edit] The bull was commonly the symbol and depiction of ancient Near Eastern storm gods, hence Taurus the bull, and hence the name of the mountains. The mountains are a place of many ancient storm-god temples.[1] Torrential thunderstorms in these mountains were deemed by the ancient Syrians to be the work of the storm-god Adad to make the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers rise and flood and thereby fertilise their land.[2] The Hurrians, probably originators of the various storm-gods of the ancient Near East, were a people whom modern scholars place in the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
at their probable earliest origins. A Bronze Age
Bronze Age
archaeological site, where early evidence of tin mining was found, is at Kestel.[3] The pass known in antiquity as the Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
crosses the range north of Tarsus. The Amanus range in southern Turkey
Turkey
is where the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
are pushed up as three tectonic plates come together. The Amanus is a natural frontier: west is Cilicia, east is Syria. There are several passes, like the Amanian Gate
Amanian Gate
(Bahçe Pass), which are of great strategical importance. In 333 BCE at the Battle of Issus, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III Codomannus on the foothills along the coast between these two passes.[4] In the Second Temple period, Jewish authors seeking to establish with greater precision the geographical definition of the Promised Land, began to construe Mount Hor
Mount Hor
as a reference to the Amanus range of the Taurus Mountains, which marked the northern limit of the Syrian plain.[5] Late Roman period to present[edit] During World War I, the German and Turkish railway system through the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
proved to be a major strategic objective of the Allies. This region was specifically mentioned as a strategically controlled objective slated for surrender to the Allies in the Armistice, which ended hostilities against the Ottoman Empire.[6] Geography[edit] In the Aladaglar and Bolkar mountains, limestone has eroded to form karstic landscapes of waterfalls, underground rivers, and some of the largest caves of Asia. The Manavgat River
Manavgat River
originates on the southern slopes of the Beydaglari range.[7] Attractions[edit] In addition to hiking and mountain climbing,[8] there are two ski resorts on the mountain range, one at Davras
Davras
about 25 km (16 mi) from the two nearest towns of Egirdir
Egirdir
and Isparta, the second is Saklıkent 40 km (25 mi) from the city of Antalya. The Varda Viaduct, situated on the railway lines Konya- Adana
Adana
at Hacıkırı village in Adana
Adana
Province, is a 98-metre-high (322 ft) railway bridge constructed in the 1910s by Germans. Western Taurus[edit] West Taurus and Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
form an arc around the Gulf of Antalya. The East Taşeli Plateau and Goksu River
Goksu River
divide it from the Central Taurus Mountains. It has many peaks rising above 3,000–3,700 m (9,800–12,100 ft). The complex is divided into four ranges:[8]

Beydaglari mountain range, western, highest peak Mt. Kizlarsivrisi 3,086 m (10,125 ft) Aladaglar mountain range, central, highest peak Mt. Demirkazik 3,756 m (12,323 ft) Bolkar mountain range, southeastern, highest peak Mt. Medetsiz 3,524 m (11,562 ft) Munzur mountain range, northeastern, highest peak Mt. Akbaba 3,462 m (11,358 ft)

Mercan mountain range, within the Munzur

The highest point in the central Tauruses is the summit of Mt. Demirkazık (3,756m).[8]

Relief of the Western Taurus Mountains

Termessos
Termessos
is an ancient city in the western Taurus

Antalya
Antalya
with the sunset and mountains in the west

Alanya, and the surrounding mountains

Central Taurus[edit] Central Taurus are roughly defined to be the north of Mersin
Mersin
and north west of Adana

Aladağlar

Tahtalı Mountains

Gülek, Mersin
Mersin
Province

Railway gate, Adana
Adana
Province

Near Mersin

Lake (Karagöl) near the summit

Southeastern Taurus[edit] The Southeastern Taurus mountains form the northern boundary of the Southeastern Anatolia Region
Southeastern Anatolia Region
and North Mesopotamia. They are also the source of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River and Tigris
Tigris
River.

Malatya's Castle district and the Southeastern Taurus

Karakaya Dam.

References[edit]

^ Ravinell, Alberto and Green, Whitney The Storm-god
Storm-god
in the Ancient Near East, p.126. ISBN 1-57506-069-8 ^ Saggs, H.W.F. The greatness that was Babylon: a survey of the ancient civilization of the Tigris- Euphrates
Euphrates
Valley, Sidgwick & Jackson, 2nd Revised edition, 1988, p.380. ISBN 0283996234 ^ Yener, K.A. (2000) The Domestication of Metals: The Rise of Complex Metal Industries in Anatolia Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11864-0 p. 91 ^ "Amanus Mountains". Livius - Places. Livius.org - Jona Lendering. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.  ^ Bechard, Dean Philip (1 January 2000). Paul Outside the Walls: A Study of Luke's Socio-geographical Universalism in Acts 14:8-20. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 203–205. ISBN 978-88-7653-143-9. In the Second Temple period, when Jewish authors were seeking to establish with greater precision the geographical definition of the Land, it became customary to construe “Mount Hor” of Num 34:7 as a reference to the Amanus range of the Taurus Mountains, which marked the northern limit of the Syrian plain (Bechard 2000, p. 205, note 98.)  ^ Price, Ward (16 December 1918) "Danger in Taurus Tunnels" New York Times ^ " Manavgat River
Manavgat River
Water as a Limited but Alternative Water Resource for Domestic Use in Middle East" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  ^ a b c "Mountaineering in Turkey" All About Turkey

External links[edit]

[1] map of Eurasia
Eurasia
showing Taurus Mountain ranges

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taurus Mountains.

v t e

Mountains of Turkey
Turkey

Mountain ranges

Anti-Taurus Ilgaz Pontic Taurus Yunt

Mountains

Acıgöl Akdağ Aktaş Ağrı (Ararat) Babadağ Beşparmak (Latmus) Davraz Demirkazık Dilek (Mycale) Erciyes Erek Göllü Hasan Honaz Kaçkar Kadifekale Karacadağ Karadağ Karagöl Kaz (Ida) Kula Küçük Ağrı Madur Mahya Medetsiz Nemrut Nemrut (volcano) Nif Palandöken Spil Sultan Süphan Şaphane Tahtalı Tendürek Topçambaba Uludağ Yamanlar Zurbahan

v t e

Ancient Mesopotamia

Geography

Modern

Euphrates Upper Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Persian Gulf Syrian Desert Taurus Mountains Tigris Zagros Mountains

Ancient

Akkad Assyria Babylonia Chaldea Elam Hittites Media Mitanni Sumer Urartu Cities

History

Pre- / Protohistory

Acheulean Mousterian Trialetian Zarzian Natufian Nemrikian Khiamian Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA) Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) Hassuna/Samarra Halaf Ubaid Uruk Jemdet Nasr Kish civilization

History

Early Dynastic Akkadian Ur III Old Babylonian Kassite Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenid Seleucid Parthian Roman Sasanian Muslim conquest Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Languages

Akkadian Amorite Aramaic Eblaite Elamite Gutian Hittite Hurrian Luwian Middle Persian Old Persian Parthian Proto-Armenian Sumerian Urartian

Culture / Society

Architecture Art Cuneiform script Akkadian
Akkadian
literature Sumerian literature Music Religion

Archaeology

Looting Destruction by ISIL

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