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Tashkent
Tashkent
(/ˌtæʃˈkɛnt/; Uzbek: Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت, [tɒʃˈkent]; Russian: Ташкент, [tɐʂˈkʲɛnt]) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia
Central Asia
with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.[1] It is located in the north-east of the country close to the Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
border. Tashkent
Tashkent
was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its early history, before Islam
Islam
in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, and became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, Tashkent
Tashkent
witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent
Tashkent
retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks
Uzbeks
as the majority. In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 History as Chach 1.3 Islamic history 1.4 Mongol conquest and aftermath 1.5 Kokand
Kokand
khanate 1.6 Tsarist period 1.7 Effect of the Russian revolution 1.8 Soviet period 1.9 Capital of Uzbekistan

2 Origin of television 3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Districts 6 Main sights 7 Education 8 Media 9 Transportation 10 Entertainment and shopping 11 Sport 12 Notable people 13 Twin towns – sister cities 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit]

See also: Timeline of Tashkent
Timeline of Tashkent
and History of Tashkent (uz)

During its long history, Tashkent
Tashkent
has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations. Early history[edit] Tashkent
Tashkent
was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan
Tian Shan
Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju
Kangju
confederacy.[3] Some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement ("Tashkent" means "stone castle"). This tower is said to have marked the midway point between Europe and China. Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower.[4] History as Chach[edit] In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach. The Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach. Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chashkand, meaning "Chach City".[5] The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Xuánzàng 玄奘 (602/603? – 664 AD), who travelled from China
China
to India
India
through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí 赭時. The Chinese chronicles Suí shū 隋書 ("Book of Suí"), Běi shǐ 北史 ("History of Northern Dynasties") and Táng shū 唐書 ("Book of Táng"), mention a possession called Shí 石 or Zhěshí 赭時 with a capital of the same name since the fifth century AD [6]. In the early 8th century, the region was conquered by Muslim Arabs. Islamic history[edit] The modern Turkic name of Tashkent
Tashkent
(City of Stone) comes from Kara-Khanid
Kara-Khanid
rule in the 10th century ("Tash" in Turkic languages
Turkic languages
means stone). After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence. Mongol conquest and aftermath[edit] The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid
Shaybanid
dynasties, the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk Road. Kokand
Kokand
khanate[edit] In 1809, Tashkent
Tashkent
was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time, Tashkent
Tashkent
had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia. It prospered greatly through trade with Russia
Russia
but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent
Tashkent
clergy also favored the clergy of Bukhara
Bukhara
over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir
Emir
of Bukhara
Bukhara
could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived. Tsarist period[edit]

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
in Tashkent.

In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres (16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
priest armed only with a crucifix. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians
Russians
captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand
Kokand
Khanate). Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar
Tsar
Alexander II that the city is made an independent khanate under Russian protection. The Tsar
Tsar
liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent
Tashkent
became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent
Tashkent
was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia
Russia
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
over Central Asia. The Turkestan Military District
Turkestan Military District
was established as part of the military reforms of 1874. The Trans-Caspian Railway
Trans-Caspian Railway
arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent
Tashkent
as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution. Effect of the Russian revolution[edit]

Tashkent
Tashkent
ca.1910

With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution. The Tashkent Soviet
Tashkent Soviet
of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up about a fifth of the Tashkent
Tashkent
population. Muslim leaders quickly set up the Tashkent
Tashkent
Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing La Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various speeches, Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin
Aleksey Kuropatkin
closed the events with words "Long Live a great free Russia".[7] The First Turkestan Muslim Conference was held in Tashkent
Tashkent
16–20 April 1917. Like the Muslim Council, it was dominated by the Jadid, Muslim reformers. A more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful.[8] In April 1918, Tashkent
Tashkent
became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, basmachi; revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscow. In 1930, Tashkent
Tashkent
fell within the borders of the Uzbek SSR, and became the capital of the Uzbek SSR, displacing Samarkand. Soviet period[edit]

Tashkent, 1917

The Courage Monument in Tashkent
Tashkent
on a 1979 Soviet stamp

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s. Violating the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Nazi Germany
Germany
invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. The government worked to relocate factories from western Russia
Russia
and Ukraine to Tashkent
Tashkent
to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity. This led to great increase in industry during World War II. It also evacuated most of the German communist emigres to Tashkent.[9] The Russian population increased dramatically; evacuees from the war zones increased the total population of Tashkent
Tashkent
to well over a million. Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
eventually comprised more than half of the total residents of Tashkent.[10] Many of the former refugees stayed in Tashkent
Tashkent
to live after the war, rather than return to former homes. During the postwar period, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
established numerous scientific and engineering facilities in Tashkent. On 10 January 1966, then Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
and Pakistan
Pakistan
President Ayub Khan signed a pact in Tashkent
Tashkent
with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
as the mediator. On the next day, Shastri died suddenly, reportedly due to a heart attack. It is widely speculated that Shastri was killed by poisoning the water he drank. On 26 April 1966, much of the old city was destroyed by an earthquake. More than 300,000 residents were left homeless. Some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed,[11] mainly in the densely packed areas of the old city, where traditional adobe housing predominated.[12] The Soviet republics, and some other countries such as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples" and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent. They created a model Soviet city of wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. About 100,000 new homes were built by 1970,[11] but the builders occupied many, rather than the homeless residents of Tashkent. Further development in the following years increased the size of the city with major new developments in the Chilonzor area, north-east and south-east of the city.[11] At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, Tashkent
Tashkent
was the fourth-largest city in the USSR and a center of learning in the fields of science and engineering. Due to the 1966 earthquake and the Soviet redevelopment, little architectural heritage has survived of Tashkent's ancient history. Few structures mark its significance as a trading point on the historic Silk Road. Capital of Uzbekistan[edit] Tashkent
Tashkent
is the capital of and the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan. It was noted for its tree-lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks, at least until the tree-cutting campaigns initiated in 2009 by the local government. [13]

Alisher Navoiy
Navoiy
Park

Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and architecturally. New development has superseded or replaced icons of the Soviet era. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced with a globe, featuring a geographic map of Uzbekistan. Buildings from the Soviet era have been replaced with new modern buildings. The "Downtown Tashkent" district includes the 22-story NBU Bank building, an Intercontinental Hotel, the International Business Center, and the Plaza Building.

Japanese Gardens in Tashkent

The Tashkent
Tashkent
Business district is a special district, established for the development of small, medium and large businesses in Uzbekistan. In 2007, Tashkent
Tashkent
was named a "cultural capital of the Islamic world" by Moscow
Moscow
News, as the city has numerous historic mosques and significant Islamic sites, including the Islamic University. [14] Tashkent
Tashkent
holds the Samarkand
Samarkand
Kufic Quran, one of the earliest written copies of the Quran, which has been located in the city since 1924. [15]

Development of Tashkent

c. 1865

1913

1940

1965

1966: earthquake and subsequent redevelopment

1981

2000

Origin of television[edit] The first demonstration of a fully electronic TV set to the public and committee was made in Tashkent
Tashkent
in summer 1928 by Boris Grabovsky and his team. In his method that had been patented in Saratov
Saratov
in 1925, Boris Grabovsky proposed a new principle of TV imaging based on the vertical and horizontal electron beam sweeping under high voltage. Nowadays this principle of the TV imaging is used practically in all modern cathode-ray tubes. Historian and ethnographer Boris Golender (Борис Голендер in Russian), in a video lecture, described this event.[16] This date of demonstration of the fully electronic TV set is the earliest known so far. Despite this fact, most modern historians disputably consider Vladimir Zworykin[17] and Philo Farnsworth[18] as inventors of the first fully electronic TV set. In 1964, the contribution made to the development of early television by Grabovsky was officially acknowledged by the Uzbek government and he was awarded the prestigious degree "Honorable Inventor of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic". Geography and climate[edit]

Tashkent
Tashkent
and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30

Tashkent

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    55     6 −3

    47     8 −2

    72     14 4

    64     22 10

    32     27 14

    7.1     33 18

    3.5     36 19

    2     34 17

    4.5     29 12

    34     21 7

    45     14 3

    53     9 0

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: WMO[19]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.1     42 26

    1.8     46 29

    2.8     58 40

    2.5     71 50

    1.3     81 57

    0.3     92 64

    0.1     96 67

    0.1     93 63

    0.2     84 54

    1.3     70 45

    1.8     58 38

    2.1     47 31

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Geography[edit] Tashkent
Tashkent
41°18′N 69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E / 41.300; 69.267 is situated in a well-watered plain to the west of the last Altai mountains[20] on the road between Shymkent
Shymkent
and Samarkand. Tashkent
Tashkent
sits at the confluence of the Chirchiq River
Chirchiq River
and several of its tributaries and is built on deep alluvial deposits up to 15 metres (49 ft). The city is located in an active tectonic area suffering large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes. The local time in Tashkent
Tashkent
is UTC/GMT +5 hours. Climate[edit] Tashkent
Tashkent
features a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen: Csa)[21] with strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[21] As a result, Tashkent
Tashkent
experiences cold and often snowy winters not typically associated with most Mediterranean climates and long, hot and dry summers. Winters are cold and often snowy, covering the months of December, January and February. Most precipitation occurs during these months which frequently falls as snow. The city experiences two peaks of precipitation in the early winter and spring. The slightly unusual precipitation pattern is partially due to its 500 m (roughly 1600 feet) altitude. Summers are long in Tashkent, usually lasting from May to September. Tashkent
Tashkent
can be extremely hot during the months of July and August. The city also sees very little precipitation during the summer, particularly from June through September.[22][23]

Climate data for Tashkent
Tashkent
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 25.7 (78.3) 32.5 (90.5) 36.4 (97.5) 39.9 (103.8) 43.0 (109.4) 44.6 (112.3) 43.1 (109.6) 39.8 (103.6) 37.5 (99.5) 31.1 (88) 27.3 (81.1) 44.6 (112.3)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 9.4 (48.9) 15.2 (59.4) 22.0 (71.6) 27.5 (81.5) 33.4 (92.1) 35.6 (96.1) 34.7 (94.5) 29.3 (84.7) 21.8 (71.2) 14.9 (58.8) 8.8 (47.8) 21.63 (70.92)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.9 (35.4) 3.9 (39) 9.4 (48.9) 15.5 (59.9) 20.5 (68.9) 25.8 (78.4) 27.8 (82) 26.2 (79.2) 20.6 (69.1) 13.9 (57) 8.5 (47.3) 3.5 (38.3) 14.79 (58.62)

Average low °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) 0.0 (32) 4.8 (40.6) 9.8 (49.6) 13.7 (56.7) 18.1 (64.6) 19.7 (67.5) 18.1 (64.6) 13.0 (55.4) 7.8 (46) 4.1 (39.4) 0.0 (32) 8.97 (48.14)

Record low °C (°F) −28 (−18) −25.6 (−14.1) −16.9 (1.6) −6.3 (20.7) −1.7 (28.9) 3.8 (38.8) 8.2 (46.8) 3.4 (38.1) 0.1 (32.2) −11.2 (11.8) −22.1 (−7.8) −29.5 (−21.1) −29.5 (−21.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.8 (2.276) 57.2 (2.252) 64.8 (2.551) 59.8 (2.354) 40.9 (1.61) 10.8 (0.425) 3.5 (0.138) 1.9 (0.075) 5.9 (0.232) 29.3 (1.154) 41.3 (1.626) 53.6 (2.11) 426.8 (16.803)

Average precipitation days 11.1 9.6 11.4 9.5 7.0 3.2 1.3 0.7 1.5 4.8 7.3 9.5 76.9

Average snowy days 13 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2 8 32.2

Average relative humidity (%) 73 68 62 60 53 40 39 42 45 57 66 73 56.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.3 125.3 165.1 216.8 303.4 361.8 383.7 365.8 300.9 224.8 149.5 105.9 2,820.3

Source #1: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan,[24] World Meteorological Organisation[19]

Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (record low and record high temperatures),[25] NOAA (mean monthly sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[26]

Demographics[edit]

Residential Towers

In 1983, the population of Tashkent
Tashkent
amounted to 1,902,000 people living in a municipal area of 256 km2 (99 sq mi). By 1991, (break-up of Soviet Union) the number of permanent residents of the capital had grown to approximately 2,136,600. Tashkent
Tashkent
was the fourth most populated city in the former USSR, after Moscow, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), and Kiev. Nowadays, Tashkent
Tashkent
remains the fourth most populous city in the CIS and Baltic countries. The population of the city was 2,295,300 people in 2004.[27] As of 2008[update], the demographic structure of Tashkent
Tashkent
was as follows:

63.0% – Uzbeks 20.0% – Russians 4.5% – Tatars 2.2% – Koryo-saram (Koreans) 2.1% – Tajiks 1.2% – Uighurs 7.0% – other ethnic backgrounds

Districts[edit]

City districts of Tashkent

Panorama of Tashkent

Streets of Tashkent

Tashkent
Tashkent
is currently divided into the following districts (Uzbek:Tuman ):

Nr District Population (2009)[28] Area (km²)[28] Density (area/km²)[28] Map

1 Bektemir 27,500 20.5 1,341

2 Chilanzar 217,000 30.0 7,233

3 Yashnobod 204,800 33.7 6,077

4 Mirobod 122,700 17.1 7,175

5 Mirzo Ulugbek 245,200 31.9 7,687

6 Sergeli 149,000 56.0 2,661

7 Shaykhontohur 285,800 27.2 10,507

8 Olmazar 305,400 34.5 8,852

9 Uchtepa 237,000 28.2 8,404

10 Yakkasaray 115,200 14.6 7,890

11 Yunusabad 296,700 41.1 7,219

At the time of the Tsarist take over it had four districts (Uzbek daha):

Beshyoghoch Kukcha Shaykhontokhur Sebzor

In 1940 it had the following districts (Russian район):

Oktyabr Kirov Stalin Frunze Lenin Kuybishev

By 1981 they were reorganized into:[11]

Bektemir Akmal-Ikramov (Uchtepa) Khamza (Yashnobod) Lenin (Mirobod) Kuybishev (Mirzo Ulugbek) Sergeli Oktober (Shaykhontokhur) Sobir Rakhimov (Olmazar) Chilanzar Frunze (Yakkasaray) Kirov (Yunusabad)

Main sights[edit]

Kukeldash Madrasa inner yard

Prince Romanov Palace

Alisher Navoi
Alisher Navoi
Opera and Ballet Theatre

Museum of Applied Arts

Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during the 1917 revolution and, later, the 1966 earthquake, little remains of Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage. Tashkent
Tashkent
is, however, rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments. They include:

Kukeldash Madrasah. Dating back to the reign of Abdullah Khan II (1557–1598) it is currently being restored by the provincial Religious Board of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
Moslems. There is talk of making it into a museum, but it is currently being used as a madrassah. Chorsu Bazaar, located near the Kukeldash Madrassa. This huge open air bazaar is the center of the old town of Tashkent. Everything imaginable is for sale. Telyashayakh Mosque (Khast Imam Mosque). It Contains the Uthman Qur'an, considered to be the oldest extant Qur'an
Qur'an
in the world. Dating from 655 and stained with the blood of murdered caliph, Uthman, it was brought by Timur
Timur
to Samarkand, seized by the Russians
Russians
as a war trophy and taken to Saint Petersburg. It was returned to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in 1924.[29] Yunus Khan
Yunus Khan
Mausoleum. It is a group of three 15th-century mausoleums, restored in the 19th century. The biggest is the grave of Yunus Khan, grandfather of Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
founder Babur. Palace of Prince Romanov. During the 19th century Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Nikolai Konstantinovich, a first cousin of Alexander III of Russia
Alexander III of Russia
was banished to Tashkent
Tashkent
for some shady deals involving the Russian Crown Jewels. His palace still survives in the centre of the city. Once a museum, it has been appropriated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Alisher Navoi
Alisher Navoi
Opera and Ballet Theatre, built by the same architect who designed Lenin's Tomb
Lenin's Tomb
in Moscow, Aleksey Shchusev, with Japanese prisoner of war labor in World War II. It hosts Russian ballet and opera. Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan. It contains a major collection of art from the pre-Russian period, including Sogdian murals, Buddhist statues and Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
art, along with a more modern collection of 19th and 20th century applied art, such as suzani embroidered hangings. Of more interest is the large collection of paintings "borrowed" from the Hermitage by Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Romanov to decorate his palace in exile in Tashkent, and never returned. Behind the museum is a small park, containing the neglected graves of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
who died in the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
and to Osipov's treachery in 1919,[30] along with first Uzbekistani President Yuldosh Akhunbabayev. Museum of Applied Arts. Housed in a traditional house originally commissioned for a wealthy tsarist diplomat, the house itself is the main attraction, rather than its collection of 19th and 20th century applied arts. State Museum of History of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
the largest museum in the city. It is housed in the ex-Lenin Museum. Amir Timur
Timur
Museum, housed in a building with brilliant blue dome and ornate interior. It houses exhibits of Timur
Timur
and of President Islam Karimov. The gardens outside contain a statue of Timur
Timur
on horseback, surrounded by some of the nicest gardens and fountains in the city. Navoi Literary Museum, commemorating Uzbekistan's adopted literary hero, Alisher Navoi, with replica manuscripts, Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
and 15th century miniature paintings.

The Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
church in Amir Temur Square, built in 1898, was demolished in 2009. The building had not been allowed to be used for religious purposes since the 1920s due to the anti-religious campaign conducted across the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by the Bolshevik (communist) government in Moscow. During the Soviet period the building was used for different non-religious purposes; after independence it was a bank. Tashkent
Tashkent
also has a World War II memorial park and a Defender of Motherland monument.[31][32][33] Education[edit] Most important scientific institutions of Uzbekistan, such as the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, are located in Tashkent. There are several universities and institutions of higher education:

Tashkent
Tashkent
Automobile & Road Construction Institute Tashkent
Tashkent
State Technical University Tashkent
Tashkent
Institute of Architecture and Construction Tashkent
Tashkent
Institute of Irrigation and Melioration International Business School Kelajak Ilmi Tashkent
Tashkent
University of Information Technologies Westminster International University in Tashkent Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent National University of Uzbekistan University of World Economy and Diplomacy Tashkent
Tashkent
State Economic University Tashkent
Tashkent
State Institute of Law Tashkent
Tashkent
Institute of Finance State University of Foreign Languages Conservatory of Music Tashkent
Tashkent
Pediatric Medical Institute Tashkent
Tashkent
State Medicine Academy Institute of Oriental Studies Tashkent
Tashkent
Islamic University Management Development Institute of Singapore
Singapore
in Tashkent Tashkent
Tashkent
Institute of Textile and Light Industry Tashkent
Tashkent
Institute of Railway Transport Engineers National Institute of Arts and Design named after Kamaleddin Bekhzod Inha University Tashkent

Media[edit]

Nine Uzbek language
Uzbek language
newspapers, four in English, and nine publications in Russian Several television and cable television facilities, including Tashkent Tower, the tallest structure in Central Asia

Moreover, there are digital broadcasting systems available in Tashkent which is unique in Central Asia. Transportation[edit]

Tashkent
Tashkent
Railway Station

Metro system Tashkent International Airport
Tashkent International Airport
is the largest in the country, connecting the city to Asia, Europe and North American continents. Tashkent– Samarkand
Samarkand
high-speed rail line Trolleybus system was closed down in 2010. Tram transport end at 1 May 2016.

Entertainment and shopping[edit] There are several shopping malls in Tashkent
Tashkent
which are good both for entertainment and shopping. These include Next, Samarqand Darvoza and Kontinent shopping malls. Next mall is very popular among families and prominent for its Science Lab for kids, Dinosaur’s museum, Ice Rink and Cinema. Samarqand Darvoza offers a wide range of entertaining including Playground for kids, Game area, bowling and convenient multilayer parking place. It is a good place for kids’ birthday parties and family entertainment. Kontinent Mall is conveniently located next to the Grand Mir Hotel. It is a smaller place but combines a variety of dining options such as diet cafe, fast food court and a bar. Sport[edit]

Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
national football team, is from Tashkent.

Football is the most popular sport in Tashkent, with the most prominent football clubs being FC Pakhtakor Tashkent
FC Pakhtakor Tashkent
and FC Bunyodkor, both of which compete in the Uzbek League. Footballers Maksim Shatskikh, Peter Odemwingie
Peter Odemwingie
and Vassilis Hatzipanagis were born in the city. Cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov
Djamolidine Abdoujaparov
was born in the city, while tennis player Denis Istomin
Denis Istomin
was raised there. Akgul Amanmuradova
Akgul Amanmuradova
and Iroda Tulyaganova are notable female tennis players from Tashkent. Gymnasts Alina Kabayeva
Alina Kabayeva
and Israeli Olympian Alexander Shatilov
Alexander Shatilov
were also born in the city. Former world champion and Israeli Olympic bronze medalist sprint canoer in the K-1 500 m event Michael Kolganov was also born in Tashkent.[34] Notable people[edit]

Vasilis Hatzipanagis, Greek international footballer Hakim Karimovich Zaripov, circus performer Tursunoy Saidazimova, singer Ravshan Irmatov, football referee

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Uzbekistan Tashkent
Tashkent
is twinned with:

Beijing, China Berlin, Germany[35] Kortrijk, Belgium Seattle, Washington, United States Seoul, South Korea[36][37]

See also[edit]

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
portal

Gates of Tashkent Tashkent
Tashkent
Declaration

References[edit]

^ "Official website portal of Tashkent
Tashkent
City". Tashkent.uz. 2013-11-18. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ "Юбилей Ташкента. Такое бывает только раз в 2200 лет". Фергана - международное агентство новостей. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese," Asia Major 9 (1963), p. 94. ^ Dean, Riaz (2015). "The Location of Ptolemy's Stone Tower: the Case for Sulaiman-Too in Osh". The Silk Road. 13: 76.  ^ "Fly to Tashkent
Tashkent
with the Best Airfare". futurevacation.com. 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2017-02-26.  ^ Bichurin, 1950. v. II ^ Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, Indiana University Press, 2007, p188 ^ Rex A. Wade, The Russian Revolution, 1917, Cambridge University Press, 2005 ^ Robert K. Shirer, "Johannes R. Becher 1891–1958", Encyclopedia of German Literature, Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000, by permission at Digital Commons, University of Nebraska, accessed 3 February 2013 ^ Edward Allworth (1994), Central Asia, 130 years of Russian dominance: a historical overview, Duke University Press, p. 102. ISBN 0-8223-1521-1 ^ a b c d Sadikov, A C; Akramob Z. M.; Bazarbaev, A.; Mirzlaev T.M.; Adilov S. R.; Baimukhamedov X. N.; et al. (1984). Geographical Atlas of Tashkent
Tashkent
(Ташкент Географический Атлас) (in Russian) (2 ed.). Moscow. pp. 60, 64.  ^ Nurtaev Bakhtiar (1998). "Damage for buildings of different type". Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  ^ "Good bye the Tashkent
Tashkent
Public Garden!". Ferghana.Ru. 23 November 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2012.  ^ " Moscow News
Moscow News
– World – Tashkent
Tashkent
Touts Islamic University". Mnweekly.ru. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ Invention of television and Boris Grabovsky (in Russian) ^ Invention of the iconoscope, the first electronic television camera ^ K. Krull, The boy who invented TV: The story of Philo Farnsworth, 2014 ^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Tashkent". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ "Exploring the Cities of Uzbekistan". expatify.com. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2017-02-26.  ^ a b Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system ^ Tashkent
Tashkent
Travel. " Tashkent
Tashkent
weather forecast". Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ Happy-Tellus.com. "Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
travel information". Helsinki, Finland: Infocenter International Ltd. Retrieved 11 June 2009.  ^ "Climate Data for Tashkent". Centre of Hydrometeorological Service. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tashkent" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ " Tashkent
Tashkent
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 February 2017.  ^ "ТАШКЕНТ (город)". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ a b c (in Russian) Statistics of the subdivisions of Tashkent ^ MacWilliams, Ian (5 January 2006). "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2010.  ^ Smele, Jonathan D. (20 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916–1926. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 58. ISBN 978-1442252806. Retrieved 16 May 2016.  ^ uznews.net, Tashkent's central park is history, 25 November 2009 ^ Army memorial dismantled in Tashkent, 24 November 2009 ^ Ferghana.ru, МИД России указал послу Узбекистана на обеспокоенность «Наших», 16 January 2010 (in Russian) ^ "Sports-reference.com". Sports-reference.com. 1974-10-24. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ " Berlin
Berlin
– City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ " Seoul
Seoul
– Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25). Retrieved 2013-08-23. [dead link] ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008. 

Museum of Fine Arts Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Tashkent

Stronski, Paul, Tashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930–1966 (Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010). Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, 1865–1923 (Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2010).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tashkent.

Tashkent
Tashkent
travel guide from Wikivoyage All about capital of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
– Tashkent Photos of historical monuments and modern buildings in Tashkent Recent photos of Tashkent
Tashkent
with comments in English Disability Information Resource Centre in Tashkent Tashkent
Tashkent
Directory[permanent dead link] [13][1] – Demographics (Taken from the Russian version of this article)

v t e

Districts of Tashkent

Bektemir Chilanzar Yashnobod Mirobod Mirzo Ulugbek Olmazar Sergeli Shaykhontohur Uchtepa Yakkasaray Yunusabad

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Regions of Uzbekistan

Andijon Bukhara Fergana Jizzakh Namangan Navoiy Qashqadaryo Samarqand Sirdaryo Surxondaryo Tashkent Xorazm

Autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan Capital city: Tashkent

v t e

Cities of Uzbekistan

Capital

Tashkent

Cities

Andijan Angren Asaka Bekabad Beruniy Bukhara Chimboy Chirchiq Chust Fergana Guliston G‘ijduvon G‘uzor Jizzakh Juma Kattaqo‘rg‘on Kogon Kosonsoy Margilan Mo‘ynoq Muborak Namangan Navoiy Nukus Nurota Olmaliq Qarshi Qorako‘l Qorasuv Qo‘ng‘irot Qo‘qon Rishton Samarkand Shahrisabz Shirin Sirdaryo Termez To‘rtko‘l To‘ytepa Uchquduq Urgench Urgut Vabkent Xiva Xo‘jayli Yangiabad Yangiyer Yangiyo‘l Zarafshan

v t e

Tashkent
Tashkent
Region

Capital: Tashkent

Districts and seats

Bekabad
Bekabad
District (Zafar) Bostanliq District
Bostanliq District
(Gazalkent) Buka District
Buka District
(Buka) Chinaz District
Chinaz District
(Chinaz) Qibray District
Qibray District
(Qibray) Okhangaron District
Okhangaron District
(Okhangaron) Oqqurgan District
Oqqurgan District
(Oqqurgan) Parkent District
Parkent District
(Parkent) Piskent District
Piskent District
(Piskent) Quyi Chirchiq
Chirchiq
District (Dustobod) Orta Chirchiq
Chirchiq
District (Toytepa) Yangiyol District
Yangiyol District
(Gulbakhor) Yukori Chirchiq
Chirchiq
District (Yangibozor) Zangiata District
Zangiata District
(Keles)

Other towns

Angren Bekabad Chirchiq Olmaliq Yangiabad Yangiyo‘l

Coordinates: 41°16′N 69°13′E / 41.267°N 69.217°E / 41.267; 69.217

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136886417 LCCN: n80004

.