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Coordinates: 6°18′25″S 34°51′14″E / 6.307°S 34.854°E / -6.307; 34.854

United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania  (Swahili)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Uhuru na Umoja" (Swahili) "Freedom and Unity"

Anthem: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (English: "God Bless Africa")

Capital

Dodoma
Dodoma
(de jure) Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
(de facto)

Largest city Dar es Salaam

Official languages None de jure

National language Swahili[1]

Other languages English[1]

Religion (2010 estimate)[2]

Christianity
Christianity
61.4% Islam
Islam
35.2% Folk Religion 1.8% Irreligious 1.4% Other 0.2%

Demonym Tanzanian

Government Unitary presidential constitutional socialist republic[3][4][5]

• President

John Pombe Magufuli

• Vice President

Samia Suluhu

• Prime Minister

Kassim Majaliwa

• Speaker

Job Ndugai

• Chief Justice

Ibrahim Hamis Juma

Legislature National Assembly

Independence from the United Kingdom

• Tanganyika

9 December 1961

•  Unguja
Unguja
and Pemba

10 December 1963

• Merger

26 April 1964

• Current constitution

25 April 1977

Area

• Total

947,303 km2 (365,756 sq mi) (31st)

• Water (%)

6.4[6]

Population

• 2016 estimate

55,572,201[7] (28th)

• 2012 census

44,928,923[8]

• Density

47.5/km2 (123.0/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$163.522 billion[9]

• Per capita

$3,296[9]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$51.194 billion[9]

• Per capita

$1,032[9]

Gini (2012) 37.8[10] medium

HDI (2015)  0.531[11] low · 151st

Currency Tanzanian shilling
Tanzanian shilling
(TZS)

Time zone EAT (UTC+3)

Drives on the left

Calling code +255[note 1]

ISO 3166 code TZ

Internet TLD .tz

Revised to $41.33 billion[12]

Tanzania
Tanzania
(/ˌtænzəˈniːə/),[13] officially the United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania
Tanzania
(Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa
Africa
within the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. It borders Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique
Mozambique
to the south; and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the east. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania. The United Nations
United Nations
estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.[7] The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Tanzania
Tanzania
is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma
Dodoma
where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located.[14] Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre.[15][16][17] Tanzania
Tanzania
is a one party dominant state with the socialist-progressive Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chama Cha Mapinduzi
party in power. Some prehistoric population migrations into Tanzania
Tanzania
include Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia;[18] Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania
Tanzania
from north of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago;[18] and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan-Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[18]:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa
West Africa
in the Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania
Tanzania
between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.[18][19] European colonialism
European colonialism
began in mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania.[15] Tanzania
Tanzania
is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
just offshore. The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa
Rukwa
are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa
Africa
and are located near the south-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on the border with Zambia.[20] The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[21] The country does not have a de jure official language,[citation needed] although the national language is Swahili.[22] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education,[21] although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether.[23] Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.[21]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-colonial 2.2 Colonial 2.3 Post-colonial

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Wildlife and conservation

4 Politics

4.1 Government 4.2 Executive 4.3 Legislature 4.4 Judiciary 4.5 Human rights 4.6 Zanzibar 4.7 Administrative subdivisions 4.8 Foreign relations

4.8.1 Bilateral relations 4.8.2 Multilateral relations

4.9 Military

5 Economy and infrastructure

5.1 Poverty 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Industry, energy and construction 5.4 Tourism 5.5 Banking 5.6 Transport 5.7 Communications 5.8 Water supply and sanitation

6 Science and technology 7 Demographics

7.1 Religion 7.2 Languages 7.3 Education 7.4 Healthcare 7.5 HIV/AIDS 7.6 Women

8 Culture

8.1 Literature 8.2 Painting and sculpture 8.3 Sports 8.4 Cinema

9 See also 10 Notes 11  Sources 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and Zanzibar.[24] The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga ("sail") and nyika ("uninhabited plain", "wilderness"), creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness". It is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika.[25] The name of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
comes from "zengi", the name for a local people (said to mean "black"), and the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.[26] History[edit] Main articles: History of Tanzania
History of Tanzania
and History of Zanzibar

A 1.8 million year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and currently on display at the British Museum

Pre-colonial[edit] The indigenous populations of eastern Africa
Africa
are thought to be the click speaking Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania.[18]:page 17 The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
into Tanzania. They are ancestral to the Iraqw, Gorowa, and Burunge.[18]:page 17 Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania
Tanzania
of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana.[18]:pages 17–18 Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan
South Sudan
/ Ethiopia
Ethiopia
border region into central northern Tanzania
Tanzania
between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[18]:page 18 These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa
West Africa
in the Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams. They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.[18][19] Eastern Nilotic peoples, including the Maasai, represent a more recent migration from present day South Sudan
South Sudan
within the past 500 to 1,500 years.[18][27] The people of Tanzania
Tanzania
have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Pare people
Pare people
were the main producers of highly demanded iron for peoples who occupied the mountain regions of north-eastern Tanzania.[28] The Haya people
Haya people
on the western shores of Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.[29] Travelers and merchants from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and India
India
have visited the east African coast since early in the first millennium A.D.[30] Islam
Islam
was practiced by some on the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
as early as the eighth or ninth century A.D.[31] Colonial[edit]

A 1572 depiction of the city of Kilwa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Claiming the coastal strip, Omani
Omani
Sultan Said bin Sultan
Said bin Sultan
moved his capital to Zanzibar City
Zanzibar City
in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became the centre for the Arab slave trade.[32] Between 65 and 90 percent of the Arab-Swahili population of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was enslaved.[33] One of the most infamous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri
Msiri
and Mirambo.[34] According to Timothy Insoll, "Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast."[35] In the 1890s, slavery was abolished.[36]

Maji Maji Rebellion
Maji Maji Rebellion
against German colonial rule in 1905

In the late 19th century, Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania
Tanzania
(minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into German East Africa
Africa
(GEA).[citation needed] The Supreme Council of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference awarded all of GEA to Britain on 7 May 1919, over the strenuous objections of Belgium.[37]:240 The British colonial secretary, Alfred Milner, and Belgium's minister plenipotentiary to the conference, Pierre Orts, then negotiated the Anglo-Belgian agreement of 30 May 1919[38]:618-9 where Britain ceded the north-western GEA provinces of Ruanda and Urundi to Belgium.[37]:246 The conference's Commission on Mandates ratified this agreement on 16 July 1919.[37]:246-7 The Supreme Council accepted the agreement on 7 August 1919.[38]:612-3 On 12 July 1919, the Commission on Mandates agreed that the small Kionga Triangle
Kionga Triangle
south of the Rovuma River
Rovuma River
would be given to Portuguese Mozambique,[37]:243 with it eventually becoming part of independent Mozambique. The commission reasoned that Germany had virtually forced Portugal
Portugal
to cede the triangle in 1894.[37]:243 The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
was signed on 28 July 1919, although the treaty did not take effect until 10 January 1920. On that date, the GEA was transferred officially to Britain, Belgium, and Portugal. Also on that date, "Tanganyika" became the name of the British territory. During World War II, about 100,000 people from Tanganyika
Tanganyika
joined the Allied forces[39] and were among the 375,000 Africans who fought with those forces.[40] Tanganyikans fought in units of the King's African Rifles during the East African Campaign in Somalia
Somalia
and Abyssinia against the Italians, in Madagascar
Madagascar
against the Vichy French
Vichy French
during the Madagascar
Madagascar
Campaign, and in Burma
Burma
against the Japanese during the Burma
Burma
Campaign.[40] Tanganyika
Tanganyika
was an important source of food during this war, and its export income increased greatly compared to the pre-war years of the Great Depression[39] Wartime demand, however, caused increased commodity prices and massive inflation within the colony.[41] In 1954, Julius Nyerere
Julius Nyerere
transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika
Tanganyika
African National Union (TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year, TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika
Tanganyika
in 1960 and continued as prime minister when Tanganyika
Tanganyika
became independent in 1961.[citation needed] Post-colonial[edit] British rule came to an end on December 9, 1961, but for the first year of independence, Tanganyika
Tanganyika
had a governor general who represented the British monarch.[42]:page 6 On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika
Tanganyika
became a democratic republic under an executive president.[42]:page 6 After the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar,[43] which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on 26 April 1964.[44] On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania
Tanzania
("Tan" comes from Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and "Zan" from Zanzibar).[15] The union of the two hitherto separate regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere
Nyerere
government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
owing to shared political values and goals. Following Tanganyika's independence and unification with Zanzibar leading to the state of Tanzania, President Nyerere
Nyerere
emphasized a need to construct a national identity for the citizens of the new country. To achieve this, Nyerere
Nyerere
provided what is regarded as one of the most successful cases of ethnic repression and identity transformation in Africa.[45] With over 130 languages spoken within its territory, Tanzania
Tanzania
is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Africa. Despite this obstacle, ethnic divisions remained rare in Tanzania
Tanzania
when compared to the rest of the continent, notably its immediate neighbor, Kenya. Furthermore, since its independence, Tanzania
Tanzania
has displayed more political stability than most African countries, particularly due to Nyerere's ethnic repression methods.[46]

Arusha Declaration
Arusha Declaration
Monument

In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha
Arusha
Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism as well-as Pan-Africanism. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised. Tanzania
Tanzania
was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
to Zambia.[47] Nonetheless, from the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse, in the context of an international economic crisis affecting both developed and developing economies. From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced, according to a report by the World Bank.[48] In 1992, the Constitution
Constitution
of Tanzania
Tanzania
was amended to allow multiple political parties.[49] In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chama Cha Mapinduzi
won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa
Benjamin Mkapa
was elected as president.[50] Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Tanzania
Geography of Tanzania
and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago

An elephant passing by the snow-capped Mt. Kilimanjaro

Ngorongoro Crater, the world's largest inactive and intact volcanic caldera

Tanzania
Tanzania
map of Köppen climate classification

At 947,303 square kilometres (365,756 sq mi),[6] Tanzania
Tanzania
is the 13th largest country in Africa
Africa
and the 31st largest in the world, ranked between the larger Egypt
Egypt
and smaller Nigeria.[51] It borders Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania
Tanzania
is located on the eastern coast of Africa
Africa
and has an Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
coastline approximately 1,424 kilometres (885 mi) long.[52] It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja
Unguja
(Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia.[53]:page 1245 The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level, and the floor of Lake Tanganyika, at 352 metres (1,155 ft) below sea level, respectively.[53]:page 1245

Wildebeest
Wildebeest
migration in the Serengeti

Tanzania
Tanzania
is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania
Tanzania
is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
just offshore. The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa
Rukwa
are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa
Africa
and are located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on the border with Zambia.[20] The Menai Bay Conservation Area
Menai Bay Conservation Area
is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Tanzania

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Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions. Tanzania
Tanzania
has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May).[54] The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
extending east to the coast.[54] The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[54] Wildlife and conservation[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Tanzania

A tower of giraffes at Arusha
Arusha
National Park. The giraffe is the national animal.

Approximately 38 percent of Tanzania's land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation.[55] Tanzania
Tanzania
has 16 national parks,[56] plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park is the site of Jane Goodall's ongoing study of chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960.[57][58] Tanzania
Tanzania
is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats.[59] On Tanzania's Serengeti
Serengeti
plain, white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania
Tanzania
is home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red Lists of countries.[60] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Tanzania Government[edit] Main article: Constitution
Constitution
of Tanzania Tanzania
Tanzania
is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when the constitution was amended.[61]:§ 3 John Magufuli
John Magufuli
won the October 2015 presidential election and secured a two-thirds majority in parliament.[62] The other party or main party[vague] in Tanzania
Tanzania
is called Chadema.[citation needed] Executive[edit]

President John Magufuli

Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa

The president of Tanzania
Tanzania
and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms.[61]:§ 42(2) The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket.[61]:§§ 47(2), 50(1) Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly.[61]:§ 66(2) The president appoints a prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly.[61]:§§ 51(1)-(2), 52(2) The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.[61]:§ 55 Legislature[edit] All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
and union matters is vested in the National Assembly,[61]:§ 64(1) which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members.[63] These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president.[61]:§ 66(1) The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.[61]:§ 75 Judiciary[edit] See also: Chief Justice of Tanzania Tanzania's legal system is based on English common law.[64] Tanzania
Tanzania
has a four-level judiciary.[64] The lowest level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts.[64] In Zanzibar, the lowest level courts are the Kadhi's Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases.[64] On the mainland, appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts.[64] In Zanzibar, appeal is to the Kadhi's Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases.[64] From there, appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
or Zanzibar.[64] No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar.[64][65]:§ 99(1) Otherwise, the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania.[64] The High Court of mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
has three divisions – commercial, labour, and land[64] – and 15 geographic zones.[66] The High Court of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has an industrial division, which hears only labour disputes.[67] Mainland and union judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania,[citation needed] except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania.[61]: §§ 109(1), 118(2)-(3) Tanzania
Tanzania
is a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.[68] Human rights[edit] Main articles: Human rights in Tanzania, Persecution of people with albinism, and LGBT rights in Tanzania Throughout Tanzania, sex acts between men are illegal and carry a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.[69] According to a 2007 Pew Research Center survey, 95 percent of Tanzanians believed that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.[70] People with albinism living in Tanzania
Tanzania
are often attacked, killed or mutilated because of superstitions related to the black-magical practice known as muti that say body parts of albinos have magical properties.[71] Tanzania
Tanzania
has the highest occurrence of this human rights violation among 27 African countries where muti is known to be practised.[72] Zanzibar[edit]

The semi-autonomous Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago

The legislative authority in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
over all non-union matters is vested in the House of Representatives (per the Tanzania constitution)[61]:§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
constitution). The Legislative Council has two parts: the president of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and the House of Representatives.[61]:§ 107(1)-(2)[65]:§ 63(1) The president is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is invested.[65]:§§ 5A(2), 26(1) Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house.[73][74] The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the House.[74] The president and the members of the House of Representatives have five-year terms.[65]:§ 28(2) The president selects ministers from members of the House of Representatives,[65]:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of House seats won by political parties.[73] The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president.[73] The House of Representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 percent of the elected members.[65]:§§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The House determines the number of its elected members[65]:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency.[65]:§ 120(1) In 2013, the House had 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.[63] Administrative subdivisions[edit] Main articles: Regions of Tanzania, Districts of Tanzania, and Subdivisions of Tanzania

Regions of Tanzania

In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. In 1999, a Local Government Reform Programme was enacted by the National Assembly, setting "a comprehensive and ambitious agenda ... [covering] four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having over-riding powers within the framework of the Constitution."[75] As of 2016, Tanzania
Tanzania
is divided into thirty-one regions. regions (mkoa),[76][77] twenty-six on the mainland and five in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(three on Unguja, two on Pemba).[78] In 2012, the thirty former regions were divided into 169 districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities. Of those districts, 34 were urban units, which were further classified as three city councils (Arusha, Mbeya, and Mwanza), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils.[8] The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and mtaa. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into vitongoji.[75] The city of Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
is unique because it has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and "Nominated members of parliament under ' Special
Special
Seats' for women". Each municipal council also has a mayor. "The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities", including security and emergency services.[79][80] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Tanzania Bilateral relations[edit]

Tanzanian Embassy in West End, Washington, D.C., USA.

Apart from its border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania
Tanzania
had cordial relations with its neighbours in 2012.[81] Relations between Tanzania
Tanzania
and Malawi
Malawi
have been tense because of a dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa
Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue took place in March 2014.[53]:page 1250[81][82] The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful.[83] Malawi, but not Tanzania, has accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ.[84] Relations between Tanzania
Tanzania
and Rwanda
Rwanda
deteriorated in 2013 when Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete
Jakaya Kikwete
said that if the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (DRC) could negotiate with some of its enemies, Rwanda
Rwanda
should be able to do the same.[85] Rwandan President Paul Kagame then expressed "contempt" for Kikwete's statement.[86] The tension was renewed in May 2014 when, in a speech to the Tanzanian National Assembly, Foreign Affairs Minister Bernard Membe
Bernard Membe
renewed his claim that Rwandans were causing instability in the DRC. Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo
Louise Mushikiwabo
responded, "As for Tanzania's foreign minister whose anti- Rwanda
Rwanda
rant in parliament I heard, he would benefit from a lesson in the history of the region."[87] Tanzania–China relations
Tanzania–China relations
have strengthened in recent years as trade between the two countries and Chinese investment in Tanzanian infrastructure have increased rapidly.[53]:page 1250[88] Relations with the United States are warm, with President Barack Obama visiting Tanzania
Tanzania
in 2013.[89][90] Tanzania's relations with other donor countries, including Japan
Japan
and members of the European Union, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania's commitment to reducing government corruption.[53]:page 1250[81] Multilateral relations[edit] Tanzania
Tanzania
is a member of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi.[91] According to the East African Common Market Protocol of 2010, the free trade and free movement of people is guaranteed, including the right to reside in another member country for purposes of employment.[53]:page 1250[92][93] This protocol, however, has not been implemented because of work permit and other bureaucratic, legal, and financial obstacles.[94] Tanzania
Tanzania
is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).[95] The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
agreed in June 2011 to negotiate the creation of a Tripartite Free Trade Area
Tripartite Free Trade Area
spanning 26 African countries, with a goal to complete the first phase of negotiations within 36 months.[96] As of 31 October 2014, Tanzania
Tanzania
was contributing 2,253 soldiers and other personnel to various United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping operations.[97] The Tanzanian military is participating along with South African and Malawian militaries in the United Nations
United Nations
Force Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (DRC). The United Nations Security Council authorised the force on 28 March 2013 to conduct targeted offensive operations to neutralise groups that threaten peace in the DRC.[98] Tanzania
Tanzania
was also participating in peacekeeping missions in the Darfur
Darfur
Region of Sudan
Sudan
(UNAMID); Abyei, control of which is contested between South Sudan
South Sudan
and Sudan
Sudan
(UNISFA); the Central African Republic
Republic
(MINUSCA); Lebanon
Lebanon
(UNIFIL); and South Sudan
Sudan
(UNMISS).[99] Military[edit]

Tanzanian special forces during a training exercise

Main article: Tanzania
Tanzania
People's Defence Force Economy and infrastructure[edit] Main articles: Economy of Tanzania
Economy of Tanzania
and Poverty in Tanzania

Bank of Tanzania
Bank of Tanzania
Twin Towers

As of 2014[update], Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated $43.8 billion,[100] or $86.4 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis.[101] Tanzania
Tanzania
is a middle-power country, with a per capita GDP of $1,813 (PPP),[101] which was 32% below the average of $2,673 for the 45 sub-Saharan African countries[102] and ranked 23rd among those countries.[103] From 2009 through 2013, Tanzania's per capita GDP (based on constant local currency) grew an average of 3.5% per year, higher than any other member of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC) and exceeded by only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.[104] Tanzania's largest trading partners in 2012 for its US $5.5 billion in exports were South Africa, Switzerland, and China.[105] Its imports totalled US $11.7 billion, with Switzerland, China, and the United Arab Emirates being the biggest partners.[105]

Kariakoo
Kariakoo
market in Dar es Salaam

Tanzania
Tanzania
weathered the Great Recession, which began in late 2008 or early 2009, relatively well. Strong gold prices, bolstering the country's mining industry, and Tanzania's poor integration into global markets helped to insulate the country from the downturn.[53]:page 1250 Since the recession ended, the Tanzanian economy has expanded rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors.[53]:page 1250 According to the United Nations
United Nations
Development Program, however, recent growth in the national economy has benefited only the "very few", leaving out the majority of the population.[106] Tanzania's 2013 Global Hunger Index
Global Hunger Index
was worse than any other country in the EAC except Burundi.[107]:page 15 The proportion of persons who were undernourished in 2010–12 was also worse than any other EAC country except Burundi.[107]:page 51 Poverty[edit] The level of poverty in Tanzania
Tanzania
is very high.[108] Tanzania
Tanzania
has made little progress towards reducing extreme hunger and malnutrition.[108][109] The 2010 Global Hunger Index
Global Hunger Index
ranks the situation as “alarming”.[108] Children in rural areas suffer substantially higher rates of malnutrition and chronic hunger, although urban-rural disparities have narrowed as regards both stunting and underweight.[108] Low rural sector productivity arises mainly from inadequate infrastructure investment; limited access to farm inputs, extension services and credit; limited technology as well as trade and marketing support; and heavy dependence on rain-fed agriculture and natural resources.[108] Approximately 68 percent of Tanzania's 44.9 million citizens live below the poverty line of $1.25 a day and 16 percent of children under 5 are malnourished.[109] The most prominent challenges Tanzania
Tanzania
faces in poverty reduction are unsustainable harvesting of its natural resources, unchecked cultivation, climate change and water- source encroachment, according to the United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP).[109] There are very few resources for Tanzanians in terms of credit services, infrastructure or availability to improved agricultural technologies, which further exacerbates hunger and poverty in the country according to the UNDP.[109] Tanzania
Tanzania
ranks 159 out of 187 countries in poverty according to the United Nation’s Human Development Index (2014).[109] Agriculture[edit] Main article: Agriculture in Tanzania

Tea fields in Tukuyu

The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture, which in 2013 accounted for 24.5 percent of gross domestic product,[42]:page 37 provides 85% of exports,[15] and accounted for half of the employed workforce;[42]:page 56 The agricultural sector grew 4.3 percent in 2012, less than half of the Millennium Development Goal
Millennium Development Goal
target of 10.8 percent.[110] 16.4 percent of the land is arable,[111] with 2.4 percent of the land planted with permanent crops.[112] Tanzania's economy relies on farming, but climate change has impacted their farming. GDP: $150.3 billion GDP- per capita: $3,100 Unemployment
Unemployment
rate: 10.3% Population below poverty line: 22.8% Main Exports: Coffee worth about $5.697 billion in total Export Partners: Switzerland
Switzerland
15.1%, India
India
13.8%, South Africa, 12.4%, China
China
7%, Kenya
Kenya
6.2%, Congo 5.7%, Belgium 5.6%. Main Imports: Machinery and transport equipments, worth about $8.464 billion in total. Import partners: China
China
20.7%, India
India
18.1%, UAE 7.5%, South Africa
South Africa
6%, Japan
Japan
4.7% Labour Force-by occupation: Agriculture 66.9%, Industry 6.4%, Services: 26.6%. Maize was the largest food crop on the Tanzania
Tanzania
mainland in 2013 (5.17 million tonnes), followed by cassava (1.94 million tonnes), sweet potatoes (1.88 million tonnes), beans (1.64 million tonnes), bananas (1.31 million tonnes), rice (1.31 million tonnes), and millet (1.04 million tonnes).[42]:page 58 Sugar was the largest cash crop on the mainland in 2013 (296,679 tonnes), followed by cotton (241,198 tonnes), cashew nuts (126,000 tonnes), tobacco (86,877 tonnes), coffee (48,000 tonnes), sisal (37,368 tonnes), and tea (32,422 tonnes).[42]:page 58 Beef was the largest meat product on the mainland in 2013 (299,581 tonnes), followed by lamb/mutton (115,652 tonnes), chicken (87,408 tonnes), and pork (50,814 tonnes).[42]:page 60 According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania
Tanzania
are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares were actually being irrigated in June 2011.[113] Industry, energy and construction[edit] Main articles: Energy in Tanzania, Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania, and Natural resource and waste management in Tanzania See also: List of companies of Tanzania

Williamson diamond mine

Songo Songo Gas Plant

Industry and construction is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2 percent of GDP in 2013.[42]:page 37 This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction.[42]:page 37 Mining contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2013.[42]:page 33 The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89 percent of the value of those exports in 2013.[42]:page 71 It also exports sizeable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite.[53]:page 1251 All of Tanzania's coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically.[114] Only 15 percent of Tanzanians had access to electric power in 2011.[115] The government-owned Tanzania
Tanzania
Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) dominates the electric supply industry in Tanzania.[116] The country generated 6.013 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity in 2013, a 4.2 percent increase over the 5.771 billion kWh generated in 2012.[117]:page 4 Generation increased by 63 percent between 2005 and 2012;[118][119] Almost 18 percent of the electricity generated in 2012 was lost because of theft and transmission and distribution problems.[118] The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary.[53]:page 1251[116] The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry.[53]:page 1251 In 2013, 49.7 percent of Tanzania's electricity generation came from natural gas, 28.9 percent from hydroelectric sources, 20.4 percent from thermal sources, and 1.0 percent from outside the country.[117]:page 5 The government has built a 532 kilometres (331 mi) gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay to Dar es Salaam.[120] This pipeline was expected to allow the country to double its electricity generation capacity to 3,000 megawatts by 2016.[121] The government's goal is to increase capacity to at least 10,000 megawatts by 2025.[122]

Nyerere
Nyerere
Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam, is Tanzania's and East Africa's only suspension bridge

According to PFC Energy, 25 to 30 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas resources have been discovered in Tanzania
Tanzania
since 2010,[114] bringing the total reserves to over 43 trillion cubic feet by the end of 2013.[123] The value of natural gas actually produced in 2013 was US$52.2 million, a 42.7 percent increase over 2012.[42]:page 73 Commercial production of gas from the Songo Songo Island
Songo Songo Island
field in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
commenced in 2004, thirty years after it was discovered there.[124][125] Over 35 billion cubic feet of gas was produced from this field in 2013,[42]:page 72 with proven, probable, and possible reserves totalling 1.1 trillion cubic feet.[125] The gas is transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam.[124] As of 27 August 2014, TANESCO
TANESCO
owed the operator of this field, Orca Exploration Group Inc.[126] A newer natural gas field in Mnazi Bay in 2013 produced about one-seventh of the amount produced near Songo Songo Island[42]:page 73 but has proven, probable, and possible reserves of 2.2 trillion cubic feet.[125] Virtually all of that gas is being used for electricity generation in Mtwara.[124] The Ruvuma and Nyuna regions of Tanzania
Tanzania
have been explored mostly by the discovery company that holds a 75 percent interest, Aminex, and has shown to hold in excess of 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A pipeline connecting offshore natural gas fields to Tanzania's commercial capital Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
was completed at the end of April 2015.[127] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Tanzania

The snowcapped Uhuru Peak

Travel and tourism contributed 17.5 percent of Tanzania's gross domestic product in 2016[128] and employed 11.0 percent of the country's labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013.[129] Overall receipts rose from US $1.74 billion in 2004 to US $4.48 billion in 2013,[129] and receipts from international tourists rose from US $1.255 billion in 2010 to US $2 billion in 2016.[128][130] In 2016, 1,284,279 tourists arrived at Tanzania's borders compared to 590,000 in 2005.[105] The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar
Zanzibar
or a "northern circuit" of Serengeti
Serengeti
National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and Mount Kilimanjaro.[53]:page 1252 In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti
Serengeti
(452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949).[42]:page xx Banking[edit] The Bank of Tanzania
Bank of Tanzania
is the central bank of Tanzania
Tanzania
and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling
Tanzanian shilling
notes and coins.[131] At the end of 2013, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry were 19.5 trillion Tanzanian shillings, a 15 percent increase over 2012.[132] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Tanzania

One of the main trunk roads

Air Tanzania
Air Tanzania
is the flag carrier

Most transport in Tanzania
Tanzania
is by road, with road transport constituting over 75 percent of the country's freight traffic and 80 percent of its passenger traffic.[53]:page 1252 The 86,500 kilometres (53,700 mi) road system is in generally poor condition.[53]:page 1252 Tanzania
Tanzania
has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
and Kapiri Mposhi
Kapiri Mposhi
(in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania
Tanzania
Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania.[53]:page 1252 Rail travel in Tanzania
Tanzania
often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays, and the railways have a deficient safety record.[53]:page 1252 Tanzania
Tanzania
has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips. Airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition.[53]:page 1253 Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.[53]:page 1253 Communications[edit] Main article: Telecommunications in Tanzania In 2013, the communications sector was the fastest growing in Tanzania, expanding 22.8 percent; however, the sector accounted for only 2.4 percent of gross domestic product that year.[117]:page 2 As of 2011, Tanzania
Tanzania
had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average.[53]:page 1253 Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones.[53]:page 1253 Approximately 12 percent of Tanzanians used the internet as of 2011[update], though this number is growing rapidly.[53]:page 1253 The country has a fibre-optic cable network that replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low.[53]:page 1253 Water supply and sanitation[edit] Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania

Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa
Africa
as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3

Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania
Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania
has been characterised by decreasing access to improved water sources in the 2000s (especially in urban areas), steady access to some form of sanitation (around 93 percent since the 1990s), intermittent water supplies, and generally low quality of service.[133] Many utilities are barely able to cover their operation and maintenance costs through revenues because of low tariffs and poor efficiency. There are significant regional differences, with the best performing utilities being Arusha, Moshi, and Tanga.[134] The government of Tanzania
Tanzania
has embarked on a major sector reform process since 2002. An ambitious National Water Sector Development Strategy that promotes integrated water resources management and the development of urban and rural water supply was adopted in 2006. Decentralisation has meant that responsibility for water and sanitation service provision has shifted to local government authorities and is carried out by 20 urban utilities and about 100 district utilities, as well as by Community Owned Water Supply Organisations in rural areas.[133] These reforms have been backed by a significant increase of the budget starting in 2006, when the water sector was included among the priority sectors of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty MKUKUTA. The Tanzanian water sector remains heavily dependent on external donors, with 88 percent of the available funds being provided by external donor organisations.[135] Results have been mixed. For example, a report by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit noted that "despite heavy investments brought in by the World Bank
World Bank
and the European Union, (the utility serving Dar es Salaam) has remained one of the worst performing water entities in Tanzania."[136] Science and technology[edit]

Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa
Africa
per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year

Main article: Science and technology in Tanzania Tanzania's first "National Science and Technology Policy" was adopted in 1996. The objective of the government’s "Vision 2025" (1998) document was to "transform the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed by science and technology". Under the umbrella of the One UN Initiative, UNESCO and Tanzanian government departments and agencies formulated a series of proposals in 2008 for revising the "National Science and Technology Policy". The total reform budget of US$10 million was financed from the One UN fund and other sources. UNESCO provided support for mainstreaming science, technology, and innovation into the new "National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy" for the mainland and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
namely, Mkukuta II and Mkuza II, including in the field of tourism. Tanzania's revised science policy was published in 2010. Entitled "National Research and Development Policy", it recognizes the need to improve the process of prioritization of research capacities, develop international co-operation in strategic areas of research and development, and improve planning for human resources. It also makes provisions for the establishment of a National Research Fund. This policy was, in turn, reviewed in 2012 and 2013.[137]

Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded

In 2010, Tanzania
Tanzania
devoted 0.38 percent of GDP to research and development. The global average in 2013 was 1.7 percent of GDP. Tanzania
Tanzania
had 69 researchers (in head counts) per million population in 2010. In 2014, Tanzania
Tanzania
counted 15 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). The average for sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was 20 publications per million inhabitants and the global average 176 publications per million inhabitants. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Tanzania

Population in Tanzania[7]

Year Million

1950 7.9

2000 35.1

2016 55.6

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923.[8] The under 15 age group represented 44.1 percent of the population.[138] The population distribution in Tanzania
Tanzania
is uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.[53]:page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region
Katavi Region
to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region.[8]:page 6 Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967.[139] Dar es Salaam (population 4,364,541)[140] is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma
Dodoma
(population 410,956)[140], is located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country, and hosts the National Assembly.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Tanzania 2012 Census General Report, March 2013 Combined Final for Printing

Rank Name Region Pop.

Dar es Salaam

Mwanza 1 Dar es Salaam Dar es Salaam 4,364,541

Arusha

Dodoma

2 Mwanza Mwanza 706,543

3 Arusha Arusha 416,442

4 Dodoma Dodoma 410,956

5 Mbeya Mbeya 385,279

6 Morogoro Morogoro 315,866

7 Tanga Tanga 273,332

8 Kahama Shinyanga 242,208

9 Tabora Tabora 226,999

10 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City Zanzibar
Zanzibar
West 223,033

The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers

The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups.[141] The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples each have a population exceeding 1 million.[142]:page 4 Approximately 99 percent of Tanzanians are of African descent, with small numbers of Arab, European, and Asian descent.[141] The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu.[143] The population also includes people of Arab and Indian origin, and small European and Chinese communities.[144] Many also identify as Shirazis. Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution of 1964.[43] As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans lived in Tanzania.[145] Some albinos in Tanzania
Tanzania
have been the victims of violence in recent years.[146][147][148][149] Attacks are often to hack off the limbs of albinos in the perverse superstitious belief that possessing the bones of albinos will bring wealth. The country has banned witch doctors to try to prevent the practice, but it has continued and albinos remain targets.[150] According to 2010 Tanzanian government statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania
Tanzania
was 5.4 children born per woman, with 3.7 in urban mainland areas, 6.1 in rural mainland areas, and 5.1 in Zanzibar.[151]:page 55 For all women aged 45–49, 37.3 percent had given birth to eight or more children, and for currently married women in that age group, 45.0 percent had given birth to that many children.[151]:page 61 Religion[edit]

Religion in Tanzania
Religion in Tanzania
(2014)

Christianity

61.4%

Islam

35.2%

Indigenous beliefs

1.8%

Other

1.6%

Source: CIA World Factbook[152]

Azania Front Lutheran Church
Azania Front Lutheran Church
built by German missionaries in 1898

Gaddafi Mosque
Gaddafi Mosque
in the capital Dodoma
Dodoma
is the second largest mosque in East Africa

Main articles: Religion in Tanzania
Religion in Tanzania
and Islam
Islam
in Zanzibar Official statistics on religion are unavailable because religious surveys were eliminated from government census reports after 1967. Religious leaders and sociologists estimated in 2007 that Muslim and Christian communities were approximately equal in size, each accounting for 30 to 40 percent of the population, with the remainder consisting of practitioners of other faiths, indigenous religions, and people of "no religion".[153] According to an estimate from 2014, 61.4 percent of the population was Christian, 35.2 percent was Muslim, 1.8 percent practiced traditional African religions, 1.4 percent were unaffiliated with any religion, and 0.2 followed other religions. Nearly the entire population of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is Muslim.[15] Of Muslims, 16 percent are Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
(although they are often not considered Muslims), 20 percent are non-denominational Muslims, 40 percent are Sunni, 20 percent are Shia, and 4% are Sufi.[154] The Christian population is mostly composed of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Among Protestants, the large number of Lutherans
Lutherans
and Moravians points to the German past of the country, while the number of Anglicans
Anglicans
point to the British history of Tanganyika. Pentecostals and Adventists
Adventists
are also present because of missionary activity. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.[155] There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus, and Bahá'ís.[156] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Tanzania

A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar

More than 100 languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[21] Among the languages spoken are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan.[21] There are no de jure official languages in Tanzania.[22] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education,[21] The Tanzanian government, however, has plans to discontinue English as a language of instruction.[23] In connection with his Ujamaa
Ujamaa
social policies, President Nyerere
Nyerere
encouraged the use of Swahili to help unify the country's many ethnic groups.[157] Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.[21] Many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English.[158][159][160] The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country.[21][161] Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas.[162] Ethnic community languages (ECL) other than Kiswahili are not allowed as a language of instruction. Nor are they taught as a subject, though they might be used unofficially (illegally) in some cases in initial education. Television and radio programmes in an ECL are prohibited, and it is nearly impossible to get permission to publish a newspaper in an ECL. There is no department of local or regional African Languages and Literatures at the University of Dar es Salaam.[163] The Sandawe people
Sandawe people
speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana
Botswana
and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate.[164] The language of the Iraqw people
Iraqw people
is Cushitic.[165] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Tanzania

Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam

In 2012, the literacy rate in Tanzania
Tanzania
for persons aged 15 and over was estimated to be 67.8 percent.[166] Education is compulsory until children reach age 15.[167] In 2010, 74.1 percent of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school.[167] The primary school completion rate was 80.8 percent in 2012.[167] Healthcare[edit] Main article: Healthcare in Tanzania As of 2012[update], life expectancy at birth was 61 years.[168] The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births.[168] The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births.[168] Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old.[169] The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV, and measles.[169] Malaria
Malaria
in Tanzania
Tanzania
causes death and disease and has a "huge economic impact".[170]:page 13 There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008.[170]:page 12 In 2007–08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1 percent) on the western shore of Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and lowest in the Arusha
Arusha
Region (0.1 percent).[170]:page 12 According to the 2010 Tanzania
Tanzania
Demographic and Health Survey 2010, 15 percent of Tanzanian women had undergone female genital mutilation (FGM)[151]:page 295 and 72 percent of Tanzanian men had been circumcised.[151]:page 230 FGM is most common in the Manyara, Dodoma, Arusha, and Singida regions and nonexistent in Zanzibar.[151]:page 296 The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90 percent in the eastern (Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Morogoro
Morogoro
regions), northern (Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central areas ( Dodoma
Dodoma
and Singida regions) and below 50 percent only in the southern highlands zone (Mbeya, Iringa, and Rukwa
Rukwa
regions).[151]:pages 6, 230 2012 data showed that 53 percent of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that "by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter") and 12 percent used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that "likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact" but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).[171] HIV/AIDS[edit] Main article: HIV/AIDS in Tanzania The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
estimated in 2012 that the prevalence of HIV
HIV
was 3.1 percent,[168] although the Tanzania
Tanzania
HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12 found that, on average, 5.1 percent of those tested in the 15 to 49 age group were HIV-positive.[172] Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people living with HIV
HIV
was 37 percent in 2013, compared to 19 percent in 2011.[173] According to a 2013 report published by the Joint United Nations
United Nations
Programme on HIV
HIV
and AIDS that compares 2012 with 2001 data, AIDS deaths have decreased 33 percent, new HIV
HIV
infections have decreased 36 percent, and new HIV infections among children have decreased 67 percent.[174] Women[edit] Main article: Women in Tanzania Women and men have equality for the law.[175] The government signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1985.[175] Nearly 3 out of ten females reported having experienced sexual violence before the age of 18. [175] The prevalence of female genital mutilation has decreased.[175] School girls are reinstated back to school after delivery.[175] The Police
Police
Force administration strives to separate the Gender Desks from normal police operations to enhance confidentiality of the processing of women victims of abuse.[175] Most of the abuses and violence against women and children occurs at the family level.[175] The Constitution
Constitution
of Tanzania
Tanzania
requires that women to constitute at least 30% of all elected members of National Assembly.[175] The gender differences in education and training have implications later in life of these women and girls.[175] Unemployment
Unemployment
is higher for females than for males.[175] The right of a female employee to maternity leave is guaranteed in labour law.[175] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Tanzania

Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer

Literature[edit] Main article: Tanzanian literature Tanzania's literary culture is primarily oral.[142]:page 68 Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs.[142]:page 69 The greatest part of Tanzania's recorded oral literature is in Swahili, even though each of the country's languages has its own oral tradition.[142]:pages 68–9 The country's oral literature has been declining because of the breakdown of the multigenerational social structure, making transmission of oral literature more difficult, and because increasing modernisation has been accompanied by the devaluation of oral literature.[142]:page 69 Tanzania's written literary tradition is relatively undeveloped. Tanzania
Tanzania
does not have a lifelong reading culture, and books are often expensive and hard to come by.[142]:page 75[176]:page 16 Most Tanzanian literature
Tanzanian literature
is in Swahili or English.[142]:page 75 Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert (considered the father of Swahili literature), Muhammed Saley Farsy, Faraji Katalambulla, Adam Shafi Adam, Muhammed Said Abdalla, Said Ahmed Mohammed Khamis, Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed, Euphrase Kezilahabi, Gabriel Ruhumbika, Ebrahim Hussein, May Materru Balisidya, Fadhy Mtanga, Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina O. Mlama.[142]:pages 76–8 Painting and sculpture[edit]

A Tingatinga painting

Two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition.[176]:papge 17 The Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga, consists of brightly coloured enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life.[142]:page 113[176]:papge 17 After Tingatinga's death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style, with the genre now being the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa.[142]:page 113[176]:papge 17 Historically, there were limited opportunities for formal European art training in Tanzania
Tanzania
and many aspiring Tanzanian artists left the country to pursue their vocation.[176]:papge 17 Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Tanzania Football is very popular throughout the country.[177] The most popular professional football clubs in Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
are the Young Africans F.C. and Simba S.C.[178] The Tanzania Football Federation
Tanzania Football Federation
is the governing body for football in the country. Other popular sports include netball, boxing, volleyball, athletics, and rugby.[177][179] Cinema[edit] Tanzania
Tanzania
has a popular film industry known as Swahiliwood. See also[edit]

Music of Tanzania Media of Tanzania Human rights in Tanzania Index of Tanzania-related articles Outline of Tanzania Zanzibari cuisine The IMF in Tanzania

Notes[edit]

^ +007 from Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda.

 Sources[edit]

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO. 3.0 UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, UNESCO. To learn how to add open-license text to articles, please see:Adding open license text to. For information on reusing text from, please see the terms of use.

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of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

partly in Africa

France

Mayotte Réunion

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Portugal

Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Yemen

Socotra

Territories and dependencies

Îles Éparses

France

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

UK

Southern Provinces
Southern Provinces
(Western Sahara)1

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

1 Unclear sovereignty.

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Countries and regions in the Somali Plate

Countries

Somalia Madagascar Seychelles Comoros Uganda Kenya Tanzania Swaziland Mozambique

Regions

Somaliland Réunion Mayotte Mauritius KwaZulu-Natal Khatumo Somali Region

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Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean

Africa

Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea France

Mayotte Réunion

Kenya Madagascar Mauritius Mozambique Rodrigues
Rodrigues
(Mauritius) Seychelles Somalia South Africa Sudan Tanzania Zanzibar, Tanzania

Asia

Bangladesh British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory

Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
- United Kingdom

Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia) India Indonesia Malaysia Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste Yemen

Other

Antarctica

Australian Antarctic Territory French Southern and Antarctic Lands Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Australia

International membership

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Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC)

Member states

Angola Botswana Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

Leaders

Chairpersons

Levy Mwanawasa Kgalema Motlanthe

Secretaries-General

Kaire Mbuende Prega Ramsamy Tomaz Salomão

See also

Southern African Development Coordination Conference (forerunner) Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union
(SACU) Common Monetary Area
Common Monetary Area
(CMA) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
(COMESA)

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African Union
African Union
(AU)

History

Pan-Africanism Casablanca Group Monrovia Group Abuja Treaty Sirte Declaration Lome Summit

Organisation of African Unity

Chairperson Secretary General

Geography

Borders Extreme points Member states Regions

Organs

Executive Council Permanent Representatives' Committee Specialized Technical Committees

Assembly

Chairperson

Commission

Chairperson Deputy Chairperson AUCC

Pan-African Parliament

Bureau Secretariat Gallagher Estate

African Court of Justice

African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights

ECOSOCC Committees

Peace and Security Political Affairs Infrastructure and Energy Social Affairs and Health HR, Sciences and Technology Trade and Industry Rural Economy and Agriculture Economic Affairs Women and Gender Cross-Cutting Programs

Financial Institutions

AFRA Commission African Central Bank African Monetary Fund African Investment Bank

Peace and Security Council

ACIRC African Standby Force Panel of the Wise UNAMID AMIB AMIS AMISOM MISCA

Politics

APRM Foreign relations African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights Enlargement

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Economy

Currencies Development Bank African Economic Community NEPAD African Free Trade Zone Tripartite Free Trade Area

Culture

Africa
Africa
Day Languages

Theory

Afro United States of Africa United States of Latin Africa

Category

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

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Former German colonies and protectorates

Colonies

Africa

East Africa

Kionga Triangle Wituland

South-West Africa West Africa

Kamerun

Neukamerun

Togoland

Pacific

New Guinea Samoa

Concessions

China

Kiautschou

Tsingtao

Tientsin

Unrecognised

Antarctica

New Swabia
New Swabia
(claimed by Nazi Germany)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131265957 LCCN: n80121275 ISNI: 0000 0001 2158 6299 GND: 4078149-5 SELIBR: 158819 SUDOC: 028045521 BNF: cb15238456g (data) HDS: 3469 NDL: 00572706 BNE: XX451594

Africa
Africa
portal Geography port

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