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The TAOISEACH (/ˈtiːʃəx/ ( listen ), pl. TAOISIGH /ˈtiːʃi/ ; Irish pronunciation: ) is the prime minister , chief executive and head of government of Ireland . The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is appointed by the President
President
upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
, the lower house of the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
(parliament), and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.

The word taoiseach means "chieftain" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister". Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is the official title of the head of government in both English and Irish. The Irish form, An Taoiseach, is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach". Outside of Ireland, the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is sometimes referred to as the PRIME MINISTER OF IRELAND.

Leo Varadkar
Leo Varadkar
TD is the current Taoiseach; he took office on 14 June 2017, following his election as leader of Fine Gael
Fine Gael
on 2 June 2017. Varadkar is the youngest Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in the history of the Irish state, having taken office at the age of 38, and the first openly LGBT
LGBT
person and the first person of partly Indian descent to lead the Irish government.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 1.1 Salary * 1.2 Residence

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins and etymology * 2.2 Debate on the title * 2.3 Modern office

* 3 List of office holders

* 3.1 President
President
of the Executive Council * 3.2 Taoiseach
Taoiseach

* 4 Timeline * 5 Living former officeholders * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References

* 9 Further reading

* 9.1 Biographies

* 10 External links

OVERVIEW

Under the Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
, the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is nominated by a simple majority of Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
from among its members. He/she is then formally appointed to office by the President, who is required to appoint whomever the Dáil
Dáil
designates, without the option of declining to make the appointment. For this reason, it is often said that the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is "elected" by Dáil
Dáil
Éireann.

If the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
loses the support of a majority in Dáil
Dáil
Éireann, he/she is not automatically removed from office but, rather, is compelled either to resign or to persuade the President
President
to dissolve the Dáil. The President
President
may refuse to grant a dissolution and, in effect, force the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
to resign; to date, no president has exercised this prerogative, though the option arose in 1944 and 1994, and twice in 1982. The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
may lose the support of Dáil Éireann by the passage of a vote of no confidence , or the failure of a vote of confidence; or alternatively, the Dáil
Dáil
may refuse supply . In the event of the Taoiseach's resignation, he/she continues to exercise the duties and functions of his/her office until the appointment of a successor.

The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
nominates the remaining members of the Government , who are then, with the consent of the Dáil, appointed by the President. The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
also has authority to advise the President
President
to dismiss cabinet ministers from office, advice the President
President
is required to follow by convention. The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is further responsible for appointing eleven members of the Seanad .

The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department which supports and advises the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in carrying out his/her various duties.

SALARY

Since 2013, the Taoiseach's annual salary is €185,350. It was cut from €214,187 to €200,000 when Kenny took office, before being cut further to €185,350 under the Haddington Road Agreement in 2013.

A proposed increase of €38,000 in 2007 was deferred when Brian Cowen became Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and in October 2008, the government announced a 10% salary cut for all ministers, including the Taoiseach. However this was a voluntary cut and the salaries remained nominally the same with both ministers and Taoiseach
Taoiseach
essentially refusing 10% of their salary. This courted controversy in December 2009 when a salary cut of 20% was based on the higher figure before the refused amount was deducted. The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is also allowed an additional €118,981 in annual expenses.

RESIDENCE

There is no official residence of the Taoiseach. In 2008 it was reported speculatively that the former Steward\'s Lodge at Farmleigh adjoining the Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park
would become the official residence of the Taoiseach; however no official statements were made nor any action taken. The house, which forms part of the Farmleigh estate acquired by the State in 1999 for €29.2m, was renovated at a cost of nearly €600,000 in 2005 by the Office of Public Works . Former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
did not use it as a residence, but his successor Brian Cowen used it "from time to time".

HISTORY

ORIGINS AND ETYMOLOGY

The words Taoiseach
Taoiseach
(Irish pronunciation: ) and Tánaiste
Tánaiste
(the title of the deputy prime minister) are both from the Irish language
Irish language
and of ancient origin. Though the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is described in the Constitution of Ireland as "the head of the Government or Prime Minister", its literal translation is chieftain or leader. Although Éamon de Valera , who introduced the title in 1937, was neither a Fascist
Fascist
nor a dictator , it has sometimes been remarked that the meaning leader in 1937 made the title similar to the titles of Fascist
Fascist
dictators of the time, such as Führer ( Hitler
Hitler
), Duce ( Mussolini
Mussolini
) and Caudillo (Franco ). Tánaiste
Tánaiste
in turn refers to the system of tanistry , the Gaelic system of succession whereby a leader would appoint an heir apparent while still living.

In Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
, tòiseach translates as clan chief and both words originally had similar meaning in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland. The related Welsh language
Welsh language
word tywysog (current meaning: prince) has a similar origin and meaning. It is hypothesized that both derive ultimately from the proto-Celtic *towissākos "chieftain, leader".

The plural of taoiseach is taoisigh (Irish: ).

Although the Irish form An Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach", the English version of the Constitution states that he or she "shall be called ... the Taoiseach".

DEBATE ON THE TITLE

In 1937 when the draft Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
was being debated in the Dáil
Dáil
, Frank MacDermot , an opposition politician, moved an amendment to substitute "Prime Minister" for the proposed "Taoiseach" title in the English text of the Constitution. It was proposed to keep the "Taoiseach" title in the Irish language
Irish language
text. The proponent remarked:

It seems to me to be mere make-believe to try to incorporate a word like "Taoiseach" in the English language. It would be pronounced wrongly by 99 percent of the people. I have already ascertained it is a very difficult word to pronounce correctly. That being so, even for the sake of the dignity of the Irish language, it would be more sensible that when speaking English we should be allowed to refer to the gentleman in question as the Prime Minister... It is just one more example of the sort of things that are being done here as if for the purpose of putting off the people in the North . No useful purpose of any kind can be served by compelling us, when speaking English, to refer to An Taoiseach
Taoiseach
rather than to the Prime Minister.

The President
President
of the Executive Council, Éamon de Valera, gave the term's meaning as "chieftain" or "Captain". He said he was "not disposed" to support the proposed amendment and felt the word "Taoiseach" did not need to be changed. The proposed amendment was defeated on a vote and "Taoiseach" was included as the title ultimately adopted by plebiscite of the people .

MODERN OFFICE

Department of the Taoiseach at Government Buildings
Government Buildings
, Merrion Street , Dublin
Dublin

The modern position of Taoiseach
Taoiseach
was established by the 1937 Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
, to replace the position of President
President
of the Executive Council of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State
Irish Free State
. The positions of Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and President
President
of the Executive Council differed in certain fundamental respects. Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State , the latter was vested with considerably less power and was largely just the chairman of the cabinet, the Executive Council . For example, the President
President
of the Executive Council could not dismiss a fellow minister on his own authority. Instead, the Executive Council had to be disbanded and reformed entirely in order to remove a member. The President
President
of the Executive Council also did not have the right to advise the Governor-General to dissolve Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
on his own authority, that power belonging collectively to the Executive Council.

In contrast, the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
created in 1937 possesses a much more powerful role. He can both advise the President
President
to dismiss ministers and dissolve Parliament on his own authority—advice that the President
President
is almost always required to follow by convention. His role is greatly enhanced because under the Constitution, he is both de jure and de facto chief executive. In most other parliamentary democracies, the head of state is at least the nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In Ireland, however, executive power is explicitly vested in the Government, of which the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is the leader.

Historically, where there have been multi-party or coalition governments, the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
has been the leader of the largest party in the coalition. One exception to this was John A. Costello , who was not leader of his party, but an agreed choice to head the government, because the other parties refused to accept then Fine Gael
Fine Gael
leader Richard Mulcahy as Taoiseach.

LIST OF OFFICE HOLDERS

Main articles: Irish heads of government since 1919 and Records of Irish heads of government since 1922

Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution , the head of government was referred to as the President
President
of the Executive Council . This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave
W. T. Cosgrave
of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
of Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
from 1932–37. By convention, Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave; for example, Leo Varadkar
Leo Varadkar
is considered the 14th Taoiseach, not the 13th.

PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

NO. PORTRAIT Name (Birth–Death) Constituency TERM OF OFFICE PARTY Exec. Council Composition VICE PRESIDENT Dáil (elected)

1

W. T. COSGRAVE (1880–1965) TD for Carlow–Kilkenny until 1927 TD for Cork Borough from 1927 6 December 1922 9 March 1932 Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty) 1st SF (PT) (minority)

Kevin O\'Higgins 3 (1922 )

Cumann na nGaedheal 2nd CnG (minority) 4 (1923 )

3rd Ernest Blythe 5 (Jun.1927 )

4th 6 (Sep.1927 )

5th

2

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 9 March 1932 29 December 1937 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
6th FF (minority)

Seán T. O\'Kelly 7 (1932 )

7th 8 (1933 )

8th 9 (1937 )

TAOISEACH

NO. PORTRAIT Name (Birth–Death) Constituency TERM OF OFFICE PARTY Government Composition TáNAISTE Dáil (elected)

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 29 December 1937 18 February 1948 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
1st FF (minority)

Seán T. O\'Kelly 9 ( ···· )

2nd FF 10 (1938 )

3rd FF (minority) 11 (1943 )

4th FF

Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
12 (1944 )

3

JOHN A. COSTELLO (1891–1976) TD for Dublin
Dublin
South-East 18 February 1948 13 June 1951 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
5th FG –Lab –CnP –CnT –NL –Ind

William Norton 13 (1948 )

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 13 June 1951 2 June 1954 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
6th FF (minority)

Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
14 (1951 )

(3)

JOHN A. COSTELLO (1891–1976) TD for Dublin
Dublin
South-East 2 June 1954 20 March 1957 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
7th FG –Lab –CnT

William Norton 15 (1954 )

(2)

ÉAMON DE VALERA (1882–1975) TD for Clare 20 March 1957 23 June 1959 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
8th FF

Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
16 (1957 )

4

SEáN LEMASS (1899–1971) TD for Dublin
Dublin
South-Central 23 June 1959 10 November 1966 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
9th FF

Seán MacEntee

10th FF (minority) 17 (1961 )

11th FF

Frank Aiken
Frank Aiken
18 (1965 )

5

JACK LYNCH (1917–1999) TD for Cork Borough until 1969 TD for Cork City North-West from 1969 10 November 1966 14 March 1973 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
12th FF

13th FF

Erskine H. Childers 19 (1969 )

6

LIAM COSGRAVE (1920–2017) TD for Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown 14 March 1973 5 July 1977 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
14th FG –Lab

Brendan Corish 20 (1973 )

(5)

JACK LYNCH (1917–1999) TD for Cork City 5 July 1977 11 December 1979 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
15th FF

George Colley
George Colley
21 (1977 )

7

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin
Dublin
Artane 11 December 1979 30 June 1981 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
16th FF

8

GARRET FITZGERALD (1926–2011) TD for Dublin
Dublin
South-East 30 June 1981 9 March 1982 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
17th FG –Lab (minority)

Michael O\'Leary 22 (1981 )

(7)

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin
Dublin
North-Central 9 March 1982 14 December 1982 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
18th FF (minority)

Ray MacSharry 23 (Feb.1982 )

(8)

GARRET FITZGERALD (1926–2011) TD for Dublin
Dublin
South-East 14 December 1982 10 March 1987 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
19th FG –Lab FG (minority) from Jan 1987 Dick Spring 24 (Nov.1982 )

Peter Barry

(7)

CHARLES HAUGHEY (1925–2006) TD for Dublin
Dublin
North-Central 10 March 1987 11 February 1992 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
20th FF (minority)

Brian Lenihan 25 (1987 )

21st FF –PD 26 (1989 )

John P. Wilson
John P. Wilson

9

ALBERT REYNOLDS (1932–2014) TD for Longford–Roscommon 11 February 1992 15 December 1994 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
22nd FF –PD FF (minority) from Nov 1992

23rd FF –Lab FF (minority) from Nov 1994 Dick Spring 27 (1992 )

Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern

10

JOHN BRUTON (1947–) TD for Meath 15 December 1994 26 June 1997 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
24th FG –Lab –DL

Dick Spring

11

BERTIE AHERN (1951–) TD for Dublin
Dublin
Central 26 June 1997 7 May 2008 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
25th FF –PD (minority)

Mary Harney
Mary Harney
28 (1997 )

26th FF –PD 29 (2002 )

Michael McDowell

27th FF –Green –PD

Brian Cowen 30 (2007 )

12

BRIAN COWEN (1960–) TD for Laois–Offaly 7 May 2008 9 March 2011 Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
28th FF –Green –PD FF –Green –Ind from Nov 2009 FF (minority) from Jan 2011 Mary Coughlan

13

ENDA KENNY (1951–) TD for Mayo 9 March 2011 14 June 2017 Fine Gael
Fine Gael
29th FG –Lab

Eamon Gilmore 31 (2011 )

Joan Burton
Joan Burton

30th FG –Ind (minority)

Frances Fitzgerald 32 (2016 )

14

LEO VARADKAR (1979–) TD for Dublin
Dublin
West 14 June 2017 Incumbent Fine Gael
Fine Gael
31st FG –Ind (minority)

TIMELINE

LIVING FORMER OFFICEHOLDERS

There are four living former taoisigh as of October 2017:

TAOISEACH TERM OF OFFICE DATE OF BIRTH

John Bruton
John Bruton
1994–1997 (1947-05-18) 18 May 1947 (age 70)

Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
1997–2008 (1951-09-12) 12 September 1951 (age 66)

Brian Cowen 2008–2011 (1960-01-10) 10 January 1960 (age 57)

Enda Kenny 2011–2017 (1951-04-24) 24 April 1951 (age 66)

The most recent Taoiseach
Taoiseach
to die was Liam Cosgrave (served 1973–1977) on 4 October 2017, aged 97.

SEE ALSO

* Politics of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
* Records of Irish heads of government since 1922 * Irish heads of government since 1919

NOTES

* ^ A B Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
, the head of government was referred to as the President
President
of the Executive Council . This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave
W. T. Cosgrave
from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
from 1932–37. * ^ A B C D Article 13.1.1° and Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
. The latter provision reads: "The head of the Government, or Prime Minister, shall be called, and is in this Constitution referred to as, the Taoiseach." * ^ One example of the Dáil
Dáil
refusing supply occurred in January 1982, when the then Fine Gael
Fine Gael
–Labour Party coalition government of Garret FitzGerald
Garret FitzGerald
lost a vote on the budget. * ^ John Frederick Vaughan Campbell Cawdor (1742). Innes Cosmo, ed. The book of the thanes of Cawdor: a series of papers selected from the charter room at Cawdor. 1236–1742, Volume 1236, Issue 1742. Spalding Club . p. xiii. Retrieved 23 June 2013. As we cannot name the first Celtic chieftain who consented to change his style of Toshach and his patriarchal sway for the title and stability of King's Thane of Cawdor, so it is impossible to fix the precise time when their ancient property and offices were acquired. * ^ "Tartan Details - Toshach". Scottish Register of Tartans . Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. Toshach is an early Celtic title given to minor territorial chiefs in Scotland (note Eire Prime Minister's official title is this). * ^ John Thomas Koch (2006), Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 1062, ISBN 1851094407 , An early word meaning 'leader' appears on a 5th- or 6th-century inscribed stone as both ogam Irish and British genitive TOVISACI: tywysog now means 'prince' in Welsh, the regular descriptive title used for Prince Charles, for example; while in Ireland, the corresponding Taoiseach
Taoiseach
is now the correct title, in both Irish and English, for the Prime Minister of the Irish Republic (Éire). * ^ Among the most famous ministerial dismissals have been those of Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney during the Arms Crisis in 1970, Brian Lenihan in 1990 and Albert Reynolds
Albert Reynolds
, Pádraig Flynn and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn in 1991. * ^ Cosgrave also headed the Irish Government from August 22, 1922, during the transitional period before the state became officially independent on December 6, 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919 ). * ^ De Valera also headed the pre-independence revolutionary Irish Government from 1 April 1919 to 9 January 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919 ).

REFERENCES

* ^ Oireachtas, Houses of the. "Salaries, Houses of the Oireachtas". www.oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ "Taoiseach: definition of Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Language Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ "Finance and Expenditure combined as Cabinet is named". RTÉ News . 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ " Leo Varadkar
Leo Varadkar
voted leader of Fine Gael". Irish Times
Irish Times
. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ "The Taoiseach, Ministers and every TD are having their pay cut today". TheJournal.ie. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. * ^ " Taoiseach
Taoiseach
to receive €38k pay rise". RTÉ News
RTÉ News
. 25 October 2007. * ^ "Sharp exchanges in Dáil
Dáil
over Budget". RTÉ News
RTÉ News
. 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2009. * ^ "Opposition says Lenihan\'s salary cuts do not add up". Irish Independent . 10 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009. * ^ "Opulent Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park
lodge is set to become \'Fortress Cowen\'". Irish Independent
Irish Independent
. 18 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008. * ^ "Cowen questioned on use of Farmleigh". The Irish Times
Irish Times
. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2009. * ^ A B "Youth Zone School Pack" (PDF). Department of the Taoiseach . Retrieved 23 June 2010. * ^ John-Paul McCarthy (10 January 2010). "WT became the most ruthless of them all". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 November 2016. While Taoiseach
Taoiseach
itself carried with it some initially unpleasant assonances with Caudillo, Fuhrer and Duce, all but one of the 12 men who wielded the prime ministerial sceptre have managed to keep their megalomaniacal tendencies in check. * ^ Martin Quigley, Jr (1944). Great Gaels: Ireland at Peace in a World at War. p. 18. Retrieved 22 November 2016. Eamon de Valera is An Taoiseach
Taoiseach
or “boss Gael.” That title goes considerably beyond the English “prime minister” or the American “president.” It is the Gaelic equivalent of the German “Fuehrer,” the Italian “Duce” and the Spanish “Caudillo. Published in New York, 1944 (publisher not identified); Original from University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
; Digitized 6 May 2016 * ^ Administration - Volume 18. Institute of Public Administration (Ireland). 1970. p. 153. Retrieved 22 November 2016. ... and let alone the names of the Prime Minister (the Taoiseach, a word that is related to Duce, Fuhrer, and Caudillo) (translated from the original Irish : ... agus fiú amháin ainmeacha an Phríomh-Aire (An Taoiseach, focal go bhfuil gaol aige le Duce, Fuhrer, agus Caudillo) Original from the University of California
University of California
; Digitized 6 Dec 2016 * ^ E. William Robertson (2004). Scotland Under Her Early Kings: A History of the Kingdom to the Close of the Thirteenth Century Part One. Kessinger Publishing . p. 32. ISBN 9781417946075 . Retrieved 28 June 2013. * ^ "DSL - SND1 TOISEACH". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. * ^ "Statement by An Taoiseach
Taoiseach
on the death of Cardinal Desmond Connell". Department of the Taoiseach. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017. The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
has learnt with regret ... * ^ Frank Mr. MacDermot of the Centre Party (Ireland) - Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) - Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
Debate Vol. 67 No. 9. * ^ - Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) - Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
Debate Vol. 67 No. 9. * ^ "Coughlan new Tánaiste
Tánaiste
in Cowen Cabinet". The Irish Times
Irish Times
. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ " Taoiseach
Taoiseach
reveals new front bench". RTÉ News
RTÉ News
. 7 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ "Cowen confirmed as Taoiseach". BreakingNews.ie. 7 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. * ^ "Former Taoisigh". Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved 23 June 2010. * ^ "Kenny\'s farewell: \'This has never been about me\'". RTÉ News . 13 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ Lord, Miriam (8 June 2017). "Taoiseach-in-waiting meets man waiting to be taoiseach". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 June 2017.

FURTHER READING

The book Chairman or Chief: The Role of the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in Irish Government (1971) by Brian Farrell provides a good overview of the conflicting roles for the Taoiseach. Though long out of print, it may still be available in libraries or from AbeBooks. Biographies are also available of de Valera, Lemass, Lynch, Cosgrave, FitzGerald, Haughey, Reynolds and Ahern. FitzGerald wrote an autobiography, while an authorised biography was produced of de Valera. There is a chapter by Garret FitzGerald
Garret FitzGerald
on the role of the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in a festschrift to Brian Farrell. There is a chapter by Eoin O'Malley on the Taoiseach and cabinet in 'Governing Ireland: From cabinet government to delegated governance'(Eoin O'Malley and Muiris MacCarthaigh eds.) Dublin: IPA 2012.

* "David Gwynn Morgan: What exactly is a caretaker taoiseach?", The Irish Times, 8 March 2016

BIOGRAPHIES

Some biographies of former Taoisigh and Presidents of the Executive Council

* Tim Pat Coogan, Éamon de Valera * John Horgan, Seán Lemass * Brian Farrell, Seán Lemass * T. P. O'Mahony, Jack Lynch: A Biography * T. Ryle Dwyer, Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch * Stephen Collins, The Cosgrave legacy * Garret FitzGerald, All in a Life * Garret FitzGerald, "Just Garret: Tales from the Political Frontline" * Raymond Smith, Garret: The Enigma * T. Ryle Dwyer, Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles Haughey * Martin Mansergh, Spirit of the Nation: The Collected Speeches of Haughey * Joe Joyce ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Taoisigh of Ireland

* Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
* John A. Costello * Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
* Jack Lynch * Liam Cosgrave * Charles Haughey * Garret FitzGerald
Garret FitzGerald
* Albert Reynolds
Albert Reynolds
* John Bruton
John Bruton
* Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
* Brian Cowen * Enda Kenny * Leo Varadkar
Leo Varadkar

PREVIOUS OFFICES UNDER EARLIER CONSTITUTIONS

PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL (1922–37)

* W. T. Cosgrave
W. T. Cosgrave
* Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera

CHAIRMAN OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (1922)

* Michael Collins * W. T. Cosgrave
W. T. Cosgrave

PRESIDENT OF THE IRISH REPUBLIC (1921–22)

* Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
* Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith

PRESIDENT OF DáIL ÉIREANN (1919–21)

* Cathal Brugha * Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera

* v * t * e

Government of Ireland
Government of Ireland

POLITICAL POSTS

* Taoiseach
Taoiseach
(prime minister) * Tánaiste
Tánaiste
(deputy prime minister)

MINISTRIES

* Agriculture, Food and the Marine * Business, Enterprise and Innovation * Children and Youth Affairs * Communications, Climate Action and Environment * Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht * Defence * Education and Skills * Employment Affairs and Social Protection * Finance * Foreign Affairs and Trade * Health * Housing, Planning and Local Government * Justice and Equality * Public Expenditure and Reform * Rural and Community Development * Transport, Tourism and Sport

FORMER MINISTRIES

* Communications * Co-ordination of Defensive Measures * Economic Affairs * Fine Arts * Industries * Irish * Labour * Posts and Telegraphs * Public Service * Publicity * Supplies

* v * t * e

Heads of state and government of Europe

Heads of state

UN members and observers

* Albania * Andorra * Armenia 1 * Austria
Austria
* Azerbaijan 1 * Belarus * Belgium
Belgium
* Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Croatia
Croatia
* Cyprus
Cyprus
1 * Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Denmark
Denmark
* Estonia
Estonia
* Finland
Finland
* France
France
* Georgia 1 * Germany
Germany
* Greece
Greece
* Hungary
Hungary
* Iceland * Ireland * Italy
Italy
* Kazakhstan 1 * Latvia
Latvia
* Liechtenstein * Lithuania
Lithuania
* Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Macedonia * Malta
Malta
* Moldova * Monaco * Montenegro * Netherlands
Netherlands
* Norway * Poland
Poland
* Portugal
Portugal
* Romania
Romania
* Russian Federation 1 * San Marino * Serbia * Slovakia
Slovakia
* Slovenia
Slovenia
* Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
* Spain
Spain
* Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland * Turkey 1 * Ukraine * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Vatican City

PARTIALLY RECOGNISED2

* Abkhazia 1 * Kosovo * Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
1 * South Ossetia 1

UNRECOGNISED STATES3

* Artsakh 1 * Transnistria

FORMER COUNTRIES

* Czechoslovakia * East Germany
Germany
* Serbia and Montenegro * Soviet Union 1 * Yugoslavia

Heads of government

UN members and observers

* Albania * Andorra * Armenia 1 * Austria
Austria
* Azerbaijan 1 * Belarus * Belgium
Belgium
* Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Croatia
Croatia
* Cyprus
Cyprus
1 * Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Denmark
Denmark
* Estonia
Estonia
* Finland
Finland
* France
France
* Georgia 1 * Germany
Germany
* Greece
Greece
* Hungary
Hungary
* Iceland * Ireland * Italy
Italy
* Kazakhstan 1 * Latvia
Latvia
* Liechtenstein * Lithuania
Lithuania
* Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Macedonia * Malta
Malta
* Moldova * Monaco * Montenegro * Netherlands
Netherlands
* Norway * Poland
Poland
* Portugal
Portugal
* Romania
Romania
* Russian Federation 1 * San Marino * Serbia * Slovakia
Slovakia
* Slovenia
Slovenia
* Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
* Spain
Spain
* Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland * Turkey 1 * Ukraine * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Vatican City

PARTIALLY RECOGNISED2

* Abkhazia 1 * Kosovo * Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
1 * South Ossetia 1

UNRECOGNISED STATES3

* Artsakh 1 * Transnistria

FORMER COUNTRIES

* Czechoslovakia * Irish Free State
Irish Free State
* East Germany
Germany
* Serbia and Montenegro * Soviet Union 1 * Yugoslavia

* 1. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. * 2. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. * 3. Not recognised by any United Nations members.

* v * t * e

European Council
European Council

* List of meetings

* \'98 * \'99 * \'00 * \'01 * \'02 * \'03 * \'04 (Jan–Apr) * \'04 (May–Dec) * \'05 * \'06 * \'07 * \'08 * \'09 * \'10 * \'11 * \'12 * \'13 (Jan–Jun) * \'13 (Jul–Dec) * \'14 * \'15

* Tusk (PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ) * Juncker ( President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
)

* Kern * Michel * Borisov * Plenković * Anastasiades * Sobotka * Løkke Rasmussen * Ratas * Sipilä * Macron * Merkel * Tsipras * Orbán * Varadkar * Gentiloni * Kučinskis * Grybauskaitė * Bettel * Muscat * Rutte * Szydło * Costa * Iohannis * Fico * Cerar * Rajoy * Löfven * May

European Union
European Union
Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Titles used for heads of government

* Chancellor * Chief executive * Chief minister * First minister (and deputy First Minister ) * Minister-president
Minister-president
* Premier
Premier
* President
President
* President
President
of the Executive Council * President
President
of the Council of Ministers * President
President
of the government * Prime minister
Prime minister
* State Elder * Statsminister * Taoiseach

* v * t * e

Prime minister
Prime minister

Prime Ministers by country

* Abkhazia * Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * Angola * Antigua and Barbuda * Armenia * Artsakh * Aruba * Australia * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium
Belgium
* Belize * Bermuda * Bhutan * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Brazil * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Burkina Faso * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Central African Republic * Chad * Congo (Kinshasa) * Cook Islands * Croatia
Croatia
* Cuba * Curaçao * Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
* Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Denmark
Denmark
* Djibouti * Dominica * East Timor * Egypt * Equatorial Guinea * Estonia
Estonia
* Faroe Islands * Fiji * Finland
Finland
* France
France
* Ghana * Georgia * Greece
Greece
* Greenland * Grenada * Guinea * Guyana * Haiti * Hungary
Hungary
* Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Israel * Italy
Italy
* Jamaica * Japan * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * North Korea * South Korea * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia
Latvia
* Lebanon *