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Coordinates : 6°18′25″S 34°51′14″E / 6.307°S 34.854°E / -6.307; 34.854

United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania _Jamhuri Ya Muungano wa Tanzania_ (Swahili )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "Uhuru na Umoja" (Swahili) " Freedom and Unity
Freedom and Unity
"

ANTHEM: _ Mungu ibariki Afrika
Mungu ibariki Afrika
_ _God Bless Africa_

Location of Tanzania
Tanzania
(dark blue)

in the African Union
African Union
(light blue)

_

CAPITAL Dodoma
Dodoma

LARGEST CITY Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES None de jure_

NATIONAL LANGUAGE Swahili

OTHER LANGUAGES English

RELIGION (2010 estimate) Christians 61.4% Muslims 35.2% Folk Religion
Religion
1.8% Irreligious 1.4% Other 0.2%

DEMONYM Tanzanian

GOVERNMENT Unitary presidential socialist republic

• PRESIDENT John Pombe Magufuli

• VICE PRESIDENT Samia Suluhu

• PRIME MINISTER Kassim Majaliwa
Kassim Majaliwa

• SPEAKER Job Ndugai

• CHIEF JUSTICE Mohamed Chande Othman

LEGISLATURE National Assembly

INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM

• TANGANYIKA 9 December 1961

• ZANZIBAR AND PEMBA 10 December 1963

• MERGER 26 April 1964

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION 25 April 1977

AREA

• TOTAL 947,303 km2 (365,756 sq mi) (31st )

• WATER (%) 6.4

POPULATION

• 2014 ESTIMATE 51,820,000 (28th )

• 2012 CENSUS 44,928,923

• DENSITY 47.5/km2 (123.0/sq mi)

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $163.522 billion

• PER CAPITA $3,296

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $51.194 billion

• PER CAPITA $1,032

GINI (2012) 37.8 medium

HDI (2015) 0.531 low · 151st

CURRENCY Tanzanian shilling
Tanzanian shilling
(TZS )

TIME ZONE EAT (UTC +3)

DRIVES ON THE left

CALLING CODE +255

ISO 3166CODE TZ

INTERNET TLD .tz

* Revised to $41.33 billion

TANZANIA /ˌtænzəˈniːə/ , officially the UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA (Swahili : _Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania_), is a country in Eastern Africa
Africa
within the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. Parts of the country are in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
. It is bordered by Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
to the north; Rwanda
Rwanda
, Burundi
Burundi
, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the west; Zambia
Zambia
, Malawi
Malawi
, and Mozambique
Mozambique
to the south; and by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the east. Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.

Tanzania's population of 51.82 million (2014) is diverse, composed of several ethnic , linguistic , and religious groups. Tanzania
Tanzania
is a presidential constitutional republic , and since 1996, its official capital city has been Dodoma
Dodoma
, where the President's Office, the National Assembly , and some government ministries are located. Dar es Salaam , the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania
Tanzania
is a one party dominant state with the socialist-progressive Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2015 . The CCM holds approximately 75% of the seats in the assembly.

Prehistoric population migrations include Southern Cushitic speakers, who are ancestral to the Iraqw , Gorowa , and Burunge and who moved south from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
into Tanzania. Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania
Tanzania
of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes , including the Datoog , moved south from the present-day South Sudan
South Sudan
- Ethiopia
Ethiopia
border region into central northern Tanzania
Tanzania
between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. :page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa
West Africa
in the Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams . They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania, between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago. European colonialism
European colonialism
began in mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa
Africa
, which gave way to British rule following World War I
World War I
. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika
Tanganyika
, with the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic
Republic
of Tanzania.

Tanzania
Tanzania
is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
is located. Three of Africa\'s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid , with the Zanzibar Archipelagojust offshore. The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa
Rukwa
are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa
Africa
and are located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania
Tanzania
, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken in Tanzania
Tanzania
are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu , Cushitic , Nilotic , and Khoisan . Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages. A highly multilingual country, Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school ; and English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy , in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government plans to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. In connection with his Ujamaa
Ujamaa
social policies, President Nyerere
Nyerere
encouraged the use of Swahili; as a means of unifying the country's many ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90% speak it as a second language . Most Tanzanians thus speak both Swahili and a local language; many educated Tanzanians are trilingual ; also speaking English. The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country . Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language , mostly in urban areas .

Tanzania- Malawi
Malawi
relations have been tense because of a dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa
Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue happened in March 2014. The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful. Malawi , but not Tanzania, has accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-colonial * 2.2 Colonial * 2.3 Post-colonial

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Wildlife and conservation

* 4 Politics

* 4.1 Government * 4.2 Executive * 4.3 Legislature * 4.4 Judiciary * 4.5 Human rights * 4.6 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 4.7 Administrative subdivisions

* 4.8 Foreign relations

* 4.8.1 Bilateral relations * 4.8.2 Multilateral relations

* 4.9 Military

* 5 Economy and infrastructure

* 5.1 Poverty * 5.2 Agriculture * 5.3 Industry and construction * 5.4 Tourism * 5.5 Banking * 5.6 Transport * 5.7 Communications * 5.8 Water supply and sanitation

* 6 Science and technology

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Religion
Religion
* 7.2 Languages * 7.3 Education * 7.4 Healthcare * 7.5 HIV/AIDS

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Media * 8.3 Literature * 8.4 Painting and sculpture * 8.5 Food * 8.6 Sports

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 Sources * 12 References * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
.

The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words _tanga_ ("sail") and _nyika_ ("uninhabited plain", "wilderness"), creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness". It is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
.

The name of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
comes from "zengi", the name for a local people (said to mean "black"), and the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Tanzaniaand History of Zanzibar A 1.8 million year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and currently on display at the British Museum
British Museum

PRE-COLONIAL

The indigenous populations of eastern Africa
Africa
are thought to be the click speaking Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. :page 17

The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers, who are ancestral to the Iraqw , Gorowa , and Burunge and who moved south from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
into Tanzania. :page 17 Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania
Tanzania
of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
. :pages 17–18

Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes , including the Datoog , moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia
Ethiopia
border region into central northern Tanzania
Tanzania
between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. :page 18

These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa
West Africa
in the Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams . They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.

Eastern Nilotic peoples, including the Maasai , represent a more recent migration from present day South Sudan
South Sudan
within the past 1,500 to 500 years.

The people of Tanzania
Tanzania
have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Pare peoplewere the main producers of highly demanded iron for peoples who occupied the mountain regions of northeastern Tanzania. The Haya peopleon the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace , which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.

Travelers and merchants from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and India
India
have visited the east African coast since early in the first millennium A.D. Islam was practiced by some on the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
as early as the eighth or ninth century A.D.

COLONIAL

A 1572 depiction of the city of Kilwa
Kilwa
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

In 1498, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
visited the Tanzanian coast. Later, in 1506, the Portuguese succeeded in controlling most of the Southeast African littoral. In 1698, the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar
Zanzibar
by Omani
Omani
Arabs .

Claiming the coastal strip, Omani
Omani
Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital to Zanzibar City
Zanzibar City
in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became the centre for the Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
. Between 65% and 90% of the population of Arab
Arab
-Swahili Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was enslaved. One of the most infamous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was himself the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiriand Mirambo. According to Timothy Insoll, "Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast." In the 1890s slavery was abolished, though history of the events can still be seen around the country. Maji Maji Rebellion
Maji Maji Rebellion
against German colonial rule in 1905

In the late 19th century, Imperial Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania
Tanzania
(minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into German East Africa
East Africa
. The post– World War I
World War I
accords and the League of Nations charter designated the area a British Mandate , except for the Kionga Triangle , a small area in the southeast that was incorporated into Portuguese East Africa
East Africa
(later Mozambique
Mozambique
).

During World War II
World War II
, about 100,000 people from Tanganyika
Tanganyika
joined the Allied forces and were among the 375,000 Africans who fought with those forces. Tanganyikans fought in units of the King\'s African Rifles during the East African Campaign in Somalia
Somalia
and Abyssinia against the Italians, in Madagascar
Madagascar
against the Vichy Frenchduring the Madagascar
Madagascar
Campaign , and in Burma
Burma
against the Japanese during the Burma
Burma
Campaign . Tanganyika
Tanganyika
was an important source of food during this war, and its export income increased greatly compared to the pre-war years of the Great Depression
Great Depression
Wartime demand, however, caused increased commodity prices and massive inflation within the colony.

In 1954, Julius Nyerere
Nyerere
transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika
Tanganyika
African National Union (TANU) . TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika
Tanganyika
. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika
Tanganyika
in 1960 and continued as prime minister when Tanganyika
Tanganyika
became independent in 1961.

POST-COLONIAL

British rule came to an end on December 9, 1961, but for the first year of independence, Tanganyika
Tanganyika
had a governor general who represented the British monarch. :page 6 On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika
Tanganyika
became a democratic republic under an executive president. :page 6

After the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution overthrew the Arab
Arab
dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar
Zanzibar
, which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on 26 April 1964. On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania
Tanzania
("Tan" comes from Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and "Zan" from Zanzibar). The union of the two hitherto separate regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere
Nyerere
government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
owing to shared political values and goals. Arusha Declaration Monument
Arusha Declaration Monument

In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha Declaration
Arusha Declaration
, which codified a commitment to socialism as well-as Pan-Africanism
Pan-Africanism
. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised.

Tanzania
Tanzania
was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
to Zambia
Zambia
. Nonetheless, from the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse, in the context of an international economic crisis affecting both developed and developing economies.

From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced, according to a report by the World Bank.

In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzaniawas amended to allow multiple political parties. In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chama Cha Mapinduzi
won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapawas elected as president.

GEOGRAPHY

Main articles: Geography of Tanzaniaand Zanzibar Archipelago An elephant passing by the snow-capped Mt. Kilimanjaro Ngorongoro Crater , the world's largest inactive and intact volcanic caldera Tanzania
Tanzania
map of Köppen climate classification

At 947,303 square kilometres (365,756 sq mi), Tanzania
Tanzania
is the 13th largest country in Africa
Africa
and the 31st largest in the world, ranked between the larger Egypt
Egypt
and smaller Nigeria
Nigeria
. It borders Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
to the north; Rwanda
Rwanda
, Burundi
Burundi
, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the west; and Zambia
Zambia
, Malawi
Malawi
, and Mozambique
Mozambique
to the south. Tanzania
Tanzania
is located on the eastern coast of Africa
Africa
and has an Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
coastline approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. :page 1245 It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja
Unguja
(Zanzibar), Pemba , and Mafia . :page 1245 The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
, at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level, and the floor of Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
, at 352 metres (1,155 ft) below sea level, respectively. :page 1245 Wildebeest
Wildebeest
migration in the Serengeti
Serengeti

Tanzania
Tanzania
is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
is located. Three of Africa\'s Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa . Central Tanzania
Tanzania
is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.

The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa
Rukwa
are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa
Africa
and are located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika
Tanganyika
on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Areais Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Tanzania

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Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions.

Tanzania
Tanzania
has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
extending east to the coast. The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone .

WILDLIFE AND CONSERVATION

Main article: Wildlife of Tanzania A tower of giraffes at Arusha National Park. The giraffe is the national animal .

Approximately 38% of Tanzania's land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation. Tanzania
Tanzania
has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area . In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Parkis the site of Jane Goodall
Jane Goodall
's ongoing study of chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960.

Tanzania
Tanzania
is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats. On Tanzania's Serengeti
Serengeti
plain, white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania
Tanzania
is also home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
's Red Lists of different countries. Tanzania
Tanzania
has developed a Biodiversity Action Plan
Biodiversity Action Plan
to address species conservation.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Tanzania
Politics of Tanzania

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Constitution of Tanzania

Tanzania
Tanzania
is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when amendments to the Constitution :§ 3 and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2010 . The CCM holds approximately 75% of the seats in the assembly.

In October 2015, Tanzania
Tanzania
announced that John Pombe Magufuliwon the presidential election, securing a two-thirds majority in parliament. The other party or main party in Tanzania
Tanzania
is called Chadema, and is favoured by one of the country's major towns, Arusha.

EXECUTIVE

President John Magufuli Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa
Kassim Majaliwa

The President of Tanzania
President of Tanzania
and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms. :§ 42(2) The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket. :§§ 47(2), 50(1) Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly. :§ 66(2) The president appoints a prime minister , subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly. :§§ 51(1)-(2), 52(2) The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members. :§ 55

LEGISLATURE

All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
and union matters is vested in the National Assembly , :§ 64(1) which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members. These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president. :§ 66(1) The Tanzania
Tanzania
Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president. :§ 75

JUDICIARY

See also: Chief Justice of Tanzania

Tanzania's legal system is based on English common law .

Tanzania
Tanzania
has a four-level judiciary. The lowest level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts. In Zanzibar, the lowest level courts are the Kadhi's Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases. On the mainland, appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. In Zanzibar, appeal is to the Kadhi's Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases. From there, appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
or Zanzibar
Zanzibar
. No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar. :§ 99(1) Otherwise, the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania.

The High Court of mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
has three divisions – commercial, labour, and land – and 15 geographic zones. The High Court of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has an industrial division, which hears only labour disputes.

Mainland and union judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania
Tanzania
, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania. : §§ 109(1), 118(2)-(3)

Tanzania
Tanzania
is a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court .

HUMAN RIGHTS

See also: Human rights in Tanzaniaand Persecution of people with albinism

Throughout Tanzania, sex acts between men are illegal and carry a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. According to the Pew Research Center survey, 95% of Tanzanians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.

People with albinism living in Tanzania
Tanzania
are often attacked, killed or mutilated because of superstitions that say body parts of albinos contain magical properties.

ZANZIBAR

The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago

The legislative authority in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
over all non-union matters is vested in the House of Representatives (per the Tanzania
Tanzania
constitution) :§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
constitution).

The Legislative Council has two parts: the President of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and the House of Representatives. :§ 107(1)-(2) :§ 63(1) The President is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is invested. :§§ 5A(2), 26(1) Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the House.

The President and the members of the House of Representatives have five-year terms. :§ 28(2)

The President selects ministers from members of the House of Representatives, :§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of House seats won by political parties. The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president.

The House of Representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30% of the elected members. :§§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The House determines the number of its elected members :§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency. :§ 120(1) In 2013, the House has a total of 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.

ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS

Main articles: Regions of Tanzania
Regions of Tanzania
, Districts of Tanzania
Districts of Tanzania
, and Subdivisions of Tanzania Regions of Tanzania
Regions of Tanzania

In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. In 1999, a Local Government Reform Programme was enacted by the National Assembly , setting "a comprehensive and ambitious agenda ... four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having over-riding powers within the framework of the Constitution."

As of 2016, Tanzania
Tanzania
is divided into thirty-one regions (_mkoa_), twenty-six on the mainland and five in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(three on Unguja
Unguja
, two on Pemba ). In 2012, the thirty former regions were divided into 169 districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities. Of those districts, 34 were urban units, which were further classified as three city councils ( Arusha
Arusha
, Mbeya
Mbeya
, and Mwanza
Mwanza
), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils.

The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and _mtaa_. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into _vitongoji_.

The city of Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
is unique because it has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and "Nominated members of parliament under ' Special
Special
Seats' for women". Each municipal council also has a mayor. "The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities", including security and emergency services.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Tanzania

Bilateral Relations

Tanzanian Embassy in West End , Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, USA.

Apart from its border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania
Tanzania
had cordial relations with its neighbours in 2012.

Relations between Tanzania
Tanzania
and Malawi
Malawi
have been tense because of a dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa
Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue took place in March 2014. :page 1250 The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful. Malawi
Malawi
, but not Tanzania, has accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ.

Relations between Tanzania
Tanzania
and Rwanda
Rwanda
deteriorated in 2013 when Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete
Jakaya Kikwete
said that if the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (DRC) could negotiate with some of its enemies, Rwanda
Rwanda
should be able to do the same. Rwandan President Paul Kagame then expressed "contempt" for Kikwete's statement. The tension was renewed in May 2014 when, in a speech to the Tanzanian National Assembly , Foreign Affairs Minister Bernard Memberenewed his claim that Rwandans were causing instability in the DRC. Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwaboresponded, "As for Tanzania's foreign minister whose anti- Rwanda
Rwanda
rant in parliament I heard, he would benefit from a lesson in the history of the region."

Tanzania–China relationshave strengthened in recent years as trade between the two countries and Chinese investment in Tanzanian infrastructure have increased rapidly. :page 1250

Relations with the United States are warm, with President Barack Obama visiting Tanzania
Tanzania
in 2013.

Tanzania's relations with other donor countries, including Japan
Japan
and members of the European Union
European Union
, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania's commitment to reducing government corruption. :page 1250

Multilateral Relations

Tanzania
Tanzania
is a member of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi. According to the East African Common Market Protocol of 2010, the free trade and free movement of people is guaranteed, including the right to reside in another member country for purposes of employment. :page 1250 This protocol, however, has not been implemented because of work permit and other bureaucratic, legal, and financial obstacles.

Tanzania
Tanzania
is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
agreed in June 2011 to negotiate the creation of a Tripartite Free Trade Areaspanning 26 African countries, with a goal to complete the first phase of negotiations within 36 months.

As of 31 October 2014, Tanzania
Tanzania
was contributing 2,253 soldiers and other personnel to various United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping operations. The Tanzanian military is participating along with South African and Malawian militaries in the United Nations
United Nations
Force Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (DRC). The United Nations Security Council authorised the force on 28 March 2013 to conduct targeted offensive operations to neutralise groups that threaten peace in the DRC. Tanzania
Tanzania
was also participating in peacekeeping missions in the Darfur
Darfur
Region of Sudan
Sudan
( UNAMID); Abyei
Abyei
, control of which is contested between South Sudan
South Sudan
and Sudan
Sudan
( UNISFA); the Central African Republic
Republic
(MINUSCA); Lebanon
Lebanon
( UNIFIL
UNIFIL
); and South Sudan
Sudan
( UNMISS).

MILITARY

Tanzanian special forces during a training exercise Main article: Tanzania
Tanzania
People\'s Defence Force

The armed forces consists of the army, navy and air force . The current Chief of Defence Forces is General Venance Salvatory Mabeyo . The armed forces was engaged in the Uganda–Tanzania War, the Mozambican Civil Warand most recently the 2008 invasion of Anjouan
2008 invasion of Anjouan
.

Tanzania
Tanzania
is also involved in the following United Nations peacekeeping missions: UNAMID(Sudan), UNIFIL
UNIFIL
(Lebanon) and Force Intervention Brigade (part of MONUSCO
MONUSCO
in DR Congo).

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Main articles: Economy of Tanzaniaand Poverty in Tanzania Bank of Tanzania
Tanzania
Twin Towers

Tanzania
Tanzania
is one of the poorest countries in the world. As of 2014 , Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated $43.8 billion, or $86.4 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Tanzania
Tanzania
is a middle-power country, with a per capita GDP of $1,813 (PPP), which was 32% below the average of $2,673 for the 45 sub-Saharan African countries and ranked 23rd among those countries.

From 2009 through 2013, Tanzania's per capita GDP (based on constant local currency) grew an average of 3.5% per year, higher than any other member of the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC) and exceeded by only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo , Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Ghana
Ghana
, Lesotho
Lesotho
, Liberia
Liberia
, Mozambique
Mozambique
, Sierra Leone , Zambia
Zambia
, and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
.

Tanzania's largest trading partners in 2012 for its US $5.5 billion in exports were South Africa
South Africa
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, and China
China
. Its imports totalled US $11.7 billion, with Switzerland, China, and the United Arab
Arab
Emirates being the biggest partners. Kariakoo
Kariakoo
market in Dar es Salaam

Tanzania
Tanzania
weathered the Great Recession
Great Recession
, which began in late 2008 or early 2009, relatively well. Strong gold prices, bolstering the country's mining industry, and Tanzania's poor integration into global markets helped to insulate the country from the downturn. :page 1250 Since the recession ended, the Tanzanian economy has expanded rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors. :page 1250

According to the United Nations
United Nations
Development Program , however, recent growth in the national economy has benefited only the "very few", leaving out the majority of the population. Tanzania's 2013 Global Hunger Index was worse than any other country in the EAC except Burundi
Burundi
. :page 15 The proportion of persons who were undernourished in 2010–12 was also worse than any other EAC country except Burundi. :page 51

POVERTY

The level of poverty in Tanzania
Tanzania
is very high. Tanzania
Tanzania
has made little progress towards reducing extreme hunger and malnutrition. The 2010 Global Hunger Index
Global Hunger Index
ranks the situation as “alarming”. Children in rural areas suffer substantially higher rates of malnutrition and chronic hunger, although urban-rural disparities have narrowed as regards both stunting and underweight. Low rural sector productivity arises mainly from inadequate infrastructure investment; limited access to farm inputs, extension services and credit; limited technology as well as trade and marketing support; and heavy dependence on rain-fed agriculture and natural resources.

Approximately 68 percent of Tanzania's 44.9 million citizens live below the poverty line of $1.25 a day and 16 percent of children under 5 are malnourished. The most prominent challenges Tanzania
Tanzania
faces in poverty reduction are unsustainable harvesting of its natural resources, unchecked cultivation, climate change and water- source encroachment, according to the United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP).

There are very few resources for Tanzanians in terms of credit services, infrastructure or availability to improved agricultural technologies, which further exacerbates hunger and poverty in the country according to the UNDP. Tanzania
Tanzania
ranks 159 out of 187 countries in poverty according to the United Nation’s Human Development Index (2014).

AGRICULTURE

Main article: Agriculture in Tanzania Tea fields in Tukuyu

The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture, which accounts for 24.5% of gross domestic product, :page 37 provides 85% of exports, and accounts for half of the employed workforce; :page 56 The agricultural sector grew 4.3% in 2012, less than half of the Millennium Development Goaltarget of 10.8%. 16.4% of the land is arable , with 2.4% of the land planted with permanent crops .

Maize was the largest food crop on the Tanzania
Tanzania
mainland in 2013 (5.17 million tonnes), followed by cassava (1.94 million tonnes), sweet potatoes (1.88 million tonnes), beans (1.64 million tonnes), bananas (1.31 million tonnes), rice (1.31 million tonnes), and millet (1.04 million tonnes). :page 58 Sugar was the largest cash crop on the mainland in 2013 (296,679 tonnes), followed by cotton (241,198 tonnes), cashew nuts (126,000 tonnes), tobacco (86,877 tonnes), coffee (48,000 tonnes), sisal (37,368 tonnes), and tea (32,422 tonnes). :page 58 Beef was the largest meat product on the mainland in 2013 (299,581 tonnes), followed by lamb/mutton (115,652 tonnes), chicken (87,408 tonnes), and pork (50,814 tonnes). :page 60

According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania
Tanzania
are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares were actually being irrigated in June 2011 .

INDUSTRY AND CONSTRUCTION

Main articles: Energy in Tanzania, Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania
Tanzania
, and Natural resource and waste management in Tanzania See also: List of companies of Tanzania Williamson diamond mine Songo Songo Gas Plant

Industry and construction is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2% of GDP in 2013. :page 37 This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction. :page 37 Mining contributed 3.3% of GDP in 2013. :page 33 The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89% of the value of those exports in 2013. :page 71 It also exports sizeable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite . :page 1251 All of Tanzania's coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically.

Only 15% of Tanzanians had access to electric power in 2011. The government-owned Tanzania
Tanzania
Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) dominates the electric supply industry in Tanzania. The country generated 6.013 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity in 2013, a 4.2% increase over the 5.771 billion kWh generated in 2012. :page 4 Generation increased by 63% between 2005 and 2012; Almost 18% of the electricity generated in 2012 was lost because of theft and transmission and distribution problems. The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary. :page 1251 The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry. :page 1251 In 2013, 49.7% of Tanzania's electricity generation came from natural gas, 28.9% from hydroelectric sources, 20.4% from thermal sources, and 1.0% from outside the country. :page 5 The government is building a 532 kilometres (331 mi) gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay to Dar es Salaam, with a scheduled completion in 2015. This pipeline is expected to allow the country to double its electricity generation capacity to 3,000 megawatts by 2016. The government's goal is to increase capacity to at least 10,000 megawatts by 2025. Nyerere
Nyerere
Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam, is Tanzania's and East Africa's only suspension bridge

According to PFC Energy, 25 to 30 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas resources have been discovered in Tanzania
Tanzania
since 2010. Bringing the total reserves to over 43 trillion cubic feet by the end of 2013,. The value of natural gas actually produced in 2013 was US $52.2 million, a 42.7% increase over 2012. :page 73

Commercial production of gas from the Songo Songo Islandfield in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
commenced in 2004, thirty years after it was discovered there. Over 35 billion cubic feet of gas was produced from this field in 2013, :page 72 with proven, probable, and possible reserves totalling 1.1 trillion cubic feet. The gas is transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam. As of 27 August 2014, TANESCOowed the operator of this field, Orca Exploration Group Inc., US $50.4 million, down from US $63.8 million two months earlier.

A newer natural gas field in Mnazi Bay in 2013 produced about one-seventh of the amount produced near Songo Songo Island:page 73 but has proven, probable, and possible reserves of 2.2 trillion cubic feet. Virtually all of that gas is being used for electricity generation in Mtwara
Mtwara
.

The Ruvuma and Nyuna regions of Tanzania
Tanzania
have been explored mostly by the discovery company that holds 75% interest, Aminex (AEX), and has shown to hold in excess of 3.5 TCF of natural gas.A pipeline connecting offshore natural gas fields to Tanzania's commercial capital Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
was completed at the end of April 2015, but technical setbacks will keep it from going online until November 2015.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Tanzania The snowcapped Uhuru Peak

Travel and tourism contributed 12.7% of Tanzania's gross domestic product and employed 11.0% of the country's labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013. The sector is growing rapidly, with overall receipts rising from US $1.74 billion in 2004 to US $4.48 billion in 2013, and receipts from international tourists rising from US $1.255 billion in 2010 to US $1.880 billion in 2013. In 2012, 1,043,000 tourists arrived at Tanzania's borders compared to 590,000 in 2005. The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar
Zanzibar
or a "northern circuit" of Serengeti
Serengeti
National Park , the Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
(NCA), Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and Mount Kilimanjaro . :page 1252 In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti
Serengeti
(452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949). :page xx According to a 2013 published report, around 600,000 people visit the NCA annually, earning 56 billion Tanzanian shillings in 2012.

BANKING

The Bank of Tanzania
Bank of Tanzania
is the central bank of Tanzania
Tanzania
and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling
Tanzanian shilling
notes and coins. At the end of 2013, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry were 19.5 trillion Tanzanian shillings, a 15% increase over 2012.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Tanzania One of the main trunk roads Air Tanzania
Air Tanzania
is the flag carrier

Most transport in Tanzania
Tanzania
is by road; road transport constitutes over 75% of the country's freight traffic and 80% of its passenger traffic. :page 1252 The 86,500-kilometer road system is in generally poor condition. :page 1252 Tanzania
Tanzania
has two railway companies: TAZARA , which provides service between Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
and Kapiri Mposhi(in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
with central and northern Tanzania. :page 1252 Rail travel in Tanzania
Tanzania
often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays; the railways also have a deficient safety record. :page 1252 Tanzania
Tanzania
has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips; airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition. :page 1253 Airlines in Tanzania
Tanzania
include Air Tanzania
Air Tanzania
, Precision Air
Precision Air
, Fastjet
Fastjet
, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir . :page 1253 Several modern hydrofoil boats provide transportation across the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
between Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
and Zanzibar.

COMMUNICATIONS

Main article: Telecommunications in Tanzania

The communications sector is the fastest growing sector in Tanzania, expanding 22.8% in 2013; however, the sector accounted for only 2.4% of gross domestic product that year. :page 2

As of 2011 , Tanzania
Tanzania
had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average. :page 1253 Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones. :page 1253 Approximately 12% of Tanzanians used the internet as of 2011 , though this number is rapidly growing. :page 1253 The country has a fibre-optic cable network that recently replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low. :page 1253

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3

Water supply and sanitation in Tanzaniais characterised by decreasing access to improved water sources in the 2000s (especially in urban areas), steady access to some form of sanitation (around 93% since the 1990s), intermittent water supply and generally low quality of service. Many utilities are barely able to cover their operation and maintenance costs through revenues due to low tariffs and poor efficiency. There are significant regional differences and the best performing utilities are Arusha
Arusha
, Moshi and Tanga .

The Government of Tanzania
Tanzania
has embarked on a major sector reform process since 2002. An ambitious National Water Sector Development Strategy that promotes integrated water resources management and the development of urban and rural water supply was adopted in 2006. Decentralisation has meant that responsibility for water and sanitation service provision has shifted to local government authorities and is carried out by 20 urban utilities and about 100 district utilities, as well as by Community Owned Water Supply Organisations in rural areas.

These reforms have been backed by a significant increase of the budget starting in 2006, when the water sector was included among the priority sectors of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty MKUKUTA. The Tanzanian water sector remains heavily dependent on external donors: 88% of the available funds are provided by external donor organisations. Results have been mixed. For example, a report by GIZ notes that "despite heavy investments brought in by the World Bank
World Bank
and the European Union
European Union
, (the utility serving Dar es Salaam ) has remained one of the worst performing water entities in Tanzania."

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year Main article: Science and technology in Tanzania
Tanzania

Tanzania's first _National Science and Technology Policy_ was adopted in 1996. The objective of the government’s _Vision 2025_ (1998) document was to ‘transform the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed by science and technology’.

Under the umbrella of the One UN Initiative, UNESCO and Tanzanian government departments and agencies formulated a series of proposals in 2008 for revising the _National Science and Technology Policy_. The total reform budget of US$10 million was financed from the One UN fund and other sources. UNESCO provided support for mainstreaming science, technology and innovation into the new _National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy_ for the mainland and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
namely, Mkukuta II and Mkuza II, including in the field of tourism.

Tanzania's revised science policy was published in 2010. Entitled _National Research and Development Policy,_ it recognizes the need to improve the process of prioritization of research capacities, develop international co-operation in strategic areas of research and development and improve planning for human resources; it also makes provisions for the establishment of a National Research Fund. This policy was, in turn, reviewed in 2012 and 2013.

In 2010, Tanzania
Tanzania
devoted 0.38% of GDP to research and development. The global average in 2013 was 1.7% Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded

of GDP. Tanzania
Tanzania
had 69 researchers (in head counts) per million population in 2010. In 2014, Tanzania
Tanzania
counted 15 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). The average for sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was 20 publications per million inhabitants and the global average 176 publications per million inhabitants.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Tanzania

POPULATION IN TANZANIA

YEAR MILLION

1950 7.9

2000 35.1

2015 49.3

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923. The under 15 age group represented 44.1% of the population.

The population distribution in Tanzania
Tanzania
is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated. :page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region . :page 6

Approximately 70% of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967. Dar es Salaam (population 4,364,541 ) is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma
Dodoma
(population 410,956 ), located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country and hosts the National Assembly .

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Tanzania 2012 Census General Report, March 2013 Combined Final for Printing

RANK NAME REGION POP.

Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam

Mwanza
Mwanza
1 Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
4,364,541

Arusha
Arusha

Dodoma
Dodoma

2 Mwanza
Mwanza
Mwanza
Mwanza
706,543

3 Arusha
Arusha
Arusha
Arusha
416,442

4 Dodoma
Dodoma
Dodoma
Dodoma
410,956

5 Mbeya
Mbeya
Mbeya
Mbeya
385,279

6 Morogoro
Morogoro
Morogoro
Morogoro
315,866

7 Tanga Tanga 273,332

8 Kahama Shinyanga 242,208

9 Tabora
Tabora
Tabora
Tabora
226,999

10 Zanzibar City
Zanzibar City
Zanzibar
Zanzibar
West 223,033

The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers

The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups . The Sukuma , Nyamwezi , Chagga , and Haya peoples have more than 1 million members each. :page 4 Approximately 99% of Tanzanians are of African descent, with small numbers of Arab, European, and Asian descent. The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu . The Nilotic peoplesinclude the nomadic Maasai and Luo , both of which are found in greater numbers in neighbouring Kenya.

The population also includes people of Arab, and Indian origin, and small European and Chinese communities. Many also identify as Shirazis . Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution of 1964. As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans lived in Tanzania.

Some albinos in Tanzania
Tanzania
have been the victims of violence in recent years. Attacks are often to hack off the limbs of albinos in the perverse superstitious belief that possessing the bones of albinos will bring wealth. The country has banned witch doctors to try to prevent the practice, but it has continued and albinos remain targets.

According to 2010 Tanzanian government statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania
Tanzania
was 5.4 children born per woman, with 3.7 in urban mainland areas, 6.1 in rural mainland areas, and 5.1 in Zanzibar. :page 55 For all women aged 45–49, 37.3% had given birth to eight or more children, and for currently married women in that age group, 45.0% had given birth to that many children. :page 61

RELIGION

RELIGION IN TANZANIA (2014)

Christianity
Christianity
  61.4%

Islam
Islam
  35.2%

Indigenous beliefs   1.8%

Other   1.6%

Source: CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook

Azania Front Lutheran Churchbuilt by German missionaries in 1898 Gaddafi Mosque
Gaddafi Mosque
in the capital Dodoma
Dodoma
is the second largest mosque in East Africa
East Africa
Main article: Religion
Religion
in Tanzania
Tanzania

Current statistics on religion are unavailable because religious surveys were eliminated from government census reports after 1967. Religious leaders and sociologists estimated in 2007 that Muslim
Muslim
and Christian
Christian
communities are approximately equal in size, each accounting for 30 to 40% of the population, with the remainder consisting of practitioners of other faiths, indigenous religions , and people of "no religion ".

According to estimates from 2014, 61.4% of the population was Christian
Christian
, 35.2% was Muslim
Muslim
, 1.8% practiced traditional African religions , 1.4% were unaffiliated with any religion, and 0.2 followed other religions. Nearly the entire population of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is Muslim
Muslim
. Of Muslims, 16% are Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
(though they are often not considered Muslims), 20% are non-denominational Muslims , 40% are Sunni
Sunni
, 20% are Shia
Shia
and 4% are Sufi.

The Christian
Christian
population is mostly composed of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Among Protestants, the large number of Lutherans
Lutherans
and Moravians points to the German past of the country, while the number of Anglicans
Anglicans
point to the British history of Tanganyika. Pentecostals and Adventists
Adventists
are also present due to missionary activity. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.

On the mainland, Muslim
Muslim
communities are concentrated in coastal areas; there are also some large Muslim
Muslim
majorities in inland urban areas and along the former caravan routes. A large majority of the Muslim
Muslim
population is Sunni. The Muslim
Muslim
population of Dar es Salaam, the largest and richest city in Tanzania, is mainly Sunni.

There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus , and Bahá'ís.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Tanzania A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar
Zanzibar

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania
Tanzania
, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken in Tanzania
Tanzania
are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu , Cushitic , Nilotic , and Khoisan . Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages.

Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school; English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government plans to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. In connection with his Ujamaa
Ujamaa
social policies, President Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili as a means of unifying the country's many ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90% speak it as a second language. Most Tanzanians thus speak both Swahili and a local language; many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English. The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country. Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas. Ethnic community languages (ECL, other than Kiswahili) are not allowed as language of instruction, neither are they taught as subject, though they might be used unofficially (illegally) in some cases in initial education. Television and radio programmes in ECL are prohibited, and it is nearly impossible to get a permission to publish a newspaper in ECL. There is no department of local or regional African Languages and Literatures at the University of Dar es Salaam.

The Sandawe people
Sandawe people
speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana
Botswana
and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people , although it has similar click consonants , is arguably a language isolate . The language of the Iraqw peopleis Cushitic.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Tanzania
Education in Tanzania
Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam

Based on 2012 data, the literacy rate in Tanzania
Tanzania
for persons aged 15 and over is estimated to be 67.8%. Education is compulsory until children reach age 15. In 2010, 74.1% of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school. The primary school completion rate was 80.8% in 2012.

HEALTHCARE

Main article: Healthcare in Tanzania
Healthcare in Tanzania

As of 2012 , life expectancy at birth was 61 years.

The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births. Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old. The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria , diarrhoea , HIV
HIV
, and measles .

Malaria
Malaria
in Tanzania
Tanzania
causes death and disease and has a "huge economic impact". :page 13 There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008. :page 12 In 2007–08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1%) on the western shore of Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria
and lowest in the Arusha
Arusha
Region (0.1%). :page 12

According to the _ Tanzania
Tanzania
Demographic and Health Survey 2010_, 15% of Tanzanian women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) :page 295 and 72% of Tanzanian men have been circumcised. :page 230 FGM is most common in the Manyara , Dodoma
Dodoma
, Arusha
Arusha
, and Singida regions and nonexistent in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
. :page 296 The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90% in the eastern ( Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
, Pwani , and Morogoro
Morogoro
regions), northern (Kilimanjaro , Tanga , Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central zones ( Dodoma
Dodoma
and Singida regions) and below 50% only in the southern highlands zone ( Mbeya
Mbeya
, Iringa , and Rukwa regions). :pages 6, 230

2012 data showed that 53% of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that "by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter") and 12% used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that "likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact" but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).

HIV/AIDS

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
estimated in 2012 that the prevalence of HIV
HIV
was 3.1%, although the _ Tanzania
Tanzania
HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12_ found that, on average, 5.1% of those tested in the 15 to 49 age group were HIV-positive. Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people living with HIV
HIV
was 37% in 2013, compared to 19% in 2011. According to a 2013 report published by the Joint United Nations
United Nations
Programme on HIV
HIV
and AIDS that compares 2012 with 2001 data, AIDS deaths have decreased 33%, new HIV
HIV
infections have decreased 36%, and new HIV
HIV
infections among children have decreased 67%.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Tanzania

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Tanzania Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer

The music of Tanzania
Tanzania
includes traditional African music
African music
, string-based taarab , and a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava . Famous taarab singers include Abbasi Mzee, Culture Musical Club, Shakila of Black Star Musical Group. Internationally known traditional artists include Bi Kidude
Bi Kidude
, Hukwe Zawose, Diamond Platnumz
Diamond Platnumz
, Ali Kiba and Tatu Nane. Tanzania
Tanzania
also has its own distinct African rumba music, termed muziki wa dansi ("dance music"); important artists include Simba Wanyika, Remmy Ongala, and Orchestra Makassy. Freddie Mercury , of the band Queen , was born in Tanzania.

MEDIA

Main article: Media of Tanzania

LITERATURE

Main article: Tanzanian literature
Tanzanian literature

Tanzania's literary culture is primarily oral. :page 68 Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs. :page 69 The greatest part of Tanzania's recorded oral literature is in Swahili, even though each of the country's languages has its own oral tradition. :pages 68–9 The country's oral literature has been declining because of the breakdown of the multigenerational social structure, making transmission of oral literature more difficult, and because increasing modernisation has been accompanied by the devaluation of oral literature. :page 69

Tanzania's written literary tradition is relatively undeveloped. Tanzania
Tanzania
does not have a lifelong reading culture, and books are often expensive and hard to come by. :page 75 :page 16 Most Tanzanian literature is in Swahili or English. :page 75 Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert(considered the father of Swahili literature), Muhammed Saley Farsy , Faraji Katalambulla , Adam Shafi Adam , Muhammed Said Abdalla , Said Ahmed Mohammed Khamis , Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed , Euphrase Kezilahabi, Gabriel Ruhumbika, Ebrahim Hussein, May Materru Balisidya , Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina O. Mlama . :pages 76–8

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE

A Tingatinga painting

Historically, there have been only limited opportunities for formal European art training in Tanzania, and many aspiring Tanzanian artists have left the country to pursue their vocation. :papge 17 One of the most famous African artists – George Lilanga– was born in Tanzania.

Two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition. :papge 17 The Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga , consists of brightly coloured enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life. :page 113 :papge 17 After Tingatinga's death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style, with the genre now being the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa. :page 113 :papge 17 Makonde is both a tribe in Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique
Mozambique
and a sculptural style . It is known for the high Ujamaas (Trees of Life) made of the hard and dark ebony tree.

FOOD

One of Tanzania's, and other parts of eastern Africa's, most common dishes is Ugali
Ugali
. It is usually composed of corn and is similar in consistency to a stiff paste or porridge, giving it its second name of corn meal porridge. Mixtures of cassava and millet flours are locally used for ugali. Rice and cooked green bananas are also important staples. Beef, goat meat, beans, yoghurt, and a wide range of fish and green leafy vegetables all add nutrients to the dishes.

SPORTS

Main article: Sport in Tanzania

Football is very popular throughout the country. The most popular professional football clubs in Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
are the Young Africans F.C. and Simba S.C.
Simba S.C.
The Tanzania Football Federationis the governing body for football in the country.

Other popular sports include netball , boxing, volleyball , athletics , and rugby .

Tanzania
Tanzania
competes in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
, the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
, the All-Africa Games, the Africa Cup of Nations
Africa Cup of Nations
, the CAF Champions League , the African Women\'s Championship in football , the CAF Confederation Cup , and the African Championships in Athletics
African Championships in Athletics
. Among the popular sportsmen from Tanzania
Tanzania
are Hasheem Thabeet, Mbwana Samatta and Filbert Bayi.

SEE ALSO

* Human rights in Tanzania * Human timeline * Index of Tanzania-related articles * LGBT rights in Tanzania * Outline of Tanzania * Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* Zanzibari cuisine
Zanzibari cuisine
* The IMF in Tanzania

NOTES

* ^ +007 from Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda
Uganda
.

SOURCES

_ This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO. 3.0 UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030_, UNESCO.

To learn how to add open-license text to Wikipedia
Wikipedia
articles, please see:Adding open license text to Wikipedia
Wikipedia
.

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