* Blue Lotus Assembly
Gateway of the Hidden Flower
* New Kadampa
True Awakening Tradition
TANTRIC TECHNIQUES :
THOUGHT FORMS AND VISUALISATION:
* Death yoga
* Deity yoga
Guru yoga ("
Lama " yoga)
* Luminosity yoga
* Sex yoga
Symbols and tools
Ordination and transmission
Chinese use of the
Siddhaṃ script for the Pratisara Mantra.
927 CE The
Womb Realm maṇḍala used in
teachings from the Mahavairocana
Vairocana is located in the
center. Esoteric practices related to Cundī have remained
Chinese Buddhism and East Asia
TáNGMì (唐密 literally "Tang Mysteries" or "Tang Esotericism")
refers to the traditions of
Buddhism that have flourished
Chinese people since the
Tang dynasty in
China . These
traditions may also be referred to as HàNCHUáN MìZōNG
(漢傳密宗 the "
Han Chinese Transmission of the Esoteric (or
Mystery) Tradition"."Han Transmission Esoteric School" (Hànmì 漢密
* 1 Overview
* 2 History
* 3 Common practices
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 5.1 Bibliography
* 6 External links
China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan
Singapore , Chinese Esoteric
Buddhism is commonly
referred as Tángmì (唐密) "Tang Dynasty Esoterica", or Hànchuán
Mìzōng (漢傳密宗), "
Han Chinese Transmission of the Esoteric
Tradition" (Hànmì 漢密, "Han Mysteries", for short). It is
sometimes referred as Dōngmì (東密) "Eastern Esotericism", meaning
the succession of Tang Esoterica in Japan (east to China) transmitted
by the Japanese monk
Kūkai . Being parts of Esoteric Buddhism
(Vajrayana), Tángmì and Dōngmì can be very different from those in
Tibetan and Newar traditions, in aspects like yidams , dharmapalas ,
rituals , the main sutras , and the related
Buddhist texts . In a more
general sense, the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗) "Esoteric Tradition"
is the most popular term used when referring to any form of Esoteric
These traditions more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon
Buddhism , with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to
be given transmission at
Mount Kōya .
Esoteric teachings followed the same route into northern
Buddhism itself, arriving via the
Silk Road sometime during the first
half of the 7th century, during the Tang Dynasty.
arrived from India just as
Buddhism was reaching its zenith in China,
and received sanction from the emperors of the
Tang dynasty . During
this time, three great masters came from India to China:
These three masters brought the esoteric teachings to their height of
popularity in China. During this era, the two main source texts were
Tantra and the Tattvasaṃgraha
Tantra . Traditions
in the Sinosphere still exist for these teachings, and they more or
less share the same doctrines as
Shingon Buddhism , with many of its
students traveling to Japan to be given transmission at
Mount Kōya .
Esoteric methods were naturally incorporated into Chinese Buddhism
Tang dynasty . Śubhakarasiṃha's most eminent disciple,
Yi Xing (Chinese : 一行), also practiced Chan
Buddhism . In Chinese
Buddhism there was no major distinction between exoteric and esoteric
practices and the Northern School of Chan even became known for its
esoteric practices of dhāraṇīs and mantras . However, Buddhist
esoteric practices almost vanished from
China during the Great
Anti-Buddhist Persecution (845 CE) initiated by Emperor Wuzong of Tang
(唐武宗). Before the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, Master Kūkai
(774–835) from Japan came to Tang
China to learn the complete
esoteric teachings expounded by the three Indian masters. Kukai was
taught by the great master Hui-kuo (746–805; Japanese: Keika). It is
claimed that he learned the complete teachings in two years before
returning to Japan. The transmission to Japan later became Shingon
Buddhism (真言宗), which is often referred to in Chinese as
Dōngmì (東密), "Eastern Esoterica," because Japan is east to China
geographically. Some said it is so named due to the temple Tō-ji
(東寺, literally Eastern Temple) at Nara , Japan, where Master
Kūkai established the Shingon school of Buddhism. Master Saichō
(767-822) also brought a few esoteric teachings to Japan that were
related to the Japanese lineage of Tiāntái School (天台宗), which
are referred to in Chinese as Táimì (台密), "Tái Esoterica",
where Tái means the Tái of Tiāntái. Dōngmì and Táimì became
the two main systems of Esoteric
Buddhism in Japan.
Yuan dynasty , the Mongol emperors made
official religion of China, and Tibetan lamas were given patronage at
the court. A common perception was that this patronage of lamas
caused corrupt forms of tantra to become widespread. When the Mongol
Yuan dynasty was overthrown and the
Ming dynasty was established, the
lamas were expelled from the court and
denounced as not being an orthodox path.
In late Imperial
China , the early traditions of
Tangmi were still
thriving in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has also observed
that in these communities, the esoteric practices associated with
Cundī were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.
Since late 19th century, many Chinese and Taiwanese monks went to
Japan to learn and bring back the complete teachings of Tang Mysteries
passed down in Shingon Buddhism. These efforts are termed "Renaissance
of Tángmì" (唐密復興). Due to this reason, Dōngmì (東密),
"Eastern Mysteries", referring to Shingon Buddhism, is now sometimes
used as an interchangeable term with Tángmì.
Hsuan Hua , the most popular example of esoteric
teachings still practiced in many Chan Buddhist monasteries of East
Asia is the
Śūraṅgama Sūtra and its dhāraṇī, the
Śūraṅgama mantra , along with the Nīlakaṇṭha
China there is an ongoing revival of Tang Esoteric
Buddhism, largely through connections to Mount Koya.
* ^ Baruah 2000 , p. 170.
* ^ Sharf 2002 , p. 268.
* ^ Faure 1997 , p. 85.
* ^ A B C Nan 1998 , p. 99.
* ^ Wu 2008 , p. 146.
* ^ Shi 1977 , pp. 68-71.
* Baruah, Bibhuti (2000). Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. Sarup &
Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-152-5 .
* Faure, Bernard (1997). The Will to Orthodoxy: A Critical Genealogy
of Northern Chan Buddhism. Stanford University Press. ISBN
* McBride, Richard D. (2008). "The mysteries of body, speech, and
mind: The three esoterica (sanmi) in medieval Sinitic Buddhism".
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 29 (2).
* Nan, Huaijin (1998). Basic Buddhism: Exploring
Buddhism and Zen.
Weiser Books. ISBN 978-1-57863-020-2 .
* Sharf, Robert H. (2002). Coming to Terms With Chinese Buddhism: A
Reading of the Treasure Store Treatise. University of Hawaii Press.
ISBN 978-0-8248-2443-3 .
* Shi, Hsüan Hua (1977). The Shurangama Sutra. Sino-American
Buddhist Association, Buddhist Text Translation Society. ISBN
* Wu, Jiang (2008). Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of
Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-971540-4 .
* Three Jewels
Four Noble Truths