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The Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
( Marmota
Marmota
sibirica) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is found in China
China
( Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Heilongjiang), northern and western Mongolia, and Russia
Russia
(southwest Siberia, Tuva, Transbaikalia).[2] In the Mongolian Altai the range overlaps with that of the Gray marmot.[3] The species was classified as endangered by the IUCN
IUCN
in 2008.[1] Two subspecies are distinguished:[2]

M. s. sibirica M. s. caliginosus

Contents

1 As a game animal 2 As a disease carrier 3 References 4 Further reading

As a game animal[edit] The tarbagan marmot has been eaten for centuries in the native cuisine of Mongolia, and in particular are used to make a dish called boodog. The meat is cooked by inserting hot stones, preheated in a fire, into the abdominal cavity of a deboned marmot. The skin is then tied up to make a bag within which the meat cooks.[4] Hunting of marmots for food is typically done in autumn when the animals are heavier since they are preparing for hibernation.[5] The Russian explorer Richard Maack, who encountered tarbagans in the Ingoda Valley in Siberia, described the tarbagan hunt as follows: [6]

Hunting the tarbagan is quite difficult. It is not easy to approach to a tarbagan within a rifle shot; besides, the wary animal never goes far from its burrow, and, if it is not killed right away, always manage to hide in the burrow. In that case one needs to dig it out, which involves a lot of labor, as tarbagans' burrows are quite deep.

As a disease carrier[edit] Epizootics of the plague have been considered to occur in tarbagan marmots in northeastern China
China
and Mongolia, but the research for whether the tarbagan was actually carrier to humans is inconclusive.[7][8] The plague in marmots is of the pneumonic form, spread by marmots coughing.[9] It was debated whether the plague can jump from marmots to human through the bite of the tarbagan flea (Ceratophyllus silantievi), or through consumption of meat.[10][8] Marmot
Marmot
epizootics are known to co-occur with human epidemics in the same area.[8] Human plague epidemics in this area are largely pneumonic plague, one of the most deadly forms of plague.[8][11] References[edit]

^ a b Batbold, J.; Batsaikhan, N.; Tsytsulina, K. & Sukchuluun, G. (2008). " Marmota
Marmota
sibirica". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.  ^ a b Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Rogovin, Konstantin A. (1992). "Habitat use by two species of Mongolian marmots ( Marmota
Marmota
sibirica and M. baibacina) in a zone of sympatry'" (PDF). Acta Theriologica. 37 (4): 345–350. doi:10.4098/at.arch.92-35.  ^ "Boodog: Hot Stones in Stomach". Cuisine of Mongolia. Retrieved 2009-11-27.  ^ Carole, Pegg (2001). Mongolian music, dance, and oral narrative. University of Washington Press. p. 294. ISBN 0-295-98030-3.  ^ Maack, Richard Karlovich (Ричард Карлович Маак) (1859), Путешествие на Амур, совершенное по распоряжению Сибирскаго Отдѣла Императорскаго Русскаго Географическаго Общества, в 1855 году: Один том, с портретом графа Муравьева-Амурскаго и с отдѣлельным собранием рисунков, карт и планов (The travel to the Amur, carried out on orders of the Siberian Division of the Russian Imperial Georgraphic Society in 1855...), Изд. члена-соревнователя Сибирскаго отдѣла С. Ф. Соловьева, p. 31  ^ Wu Lien-teh, "First Report of the North Manchurian Plague Prevention Service", 1913 ^ a b c d Elton, C.S. (1925). "Plague and the Regulation of Numbers in Wild Mammals". Journal of Hygiene. 24 (2): 138–163. doi:10.1017/S0022172400008652. PMC 2167669 . PMID 20474858.  ^ Kelly, John (2006). The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. HarperCollins. p. 300. ISBN 0-06-000693-5. OCLC 68437303.  ^ Wu ^ "Plague breaks out in China's Tibet". The Sydney Morning Herald. September 26, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Thorington, R. W. Jr. and R. S. Hoffman. 2005. Family Sciuridae. pp. 754–818 in Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

v t e

Living species of tribe Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Order: Rodentia  Suborder: Sciuromorpha  Family: Sciuridae  Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

Harris's antelope squirrel
Harris's antelope squirrel
(A. harrisii)  Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis)  Texas antelope squirrel
Texas antelope squirrel
(A. interpres)  White-tailed antelope squirrel
White-tailed antelope squirrel
(A. leucurus)  San Joaquin antelope squirrel
San Joaquin antelope squirrel
(A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. lateralis)  Sierra Madre ground squirrel
Sierra Madre ground squirrel
(C. madrensis)  Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

Gunnison's prairie dog
Gunnison's prairie dog
(C. gunnisoni)  White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus)  Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus)  Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
(C. mexicanus)  Utah prairie dog
Utah prairie dog
(C. parvidens)

Eutamias

Siberian chipmunk
Siberian chipmunk
(E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

Mexican ground squirrel
Mexican ground squirrel
(I. mexicanus)  I. parvidens  Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
(I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots)

Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot
Gray marmot
(M. baibacina) 

Bobak marmot
Bobak marmot
(M. bobak)  Alaska marmot
Alaska marmot
(M. broweri)  Black-capped marmot
Black-capped marmot
(M. camtschatica)  Long-tailed marmot
Long-tailed marmot
(M. caudata)  Himalayan marmot
Himalayan marmot
(M. himalayana)  Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(M. marmota)  Menzbier's marmot
Menzbier's marmot
(M. menzbieri)  Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)  Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
(M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata)  Yellow-bellied marmot
Yellow-bellied marmot
(M. flaviventris)  Olympic marmot
Olympic marmot
(M. olympus)  Vancouver Island marmot
Vancouver Island marmot
(M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

Alpine chipmunk
Alpine chipmunk
(N. alpinus)  Yellow-pine chipmunk
Yellow-pine chipmunk
(N. amoenus)  Buller's chipmunk
Buller's chipmunk
(N. bulleri)  Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes)  Gray-collared chipmunk
Gray-collared chipmunk
(N. cinereicollis)  Cliff chipmunk
Cliff chipmunk
(N. dorsalis)  Durango chipmunk
Durango chipmunk
(N. durangae)  Merriam's chipmunk
Merriam's chipmunk
(N. merriami)  Least chipmunk
Least chipmunk
(N. minimus)  California chipmunk
California chipmunk
(N. obscurus)  Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
(N. ochrogenys)  Palmer's chipmunk
Palmer's chipmunk
(N. palmeri)  Panamint chipmunk
Panamint chipmunk
(N. panamintinus)  Long-eared chipmunk
Long-eared chipmunk
(N. quadrimaculatus)  Colorado chipmunk
Colorado chipmunk
(N. quadrivittatus)  Red-tailed chipmunk
Red-tailed chipmunk
(N. ruficaudus)  Hopi chipmunk
Hopi chipmunk
(N. rufus)  Allen's chipmunk
Allen's chipmunk
(N. senex)  Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
(N. siskiyou)  Sonoma chipmunk
Sonoma chipmunk
(N. sonomae)  Lodgepole chipmunk
Lodgepole chipmunk
(N. speciosus)  Townsend's chipmunk
Townsend's chipmunk
(N. townsendii)  Uinta chipmunk
Uinta chipmunk
(N. umbrinus)

Notocitellus

Tropical ground squirrel
Tropical ground squirrel
(N. adocetus)  Ring-tailed ground squirrel
Ring-tailed ground squirrel
(N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

Baja California rock squirrel
Baja California rock squirrel
(O. atricapillus)  California ground squirrel
California ground squirrel
(O. beecheyi)  Rock squirrel
Rock squirrel
(O. variegatus)

Poliocitellus

Franklin's ground squirrel
Franklin's ground squirrel
(P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

Père David's rock squirrel
Père David's rock squirrel
(S. davidianus)  Forrest's rock squirrel
Forrest's rock squirrel
(S. forresti)

Spermophilus
Spermophilus
sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

Alashan ground squirrel
Alashan ground squirrel
(S. alashanicus)  S. brevicauda  European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus)  Daurian ground squirrel
Daurian ground squirrel
(S. dauricus)  Red-cheeked ground squirrel
Red-cheeked ground squirrel
(S. erythrogenys)  Yellow ground squirrel
Yellow ground squirrel
(S. fulvus)  Russet ground squirrel
Russet ground squirrel
(S. major)  S. pallicauda  Little ground squirrel
Little ground squirrel
(S. pygmaeus)  S. ralli  S. relictus  Speckled ground squirrel
Speckled ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
suslicus)  Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
taurensis)  Asia Minor ground squirrel
Asia Minor ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
xanthoprymnus)

Tamias

Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

Uinta ground squirrel
Uinta ground squirrel
(U. armatus)  Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel
(U. beldingi)  Northern Idaho ground squirrel
Northern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. brunneus)  Southern Idaho ground squirrel
Southern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. endemicus)  Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
(U. canus)  Columbian ground squirrel
Columbian ground squirrel
(U. columbianus)  Wyoming ground squirrel
Wyoming ground squirrel
(U. elegans)  Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
(U. mollis)  Arctic ground squirrel
Arctic ground squirrel
(U. parryii)  Richardson's ground squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel
(U. richardsonii)  Townsend's ground squirrel
Townsend's ground squirrel
(U. townsendii)  Washington ground squirrel
Washington ground squirrel
(U. washingtoni)  Long-tailed ground squirrel
Long-tailed ground squirrel
(U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

Mohave ground squirrel
Mohave ground squirrel
(X. mohavensis)  Perote ground squirrel
Perote ground squirrel
(X. perotensis)  Spotted ground squirrel
Spotted ground squirrel
(X. spilosoma)  Round-tailed ground squirrel
Round-tailed ground squirrel
(X. tereticaudus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1251864 ADW: Marmota_sibirica EoL: 311622 EPPO: MAROSI GBIF: 2437372 iNaturalist: 46080 ITIS: 632385 IUCN: 12832 MSW: 12400967

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