Tashkent (/ˌtæʃˈkɛnt/; Uzbek: Toshkent, Тошкент,
تاشكېنت, [tɒʃˈkent]; Russian: Ташкент,
[tɐʂˈkʲɛnt]) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as
well as the most populated city in
Central Asia with a population in
2012 of 2,309,300. It is located in the north-east of the country
close to the
Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its
early history, before
Islam in the 8th century AD. After its
Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited
from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an
independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of
Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, and became the capital
of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times,
Tashkent witnessed major growth
and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the
Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan,
Tashkent retains a
multi-ethnic population, with ethnic
Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009,
the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history.
1.1 Early history
1.2 History as Chach
1.3 Islamic history
1.4 Mongol conquest and aftermath
1.6 Tsarist period
1.7 Effect of the Russian revolution
1.8 Soviet period
1.9 Capital of Uzbekistan
2 Origin of television
3 Geography and climate
6 Main sights
10 Entertainment and shopping
12 Notable people
13 Twin towns – sister cities
14 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Timeline of Tashkent
Timeline of Tashkent and History of Tashkent (uz)
During its long history,
Tashkent has had various changes in names and
political and religious affiliations.
Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik
River, near the foothills of the West
Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient
times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of
Kangju confederacy. Some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower"
Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk
Road referred to this settlement ("Tashkent" means "stone castle").
This tower is said to have marked the midway point between Europe and
China. Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification,
though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone
History as Chach
In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were
known as Chach. The
Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as
Chach. Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chashkand, meaning
The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to
3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr
Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a
network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians
and Turkic nomads. The
Buddhist monk Xuánzàng 玄奘 (602/603? –
664 AD), who travelled from
India through Central Asia,
mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí 赭時. The Chinese
chronicles Suí shū 隋書 ("Book of Suí"), Běi shǐ 北史
("History of Northern Dynasties") and Táng shū 唐書 ("Book of
Táng"), mention a possession called Shí 石 or Zhěshí 赭時 with
a capital of the same name since the fifth century AD .
In the early 8th century, the region was conquered by Muslim Arabs.
The modern Turkic name of
Tashkent (City of Stone) comes from
Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century ("Tash" in
Turkic languages means
stone). After the 16th century, the name evolved from
Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent"
reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.
Mongol conquest and aftermath
The city was destroyed by
Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its
population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid
Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent
the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent
strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk
Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time,
Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the
richest city in Central Asia. It prospered greatly through trade with
Russia but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The
also favored the clergy of
Bukhara over that of Kokand. However,
Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the
Russian army arrived.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church in
In May 1865,
Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting
against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1,
staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres
(16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small
contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the
walls, led by a
Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix.
Although the defense was stiff, the
Russians captured the city after
two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to
several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the
Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city
elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population
over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets
and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military
Governor of Tashkent", recommending to
Tsar Alexander II that the city
is made an independent khanate under Russian protection.
Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and
bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and
soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far
from being granted independence,
Tashkent became the capital of the
new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first
Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built
across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and
merchants poured in.
Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great
Game rivalry between
Russia and the
United Kingdom over Central Asia.
Turkestan Military District
Turkestan Military District was established as part of the
military reforms of 1874. The
Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889,
and the railway workers who built it settled in
Tashkent as well,
bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.
Effect of the Russian revolution
With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional
Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and
nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February
Tashkent Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was
soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up
about a fifth of the
Tashkent population. Muslim leaders quickly set
Tashkent Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in
the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian
workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing La
Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various
Aleksey Kuropatkin closed the events with
words "Long Live a great free Russia".
The First Turkestan Muslim Conference was held in
April 1917. Like the Muslim Council, it was dominated by the Jadid,
Muslim reformers. A more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent
centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during
the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian
conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet
attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful.
In April 1918,
Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous
Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was
threatened by White forces, basmachi; revolts from within, and purges
ordered from Moscow. In 1930,
Tashkent fell within the borders of the
Uzbek SSR, and became the capital of the Uzbek SSR, displacing
The Courage Monument in
Tashkent on a 1979 Soviet stamp
The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s.
Violating the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Nazi
Germany invaded the Soviet
Union in June 1941. The government worked to relocate factories from
Russia and Ukraine to
Tashkent to preserve the Soviet
industrial capacity. This led to great increase in industry during
World War II.
It also evacuated most of the German communist emigres to Tashkent.
The Russian population increased dramatically; evacuees from the war
zones increased the total population of
Tashkent to well over a
Ukrainians eventually comprised more than half
of the total residents of Tashkent. Many of the former refugees
Tashkent to live after the war, rather than return to former
During the postwar period, the
Soviet Union established numerous
scientific and engineering facilities in Tashkent.
On 10 January 1966, then Indian Prime Minister
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri and
Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed a pact in
Tashkent with Soviet
Alexei Kosygin as the mediator. On the next day, Shastri died
suddenly, reportedly due to a heart attack. It is widely speculated
that Shastri was killed by poisoning the water he drank.
On 26 April 1966, much of the old city was destroyed by an earthquake.
More than 300,000 residents were left homeless. Some 78,000 poorly
engineered homes were destroyed, mainly in the densely packed
areas of the old city, where traditional adobe housing
predominated. The Soviet republics, and some other countries such
as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples" and urban planners
to help rebuild devastated Tashkent. They created a model Soviet city
of wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for
parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. About
100,000 new homes were built by 1970, but the builders occupied
many, rather than the homeless residents of Tashkent. Further
development in the following years increased the size of the city with
major new developments in the Chilonzor area, north-east and
south-east of the city.
At the time of the collapse of the
Soviet Union in 1991,
the fourth-largest city in the USSR and a center of learning in the
fields of science and engineering.
Due to the 1966 earthquake and the Soviet redevelopment, little
architectural heritage has survived of Tashkent's ancient history. Few
structures mark its significance as a trading point on the historic
Capital of Uzbekistan
Tashkent is the capital of and the most cosmopolitan city in
Uzbekistan. It was noted for its tree-lined streets, numerous
fountains, and pleasant parks, at least until the tree-cutting
campaigns initiated in 2009 by the local government. 
Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and
architecturally. New development has superseded or replaced icons of
the Soviet era. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced
with a globe, featuring a geographic map of Uzbekistan. Buildings from
the Soviet era have been replaced with new modern buildings. The
"Downtown Tashkent" district includes the 22-story NBU Bank building,
an Intercontinental Hotel, the International Business Center, and the
Japanese Gardens in Tashkent
Tashkent Business district is a special district, established for
the development of small, medium and large businesses in Uzbekistan.
Tashkent was named a "cultural capital of the Islamic world"
Moscow News, as the city has numerous historic mosques and
significant Islamic sites, including the Islamic University. 
Tashkent holds the
Samarkand Kufic Quran, one of the earliest written
copies of the Quran, which has been located in the city since 1924.
Development of Tashkent
1966: earthquake and subsequent redevelopment
Origin of television
The first demonstration of a fully electronic TV set to the public and
committee was made in
Tashkent in summer 1928 by
Boris Grabovsky and
his team. In his method that had been patented in
Saratov in 1925,
Boris Grabovsky proposed a new principle of TV imaging based on the
vertical and horizontal electron beam sweeping under high voltage.
Nowadays this principle of the TV imaging is used practically in all
modern cathode-ray tubes. Historian and ethnographer Boris Golender
(Борис Голендер in Russian), in a video lecture,
described this event. This date of demonstration of the fully
electronic TV set is the earliest known so far. Despite this fact,
most modern historians disputably consider Vladimir Zworykin and
Philo Farnsworth as inventors of the first fully electronic TV
set. In 1964, the contribution made to the development of early
television by Grabovsky was officially acknowledged by the Uzbek
government and he was awarded the prestigious degree "Honorable
Inventor of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic".
Geography and climate
Tashkent and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Tashkent 41°18′N 69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E /
41.300; 69.267 is situated in a well-watered plain to the west of the
last Altai mountains on the road between
Shymkent and Samarkand.
Tashkent sits at the confluence of the
Chirchiq River and several of
its tributaries and is built on deep alluvial deposits up to 15 metres
(49 ft). The city is located in an active tectonic area suffering
large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes. The local time in
Tashkent is UTC/GMT +5 hours.
Tashkent features a
Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with
strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa). As a result,
Tashkent experiences cold and often snowy winters not typically
associated with most Mediterranean climates and long, hot and dry
summers. Winters are cold and often snowy, covering the months of
December, January and February. Most precipitation occurs during these
months which frequently falls as snow. The city experiences two peaks
of precipitation in the early winter and spring. The slightly unusual
precipitation pattern is partially due to its 500 m (roughly 1600
feet) altitude. Summers are long in Tashkent, usually lasting from May
Tashkent can be extremely hot during the months of July
and August. The city also sees very little precipitation during the
summer, particularly from June through September.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan,
World Meteorological Organisation
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (record low and record high
temperatures), NOAA (mean monthly sunshine hours, 1961–1990)
In 1983, the population of
Tashkent amounted to 1,902,000 people
living in a municipal area of 256 km2 (99 sq mi). By
1991, (break-up of Soviet Union) the number of permanent residents of
the capital had grown to approximately 2,136,600.
Tashkent was the
fourth most populated city in the former USSR, after Moscow, Leningrad
(St. Petersburg), and Kiev. Nowadays,
Tashkent remains the fourth most
populous city in the CIS and Baltic countries. The population of the
city was 2,295,300 people in 2004.
As of 2008[update], the demographic structure of
Tashkent was as
63.0% – Uzbeks
20.0% – Russians
4.5% – Tatars
2.2% – Koryo-saram (Koreans)
2.1% – Tajiks
1.2% – Uighurs
7.0% – other ethnic backgrounds
City districts of Tashkent
Panorama of Tashkent
Streets of Tashkent
Tashkent is currently divided into the following districts
At the time of the Tsarist take over it had four districts (Uzbek
In 1940 it had the following districts (Russian район):
By 1981 they were reorganized into:
Kuybishev (Mirzo Ulugbek)
Sobir Rakhimov (Olmazar)
Kukeldash Madrasa inner yard
Prince Romanov Palace
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Museum of Applied Arts
Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during the 1917
revolution and, later, the 1966 earthquake, little remains of
Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage.
Tashkent is, however,
rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments. They include:
Kukeldash Madrasah. Dating back to the reign of Abdullah Khan II
(1557–1598) it is currently being restored by the provincial
Religious Board of
Mawarannahr Moslems. There is talk of making it
into a museum, but it is currently being used as a madrassah.
Chorsu Bazaar, located near the Kukeldash Madrassa. This huge open air
bazaar is the center of the old town of Tashkent. Everything
imaginable is for sale.
Telyashayakh Mosque (Khast Imam Mosque). It Contains the Uthman
Qur'an, considered to be the oldest extant
Qur'an in the world. Dating
from 655 and stained with the blood of murdered caliph, Uthman, it was
Timur to Samarkand, seized by the
Russians as a war trophy
and taken to Saint Petersburg. It was returned to
Yunus Khan Mausoleum. It is a group of three 15th-century mausoleums,
restored in the 19th century. The biggest is the grave of Yunus Khan,
Mughal Empire founder Babur.
Palace of Prince Romanov. During the 19th century
Grand Duke Nikolai
Konstantinovich, a first cousin of
Alexander III of Russia
Alexander III of Russia was
Tashkent for some shady deals involving the Russian Crown
Jewels. His palace still survives in the centre of the city. Once a
museum, it has been appropriated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre, built by the same architect
Lenin's Tomb in Moscow, Aleksey Shchusev, with Japanese
prisoner of war labor in World War II. It hosts Russian ballet and
Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan. It contains a major collection of art
from the pre-Russian period, including Sogdian murals, Buddhist
Zoroastrian art, along with a more modern collection of
19th and 20th century applied art, such as suzani embroidered
hangings. Of more interest is the large collection of paintings
"borrowed" from the Hermitage by
Grand Duke Romanov to decorate his
palace in exile in Tashkent, and never returned. Behind the museum is
a small park, containing the neglected graves of the
died in the
Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 and to Osipov's treachery in
1919, along with first Uzbekistani President Yuldosh Akhunbabayev.
Museum of Applied Arts. Housed in a traditional house originally
commissioned for a wealthy tsarist diplomat, the house itself is the
main attraction, rather than its collection of 19th and 20th century
State Museum of History of
Uzbekistan the largest museum in the city.
It is housed in the ex-Lenin Museum.
Timur Museum, housed in a building with brilliant blue dome and
ornate interior. It houses exhibits of
Timur and of President Islam
Karimov. The gardens outside contain a statue of
Timur on horseback,
surrounded by some of the nicest gardens and fountains in the city.
Navoi Literary Museum, commemorating Uzbekistan's adopted literary
hero, Alisher Navoi, with replica manuscripts,
Islamic calligraphy and
15th century miniature paintings.
Russian Orthodox church in Amir Temur Square, built in 1898, was
demolished in 2009. The building had not been allowed to be used for
religious purposes since the 1920s due to the anti-religious campaign
conducted across the former
Soviet Union by the Bolshevik (communist)
government in Moscow. During the Soviet period the building was used
for different non-religious purposes; after independence it was a
Tashkent also has a World War II memorial park and a Defender of
Most important scientific institutions of Uzbekistan, such as the
Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, are located in Tashkent. There are
several universities and institutions of higher education:
Tashkent Automobile & Road Construction Institute
Tashkent State Technical University
Tashkent Institute of Architecture and Construction
Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration
International Business School Kelajak Ilmi
Tashkent University of Information Technologies
Westminster International University in Tashkent
Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent
National University of Uzbekistan
University of World Economy and Diplomacy
Tashkent State Economic University
Tashkent State Institute of Law
Tashkent Institute of Finance
State University of Foreign Languages
Conservatory of Music
Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute
Tashkent State Medicine Academy
Institute of Oriental Studies
Tashkent Islamic University
Management Development Institute of
Singapore in Tashkent
Tashkent Institute of Textile and Light Industry
Tashkent Institute of Railway Transport Engineers
National Institute of Arts and Design named after Kamaleddin Bekhzod
Inha University Tashkent
Uzbek language newspapers, four in English, and nine publications
Several television and cable television facilities, including Tashkent
Tower, the tallest structure in Central Asia
Moreover, there are digital broadcasting systems available in Tashkent
which is unique in Central Asia.
Tashkent Railway Station
Tashkent International Airport
Tashkent International Airport is the largest in the country,
connecting the city to Asia, Europe and North American continents.
Samarkand high-speed rail line
Trolleybus system was closed down in 2010.
Tram transport end at 1 May 2016.
Entertainment and shopping
There are several shopping malls in
Tashkent which are good both for
entertainment and shopping. These include Next, Samarqand Darvoza and
Kontinent shopping malls.
Next mall is very popular among families and prominent for its Science
Lab for kids, Dinosaur’s museum, Ice Rink and Cinema.
Samarqand Darvoza offers a wide range of entertaining including
Playground for kids, Game area, bowling and convenient multilayer
parking place. It is a good place for kids’ birthday parties and
Kontinent Mall is conveniently located next to the Grand Mir Hotel. It
is a smaller place but combines a variety of dining options such as
diet cafe, fast food court and a bar.
Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the
Uzbekistan national football team,
is from Tashkent.
Football is the most popular sport in Tashkent, with the most
prominent football clubs being
FC Pakhtakor Tashkent
FC Pakhtakor Tashkent and FC Bunyodkor,
both of which compete in the Uzbek League. Footballers Maksim
Peter Odemwingie and
Vassilis Hatzipanagis were born in the
Djamolidine Abdoujaparov was born in the city, while tennis
Denis Istomin was raised there.
Akgul Amanmuradova and Iroda
Tulyaganova are notable female tennis players from Tashkent.
Alina Kabayeva and Israeli Olympian
Alexander Shatilov were
also born in the city.
Former world champion and Israeli Olympic bronze medalist sprint
canoer in the K-1 500 m event
Michael Kolganov was also born in
Vasilis Hatzipanagis, Greek international footballer
Hakim Karimovich Zaripov, circus performer
Tursunoy Saidazimova, singer
Ravshan Irmatov, football referee
Twin towns – sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Uzbekistan
Tashkent is twinned with:
Seattle, Washington, United States
Seoul, South Korea
Gates of Tashkent
^ "Official website portal of
Tashkent City". Tashkent.uz. 2013-11-18.
^ "Юбилей Ташкента. Такое бывает только
раз в 2200 лет". Фергана - международное
агентство новостей. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese," Asia
Major 9 (1963), p. 94.
^ Dean, Riaz (2015). "The Location of Ptolemy's Stone Tower: the Case
for Sulaiman-Too in Osh". The Silk Road. 13: 76.
^ "Fly to
Tashkent with the Best Airfare". futurevacation.com.
2008-04-19. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
^ Bichurin, 1950. v. II
^ Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, Indiana
University Press, 2007, p188
^ Rex A. Wade, The Russian Revolution, 1917, Cambridge University
^ Robert K. Shirer, "Johannes R. Becher 1891–1958", Encyclopedia of
German Literature, Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers,
2000, by permission at Digital Commons, University of Nebraska,
accessed 3 February 2013
^ Edward Allworth (1994), Central Asia, 130 years of Russian
dominance: a historical overview, Duke University Press, p. 102.
^ a b c d Sadikov, A C; Akramob Z. M.; Bazarbaev, A.; Mirzlaev T.M.;
Adilov S. R.; Baimukhamedov X. N.; et al. (1984). Geographical Atlas
Tashkent (Ташкент Географический Атлас)
(in Russian) (2 ed.). Moscow. pp. 60, 64.
^ Nurtaev Bakhtiar (1998). "Damage for buildings of different type".
Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of
Uzbekistan. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
^ "Good bye the
Tashkent Public Garden!". Ferghana.Ru. 23 November
2009. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
Moscow News – World –
Tashkent Touts Islamic University".
Mnweekly.ru. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April
2008. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
^ "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 16
^ Invention of television and
Boris Grabovsky (in Russian)
^ Invention of the iconoscope, the first electronic television camera
^ K. Krull, The boy who invented TV: The story of Philo Farnsworth,
^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Tashkent". World
Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
^ "Exploring the Cities of Uzbekistan". expatify.com. 2010-06-10.
^ a b Updated Asian map of the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system
Tashkent Travel. "
Tashkent weather forecast". Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Retrieved 11 June 2009.
^ Happy-Tellus.com. "Tashkent,
Uzbekistan travel information".
Helsinki, Finland: Infocenter International Ltd. Retrieved 11 June
^ "Climate Data for Tashkent". Centre of Hydrometeorological Service.
Retrieved 28 November 2012.
^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tashkent" (in Russian). Weather
and Climate. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
Tashkent Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
^ "ТАШКЕНТ (город)". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved
^ a b c (in Russian) Statistics of the subdivisions of Tashkent
^ MacWilliams, Ian (5 January 2006). "Tashkent's hidden Islamic
relic". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
^ Smele, Jonathan D. (20 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the
Russian Civil Wars, 1916–1926. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 58.
ISBN 978-1442252806. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
^ uznews.net, Tashkent's central park is history, 25 November 2009
^ Army memorial dismantled in Tashkent, 24 November 2009
^ Ferghana.ru, МИД России указал послу
Узбекистана на обеспокоенность
«Наших», 16 January 2010 (in Russian)
^ "Sports-reference.com". Sports-reference.com. 1974-10-24. Retrieved
Berlin – City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister
Berlin. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved
Seoul – Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]".
Government (archived 2012-04-25). Retrieved 2013-08-23. [dead
^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities".
Government. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved
26 January 2008.
Museum of Fine Arts
See also: Bibliography of the history of Tashkent
Stronski, Paul, Tashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930–1966
(Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010).
Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, 1865–1923
(Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2010).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tashkent.
Tashkent travel guide from Wikivoyage
All about capital of
Uzbekistan – Tashkent
Photos of historical monuments and modern buildings in Tashkent
Recent photos of
Tashkent with comments in English
Disability Information Resource Centre in Tashkent
Tashkent Directory[permanent dead link]
 – Demographics (Taken from the Russian version of this
Districts of Tashkent
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
North and Central Asia
West and Southwest Asia
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Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
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Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Flying Fish Cove,
Christmas Island (Australia)
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West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
Regions of Uzbekistan
Autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan
Capital city: Tashkent
Cities of Uzbekistan
Districts and seats
Bekabad District (Zafar)
Bostanliq District (Gazalkent)
Buka District (Buka)
Chinaz District (Chinaz)
Qibray District (Qibray)
Okhangaron District (Okhangaron)
Oqqurgan District (Oqqurgan)
Parkent District (Parkent)
Piskent District (Piskent)
Chirchiq District (Dustobod)
Chirchiq District (Toytepa)
Yangiyol District (Gulbakhor)
Chirchiq District (Yangibozor)
Zangiata District (Keles)
Coordinates: 41°16′N 69°13′E / 41.267°N 69.217°E /