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THE TAOISEACH (/ˈtiːʃəx/ (_ listen ), pl._ TAOISIGH /ˈtiːʃi/ ; Irish pronunciation: ) is the head of government (prime minister ) of Ireland . An Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann , the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament), and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.

Leo Varadkar TD is the current Taoiseach, taking office on 14 June 2017, following his election as leader of Fine Gael on 2 June 2017. Taking office at age 38, Varadkar is the youngest Taoiseach in the history of the Irish state, and the first openly LGBT person and the first person of Indian descent to lead the Irish government.

The word means "chieftain" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister". Taoiseach is the official title of the head of government in both English and Irish. Outside of Ireland, An Taoiseach is often referred to as the "Prime Minister of Ireland".

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 1.1 Salary * 1.2 Residence

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins and etymology * 2.2 Debate on the title * 2.3 Modern office

* 3 List of office holders

* 3.1 President of the Executive Council * 3.2 Taoiseach

* 4 Timeline * 5 Living former officeholders * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References

* 9 Further reading

* 9.1 Biographies

* 10 External links

OVERVIEW

Under the Constitution of Ireland , An Taoiseach is nominated by a simple majority of Dáil Éireann from among its members. He/she is then formally appointed to office by the President, who is required to appoint whomever the Dáil designates, without the option of declining to make the appointment. For this reason, it is often said that An Taoiseach is "elected" by Dáil Éireann.

If An Taoiseach loses the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann, he/she is not automatically removed from office but, rather, is compelled _either_ to resign _or_ to persuade the President to dissolve the Dáil. The President may refuse to grant a dissolution and, in effect, force An Taoiseach to resign, but, to date, no president has exercised this prerogative, though the option arose in 1944 and 1994 and twice in 1982. An Taoiseach may lose the support of Dáil Éireann by the passage of a vote of no confidence , or the failure of a vote of confidence; or alternatively, the Dáil may refuse _supply _. In the event of the Taoiseach's resignation, he/she continues to exercise the duties and functions of his/her office until the appointment of a successor.

An Taoiseach nominates the remaining members of the Government , who are then, with the consent of the Dáil, appointed by the President. An Taoiseach also has authority to advise the President to dismiss cabinet ministers from office, advice the President is required to follow by convention. An Taoiseach is further responsible for appointing eleven members of the Seanad .

The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department which supports and advises An Taoiseach in carrying out his/her various duties.

SALARY

Since 2013, the Taoiseach's annual salary is €185,350. It was cut from €214,187 to €200,000 when Kenny took office, before being cut further to €185,350 under the Haddington Road Agreement in 2013.

A proposed increase of €38,000 in 2007 was deferred when Brian Cowen became Taoiseach and in October 2008, the government announced a 10% salary cut for all ministers, including the Taoiseach. However this was a voluntary cut and the salaries remained nominally the same with ministers and An Taoiseach essentially refusing 10% of their salary. This courted controversy in December 2009 when a salary cut of 20% was based on the higher figure before the refused amount was deducted. An Taoiseach is also allowed an additional €118,981 in annual expenses.

RESIDENCE

There is no official residence of the Taoiseach. In 2008 it was reported speculatively that the former Steward\'s Lodge at Farmleigh adjoining the Phoenix Park would become the official residence of the Taoiseach; however no official statements were made nor any action taken. The house, which forms part of the Farmleigh estate acquired by the State in 1999 for €29.2m, was renovated at a cost of nearly €600,000 in 2005 by the Office of Public Works . Former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern did not use it as a residence, but his successor Brian Cowen used it "from time to time".

HISTORY

ORIGINS AND ETYMOLOGY

The words _Taoiseach_ (Irish pronunciation: ) and _ Tánaiste _ (the title of the deputy prime minister) are both from the Irish language and of ancient origin. Though An Taoiseach is described in the Constitution of Ireland as "the head of the Government or Prime Minister", its literal translation is _chieftain_ or _leader_. Although Éamon de Valera , who introduced the title in 1937, was neither a Fascist nor a dictator , it has sometimes been remarked that the meaning _leader_ in 1937 made the title similar to the titles of Fascist dictators of the time, such as _Führer_ ( Hitler ), _Duce_ ( Mussolini ) and _Caudillo_ (Franco ). Tánaiste in turn refers to the system of tanistry , the Gaelic system of succession whereby a leader would appoint an heir apparent while still living.

In Scottish Gaelic , _tòiseach_ translates as clan chief and both words originally had similar meaning in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland. The related Welsh language word _tywysog _ (current meaning: _prince_) has a similar origin and meaning. It is hypothesized that both derive ultimately from the proto-Celtic *_towissākos_ "chieftain, leader".

The plural of _taoiseach_ is _taoisigh_ (Irish: ).

Although the Irish form _An Taoiseach_ is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach", the English version of the Constitution states that he or she "shall be called ... the Taoiseach".

DEBATE ON THE TITLE

In 1937 when the draft Constitution of Ireland was being debated in the Dáil , Frank MacDermot , an opposition politician, moved an amendment to substitute "Prime Minister" for the proposed "Taoiseach" title in the English text of the Constitution. It was proposed to keep the "Taoiseach" title in the Irish language text. The proponent remarked:

It seems to me to be mere make-believe to try to incorporate a word like "Taoiseach" in the English language. It would be pronounced wrongly by 99 percent of the people. I have already ascertained it is a very difficult word to pronounce correctly. That being so, even for the sake of the dignity of the Irish language, it would be more sensible that when speaking English we should be allowed to refer to the gentleman in question as the Prime Minister... It is just one more example of the sort of things that are being done here as if for the purpose of putting off the people in the North . No useful purpose of any kind can be served by compelling us, when speaking English, to refer to An Taoiseach rather than to the Prime Minister.

The President of the Executive Council, Éamon de Valera, gave the term's meaning as "chieftain" or "Captain". He said he was "not disposed" to support the proposed amendment and felt the word "Taoiseach" did not need to be changed. The proposed amendment was defeated on a vote and "Taoiseach" was included as the title ultimately adopted by plebiscite of the people .

MODERN OFFICE

Department of An Taoiseach at Government Buildings , Merrion Street , Dublin

The modern position of Taoiseach was established by the 1937 Constitution of Ireland , to replace the position of President of the Executive Council of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State . The positions of Taoiseach and President of the Executive Council differed in certain fundamental respects. Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State , the latter was vested with considerably less power and was largely just the chairman of the cabinet, the Executive Council . For example, the President of the Executive Council could not dismiss a fellow minister. Instead, the Executive Council had to be disbanded and reformed entirely in order to remove one of its number. The President of the Executive Council could also not personally ask the Governor-General to dissolve Dáil Éireann, that power belonging collectively to the Executive Council.

In contrast, An Taoiseach created in 1937 possesses a much more powerful role. He can both advise the President to dismiss ministers and dissolve Parliament on his own authority—advice that the President is almost always required to follow by convention. His role is greatly enhanced because under the Constitution, he is both _de jure_ and _de facto_ chief executive, since the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Government. In most other parliamentary democracies, the head of state is at least the nominal chief executive.

Historically, where there have been multi-party or coalition governments, An Taoiseach has come from the leader of the largest party in the coalition. One exception to this was John A. Costello , who was not leader of his party, but an agreed choice to head the government, because the other parties refused to accept then Fine Gael leader Richard Mulcahy as Taoiseach.

LIST OF OFFICE HOLDERS

Main articles: Irish heads of government since 1919 and Records of Irish heads of government since 1922

Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution , the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council . This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera of Fianna Fáil from 1932–37. By convention, Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave; for example, Leo Varadkar is considered the 14th Taoiseach, not the 13th.

PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

NO. PORTRAIT Name (Birth–Death) Constituency TERM OF OFFICE PARTY Exec. Council Composition VICE PRESIDENT Dáil (elected)

1

W. T. COSGRAVE (1880–1965) TD for Carlow–Kilkenny until 1927 TD for Cork Borough from 1927 6 December 1922 9 March 1932 Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty) 1st SF(PT) (minority)

Kevin O\'Higgins 3 (1922 )

Cumann na nGaedheal 2nd CnG (minority) 4 (1923 )

3rd Ernest Blythe 5 (Jun.1927 )

4th 6 (Sep.1927 )

5th

2

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 9 March 1932 29 December 1937 Fianna Fáil 6th FF (minority)

Seán T. O\'Kelly 7 (1932 )

7th 8 (1933 )

8th 9 (1937 )

TAOISEACH

NO. PORTRAIT Name (Birth–Death) Constituency TERM OF OFFICE PARTY Government Composition TáNAISTE Dáil (elected)

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 29 December 1937 18 February 1948 Fianna Fáil 1st FF (minority)

Seán T. O\'Kelly 9 ( ···· )

2nd FF 10 (1938 )

3rd FF (minority) 11 (1943 )

4th FF

Seán Lemass 12 (1944 )

3

JOHN A. COSTELLO (1891–1976) TD for Dublin South-East 18 February 1948 13 June 1951 Fine Gael 5th FG -Lab -CnP -CnT -NL

William Norton 13 (1948 )

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 13 June 1951 2 June 1954 Fianna Fáil 6th FF (minority)

Seán Lemass 14 (1951 )

(3)

JOHN A. COSTELLO (1891–1976) TD for Dublin South-East 2 June 1954 20 March 1957 Fine Gael 7th FG -Lab -CnT

William Norton 15 (1954 )

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 20 March 1957 23 June 1959 Fianna Fáil 8th FF

Seán Lemass 16 (1957 )

4

SEáN LEMASS (1899–1971) TD for Dublin South-Central 23 June 1959 10 November 1966 Fianna Fáil 9th FF

Seán MacEntee

10th FF (minority) 17 (1961 )

11th FF

Frank Aiken 18 (1965 )

5

JACK LYNCH (1917–1999) TD for Cork Borough until 1969 TD for Cork City North-West from 1969 10 November 1966 14 March 1973 Fianna Fáil 12th FF

13th FF

Erskine H. Childers 19 (1969 )

6

LIAM COSGRAVE (1920–) TD for Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown 14 March 1973 5 July 1977 Fine Gael 14th FG -Lab

Brendan Corish 20 (1973 )

(5)

JACK LYNCH (1917–1999) TD for Cork City 5 July 1977 11 December 1979 Fianna Fáil 15th FF

George Colley 21 (1977 )

7

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin Artane 11 December 1979 30 June 1981 Fianna Fáil 16th FF

8

GARRET FITZGERALD (1926–2011) TD for Dublin South-East 30 June 1981 9 March 1982 Fine Gael 17th FG -Lab (minority)

Michael O\'Leary 22 (1981 )

(7)

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin North-Central 9 March 1982 14 December 1982 Fianna Fáil 18th FF (minority)

Ray MacSharry 23 (Feb.1982 )

(8)

GARRET FITZGERALD (1926–2011) TD for Dublin South-East 14 December 1982 10 March 1987 Fine Gael 19th FG -Lab FG (minority) from Jan 1987 Dick Spring 24 (Nov.1982 )

Peter Barry

(7)

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin North-Central 10 March 1987 11 February 1992 Fianna Fáil 20th FF (minority)

Brian Lenihan 25 (1987 )

21st FF -PD 26 (1989 )

John P. Wilson

9

ALBERT REYNOLDS (1932–2014) TD for Longford–Roscommon 11 February 1992 15 December 1994 Fianna Fáil 22nd FF -PD

23rd FF -Lab FF (minority) from Nov 1994 Dick Spring 27 (1992 )

Bertie Ahern

10

JOHN BRUTON (1947–) TD for Meath 15 December 1994 26 June 1997 Fine Gael 24th FG -Lab -DL

Dick Spring

11

BERTIE AHERN (1951–) TD for Dublin Central 26 June 1997 7 May 2008 Fianna Fáil 25th FF -PD -Ind

Mary Harney 28 (1997 )

26th FF -PD 29 (2002 )

Michael McDowell

27th FF -Green -PD -Ind

Brian Cowen 30 (2007 )

12

BRIAN COWEN (1960–) TD for Laois–Offaly 7 May 2008 9 March 2011 Fianna Fáil 28th FF -Green -PD -Ind FF -Green -Ind from Nov 2009 FF (minority) from Jan 2011 Mary Coughlan

13

ENDA KENNY (1951–) TD for Mayo 9 March 2011 14 June 2017 Fine Gael 29th FG -Lab

Eamon Gilmore 31 (2011 )

Joan Burton

30th FG -Ind (minority)

Frances Fitzgerald 32 (2016 )

14

LEO VARADKAR (1979–) TD for Dublin West 14 June 2017 Incumbent Fine Gael 31st FG -Ind (minority)

TIMELINE

LIVING FORMER OFFICEHOLDERS

There are five living former taoisigh:

TAOISEACH TERM OF OFFICE DATE OF BIRTH

Liam Cosgrave 1973–1977 (1920-04-13) 13 April 1920 (age 97)

John Bruton 1994–1997 (1947-05-18) 18 May 1947 (age 70)

Bertie Ahern 1997–2008 (1951-09-12) 12 September 1951 (age 65)

Brian Cowen 2008–2011 (1960-01-10) 10 January 1960 (age 57)

Enda Kenny 2011–2017 (1951-04-24) 24 April 1951 (age 66)

Cosgrave currently holds the record for having the longest post-premiership of any Taoiseach (currently 7004146340000000000♠40 years, 24 days).

SEE ALSO

* Politics of the Republic of Ireland * Records of Irish heads of government since 1922 * Irish heads of government since 1919

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland , the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council . This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera from 1932–37. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Article 13.1.1° and Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland . The latter provision reads: "The head of the Government, or Prime Minister, shall be called, and is in this Constitution referred to as, the Taoiseach." * ^ One example of the Dáil refusing supply occurred in January 1982 when the then Fine Gael – Labour Party coalition government of Garret FitzGerald lost a vote on the budget. * ^ John Frederick Vaughan Campbell Cawdor (1742). Innes Cosmo, ed. _The book of the thanes of Cawdor: a series of papers selected from the charter room at Cawdor. 1236–1742, Volume 1236, Issue 1742_. Spalding Club . p. xiii. Retrieved 23 June 2013. As we cannot name the first Celtic chieftain who consented to change his style of Toshach and his patriarchal sway for the title and stability of King's Thane of Cawdor, so it is impossible to fix the precise time when their ancient property and offices were acquired. * ^ "Tartan Details - Toshach". Scottish Register of Tartans . Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. Toshach is an early Celtic title given to minor territorial chiefs in Scotland (note Eire Prime Minister's official title is this). * ^ John Thomas Koch (2006), _Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia_, ABC-CLIO, p. 1062, ISBN 1851094407 , An early word meaning 'leader' appears on a 5th- or 6th-century inscribed stone as both ogam Irish and British genitive TOVISACI: _tywysog_ now means 'prince' in Welsh, the regular descriptive title used for Prince Charles, for example; while in Ireland, the corresponding _Taoiseach_ is now the correct title, in both Irish and English, for the Prime Minister of the Irish Republic (Éire). * ^ Among the most famous ministerial dismissals have been those of Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney during the Arms Crisis in 1970, Brian Lenihan in 1990 and Albert Reynolds , Pádraig Flynn and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn in 1991. * ^ Cosgrave also headed the Irish Government from August 22, 1922, during the transitional period before the state became officially independent on December 6, 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919 ). * ^ De Valera also headed the pre-independence revolutionary Irish Government from 1 April 1919 to 9 January 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919 ).

REFERENCES

* ^ Oireachtas, Houses of the. "Salaries, Houses of the Oireachtas". _www.oireachtas.ie_. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ "Taoiseach: definition of Taoiseach in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". _Oxford Language Dictionaries_. Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ "Finance and Expenditure combined as Cabinet is named". RTÉ News . 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ " Leo Varadkar voted leader of Fine Gael". Irish Times . Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ "The Taoiseach, Ministers and every TD are having their pay cut today". _TheJournal.ie_. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. * ^ " Taoiseach to receive €38k pay rise". RTÉ News . 25 October 2007. * ^ "Sharp exchanges in Dáil over Budget". RTÉ News . 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2009. * ^ "Opposition says Lenihan\'s salary cuts do not add up". _Irish Independent _. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009. * ^ "Opulent Phoenix Park lodge is set to become \'Fortress Cowen\'". _ Irish Independent _. 18 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008. * ^ "Cowen questioned on use of Farmleigh". _The Irish Times _. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Youth Zone School Pack" (PDF). _Department of the Taoiseach _. Retrieved 23 June 2010. * ^ John-Paul McCarthy (10 January 2010). "WT became the most ruthless of them all". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 November 2016. While Taoiseach itself carried with it some initially unpleasant assonances with Caudillo, Fuhrer and Duce, all but one of the 12 men who wielded the prime ministerial sceptre have managed to keep their megalomaniacal tendencies in check. * ^ Martin Quigley, Jr (1944). _Great Gaels: Ireland at Peace in a World at War_. p. 18. Retrieved 22 November 2016. Eamon de Valera is An Taoiseach or “boss Gael.” That title goes considerably beyond the English “prime minister” or the American “president.” It is the Gaelic equivalent of the German “Fuehrer,” the Italian “Duce” and the Spanish “Caudillo. Published in New York, 1944 (publisher not identified); Original from University of Minnesota ; Digitized 6 May 2016 * ^ _Administration - Volume 18_. Institute of Public Administration (Ireland). 1970. p. 153. Retrieved 22 November 2016. ... and let alone the names of the Prime Minister (the Taoiseach, a word that is related to Duce, Fuhrer, and Caudillo) (translated from the original Irish : ... agus fiú amháin ainmeacha an Phríomh-Aire (An Taoiseach, focal go bhfuil gaol aige le Duce, Fuhrer, agus Caudillo) Original from the University of California ; Digitized 6 Dec 2016 * ^ E. William Robertson (2004). _Scotland Under Her Early Kings: A History of the Kingdom to the Close of the Thirteenth Century Part One_. Kessinger Publishing . p. 32. ISBN 9781417946075 . Retrieved 28 June 2013. * ^ "DSL - SND1 TOISEACH". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. * ^ "Statement by An Taoiseach on the death of Cardinal Desmond Connell". Department of the Taoiseach. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017. The Taoiseach has learnt with regret ... * ^ Frank Mr. MacDermot of the Centre Party (Ireland) - Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) - Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 67 No. 9. * ^ - Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) - Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 67 No. 9. * ^ "Coughlan new Tánaiste in Cowen Cabinet". _The Irish Times _. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ " Taoiseach reveals new front bench". RTÉ News . 7 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ "Cowen confirmed as Taoiseach". _BreakingNews.ie_. 7 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ "Former Taoisigh". _Department of the Taoiseach_. Retrieved 23 June 2010. * ^ "Kenny\'s farewell: \'This has never been about me\'". RTÉ News . 13 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.

* ^ Lord, Miriam (8 June 2017). "Taoiseach-in-waiting meets man waiting to be taoiseach". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 June 2017. Latest round of negotiations shouldn’t be too taxing for newly installed FG chief ... Now it’s Leo Varadkar’s turn to do the hosting. Barring a major upset (and none is expected) he will become taoiseach next Wednesday. Most people thought it would happen a day earlier, but that was before a departing Enda Kenny shouted “See you next Tuesday” to Leo and Micheál Martin, and they hadn’t the heart to deny him.

Long goodbyes to Enda He didn’t get a proper official send-off last week, so he will have one next week. This will allow Leo take a good run at announcing himself and his new cabinet the following day, without the long goodbyes to Enda dragging proceedings to some ungodly hour.

FURTHER READING

The book _Chairman or Chief: The Role of the Taoiseach in Irish Government (1971)_ by Brian Farrell provides a good overview of the conflicting roles for the Taoiseach. Though long out of print, it may still be available in libraries or from AbeBooks. Biographies are also available of de Valera, Lemass, Lynch, Cosgrave, FitzGerald, Haughey, Reynolds and Ahern. FitzGerald wrote an autobiography, while an authorised biography was produced of de Valera. There is a chapter by Garret FitzGerald on the role of the Taoiseach in a festschrift to Brian Farrell. There is a chapter by Eoin O'Malley on the Taoiseach and cabinet in 'Governing Ireland: From cabinet government to delegated governance'(Eoin O'Malley and Muiris MacCarthaigh eds.) Dublin: IPA 2012.

* "David Gwynn Morgan: What exactly is a caretaker taoiseach?", _The Irish Times_, 8 March 2016

BIOGRAPHIES

Some biographies of former Taoisigh and Presidents of the Executive Council

* Tim Pat Coogan, _Éamon de Valera_ * John Horgan, _Seán Lemass_ * Brian Farrell, _Seán Lemass_ * T. P. O'Mahony, _Jack Lynch: A Biography_ * T. Ryle Dwyer, _Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch_ * Stephen Collins, _The Cosgrave legacy_ * Garret FitzGerald, _All in a Life_ * Garret FitzGerald, "Just Garret: Tales from the Political Frontline" * Raymond Smith, _Garret: The Enigma_ * T. Ryle Dwyer, _Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles Haughey_ * Martin Mansergh, _Spirit of the Nation: The Collected Speeches of Haughey_ * Joe Joyce ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Taoisigh of Ireland

* Éamon de Valera * John A. Costello * Seán Lemass * Jack Lynch * Liam Cosgrave * Charles Haughey * Garret FitzGerald * Albert Reynolds * John Bruton * Bertie Ahern * Brian Cowen * Enda Kenny * Leo Varadkar

PREVIOUS OFFICES UNDER EARLIER CONSTITUTIONS

PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL (1922–37)

* W. T. Cosgrave * Éamon de Valera

CHAIRMAN OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (1922)

* Michael Collins * W. T. Cosgrave

PRESIDENT OF THE IRISH REPUBLIC (1921–22)

* Éamon de Valera * Arthur Griffith

PRESIDENT OF DáIL ÉIREANN (1919–21)

* Cathal Brugha * Éamon de Valera

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